Imatges de pàgina

Lawyers, on the other hand, think too those institutions where they pay the ill of it. They see only, or for the most most attention to elocution they speak part, its worst side. They are brought the worst. I have no faith in artificial in contact with dishonesty and villany eloquence. Teach men to think and in their worst developments. I have feel, and, when they have anything to observed, in doing business with law- the purpose to say, they can say it. I yers, that they are exceedingly hawk- should about as soon think of teacheyed, and jealous of everybody. The ing a man to weep, or to laugh, or to omission of a word or letter in a will, swallow, as to speak when he has anythey will scan with the closest scrutiny; thing to say." and while I could see no use for any Mr. C. “How, then, do you account but the most concise and simple terms for the astonishing power of some trato express the wishes of the testator, a gedians ?lawyer would be satisfied with nothing Dr. N. “Ah! the speaking in the but the most precise and formal instru- theatre is all overacted. There is no ment, stuffed full of his legal caveats nature in it. Those actors, placed in a and technicalities.”

public assembly, and called upon to adMr. C. “Which do you think excels dress men on some real and momentin eloquence, the bar or the pulpit ?” ous occasion, would utterly fail to touch Dr. N. “ The bar.”

men's hearts, while some plain countryMr. C. “ To what causes do you man, who had never learned a rule of ascribe the superiority ?”

art, would find his way at once to the Dr. N. “The superior influence of fountains of feeling and action within things of sight over those of faith. The them. The secret of the influence nearness of objects enhances their im- which is felt in the acting of the theaportance. The subjects on which the tre is not that it is natural. Let a real lawyer speaks come home to men's tragedy be acted, and let men believe business and bosoms.

Some pres

that a real scene is before them, and ent, immediate object is to be gained. the theatre would be deserted. No The lawyer feels, and he aims to ac- audience in this country could bear complish something. But ministers the presentation of a natural and real have plunged into the metaphysics of tragedy. Men go to the theatre to be religion, and gone about to inculcate amused. The scenery, the music, the the peculiarities of a system, and have attitudes, the gesticulations, all unite neither felt themselves, nor been able to fix attention and amuse; but the to make others feel. It has long been eloquence, so called, of the theatre, is a most interesting question to me, all factitious, and is no more adapted Why is the ministry so inefficient ? to the real occasions of life than would It has seemed to me, that, with the be the recitative in singing, and it thousands of pulpits in this country pleases on the same principle that this for a theatre to act on, and the eye does." and ear of the whole community thus Mr. C. “But, Doctor, why was it opened to us, we might overturn the that, when Cooke or Kean appeared on world. Some ascribe this want of the stage, he engrossed all eyes and efficiency to human depravity. That

. ears, and nothing was heard or seen is not the sole cause of it. The cler- or thought of but himself? The actgy want knowledge of human nature. ing of Kean was just as irresistible as They want directness of appeal. They the whirlwind. He would take up an want the same go-ahead, common- audience of three thousand in his fist, sense way of interesting men which as it were, and carry them just where lawyers have."

he pleased, through every extreme of Mr. C. “Ought they not to culti- passion." vate elocution ?"

Dr. N. “Because these actors were Dr. N. “ It seems to me that at great men. Cooke, as far as I have VOL. XX. — NO. 121.


becn able to learn, (I never saw him, mortality; whose sun of fame would I had once an engagement to meet never set, but still hold its course in him in Philadelphia, but he was drunk the heavens, when the humble names at the time, and disappointed me,) was of his antagonist and himself should perfectly natural. So I suