Imatges de pàgina

In conclusion, I desire to take this opportunity of expressing to the Delegates of the Oxford University Press my grateful and respectful sense of the advantages the volume derives from their favour and patronage'.

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* Not the least of these advantages has been the use of a press which, in its appointments and general efficiency, stands unrivalled. The judgment and accuracy with which the most intricate parts of my MS. have been printed, have excited a thankfulness in my mind, which those only can understand who know the toil of correcting the press, when much Oriental type is interspersed with the Roman, and when a multitude of minute diacritical points, dots, and accents have to be employed to represent the Devanagari letters.



Introductory Remarks xxiii

Chap. I.—Letters 1

Pronunciation 10

Classification 13

Accentuation 17

Method of writing 19

Chap. II.—Sandhi Or Euphonic Permutation Of Letters 22

Sect. I. Changes of vowels 23

Sect. II. Changes of consonants 31

Chap. III.—Sanskrit Roots, And The Formation Of The Crude


Formation of the base of nouns by affixes 54

Chap. IV.—Declension Of Nouns. General Observations 64

Sect. I. Declension of nouns whose bases end in vowels 72

Sect. II. Declension of nouns whose bases end in consonants .... 85

Sect. III. Adjectives 102

Sect. IV. Numerals 107

Chap. V.—Pronouns 112

Chap. VI.—Verbs. General Observations 120

Terminations 124

Summary of the ten conjugations 132

Formation of the base in the four conjugationul tenses:

Of group I. or verbs of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes 130

Of groups II. and III 145

The new rules of Sandhi required for group II 147

Of group II. or verbs of the second, third, and seventh classes 150

Of group III. or verbs of the fifth, eighth, and ninth classes .. 158

Formation of the base in the six nou-conjugational tenses:

Perfect or second preterite; formation of the base 160

First and second future; formation of the base 170

Rules for inserting or rejecting the vowel i 172

Aorist or third preterite; formation of the base 178

Precative or benedictivc; formation of the base 186

Conditional; formation of the base 189

Infinitive; formation of the base 190

Passive verbs; formation of the base 190

Causal verbs; formation of the base 195

Desiderative verbs; formation of the base 202

Frequentative or intensive verbs; formation of the buse 'ilMi



Nominal verbs 209

Participles 212

Participial nouns of agency 228

Examples of verbs inflected at full:

Table of verbs of the ten conjugations inflected at full 229

Table of passive verbs inflected at full 238

Auxiliary verbs conjugated ' 243

Group I. Verbs of the first class conjugated 244

Verbs of the fourth class conjugated 261

Verbs of the sixth class conjugated 265

Verbs of the tenth class conjugated 270

Group II. Verbs of the second class conjugated 273

Verbs of the third class conjugated 281

Verbs of the seventh class conjugated 285

Group III. Verbs of the fifth class conjugated 290

Verbs of the eighth class conjugated 295

Verbs of the ninth class conjugated 298

Passive verbs conjugated 303

Causal verbs conjugated 305

Desiderative verbs conjugated 306

Frequentative or intensive verbs conjugated 308

Chap. VII.—Indeclinable Words.

Adverbs 311

Conjunctions 315

Prepositions 316

Interjections 318

Chap. VIII.—Compound words

Sect. I. Compound nouns 319

Tat-purusha or dependent compounds 321

Dvandva or copulative (aggregative) compounds 324

Karma-dharaya or descriptive (determinative) compounds .... 327

Dvigu or numeral (collective) compounds 328

Avyayi-bhava or adverbial (indeclinable) compounds .. 328

Bahu-vrihi or relative compounds 329

Complex compounds 334

Changes of certain words in certain compounds 337

Sect. II. Compound verbs 340

Sect. III. Compound adverbs 347

Chap. IX.—Syntax 348

Chap. X.—Exercises In Translation And Parsing 381

Scheme Of The More Common Sanskrit Metres 388

English Index 393

Sanskrit Index 397

List Of Compound Or Conjunct Consonants 407


oANSKRIT is the classical and learned language of the Hindus, in which all their literature is written, and which bears the same relation to their vernacular dialects that Greek and Latin bear to the spoken dialects of Europe. It is one of the family called by modern philologists Arian * or Indo-European; that is to say, it is derived, in common with the languages of Europe, from that primeval but extinct type, once spoken by a tribe in Central Asia, partly pastoral, partly agricultural, who afterwards separated into distinct nationalities, migrating first southwards into Aryavarta or Upper India—the vast territory between the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains —and then northwards and westwards into Europe.

In all probability Sanskrit approaches more nearly to this primitive type than any of its sister-tongues; but, however this may be, comparative philology has proved beyond a doubt its community with Greek, Latin, Persian t, Gothic, Lithuanian, Slavonic, Keltic, and through some of these with Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, and our own mother-tongue.

The word Sanskrit (tit*ff sanskrita or sarmkrita, see 6. f) is made up of the preposition sam (rm = ow, con), 'together,' and the passive participle krita (ysr ==/actus), ' made,' an euphonic * being inserted (see 53. a. and 6. b. of the following Grammar). The compound means 'carefully constructed,' 'symmetrically formed' (con- fectut, constructor In this sense it is opposed to Prakrit {VTWH

* More properly written Aryan, from the Sanskrit ^TPfl arya, ' noble,' 'honourable,' ' venerable,' the name assumed by the race who immigrated into Northern India, thence called Aryavarta, 'the abode of the Aryans.'

t Especially old Persian. Zand (or Zend), which is closely connected with old Persian, might be added to the list, although the reality of this language as any thing more than the vehicle of the sacred writings called Zand-Arastti(affirmed by the Pars! priests of Persia and India to be the composition of their prophet Zoroaster) has been disputed. Comparative philologists also add Armenian.


prdkriia),' common,'' natural,' the name given to the vulgar dialects which gradually arose out of it, and from which most of the languages now spoken in Upper India are more or less directly derived. It is probable that Sanskrit, although a real language—once the living tongue of the Aryan or dominant races, and still the learned language of India, preserved in all its purity through the medium of an immense literature—was never spoken in its most perfect and systematized form by the mass of the people. For we may reasonably conjecture, that if the language of Addison differed from the vulgar and provincial English of his own day, and if the Latin of Cicero differed from the spoken dialect of the Roman plebeian, much more must the most polished and artificial of all languages have suffered corruption when it became the common speech of a vast community, whose separation from the educated classes was far more marked. To make this hypothesis clearer, it may be well to remind the reader, that, before the arrival of the Sanskrit-speaking immigrants, India was inhabited by a rude people, called 'barbarians'or'outcastes' (Mle66has, Nishddas, Dasyus, &c.) by Sanskrit writers, but probably the descendants of various Scythian hordes who, at a remote period, entered India by way of Biliicistan * and the Indus. The more powerful and civilised of these aboriginal tribes appear to have retired before the Aryans into Southern India, and there to have retained their independence, and with their independence the individuality and essential structure of their vernacular dialects. But in Upper India the case was different. There, as the Aryan race increased in numbers and importance, their full and powerful language forced itself on the aborigines. The weak and scanty dialect of the latter could no more withstand a conflict with the vigorous Sanskrit, than a puny dwarf the aggression of a giant. Hence the aboriginal tongue gradually wasted away, until its identity became merged in the language of the Aryans; leaving, however, a faint and skeletonlike impress of itself on the purer Sanskrit of the educated classes, and disintegrating it into Prakrit, to serve the purposes of ordinary speech f.

* The Brahui, a dialect of Biludistan, still preserves its Scythian character, f 'Hie cerebral letters in Sanskrit, and words containing cerebral letters, are probably the result of the contact of Sanskrit with the language of the Scythian

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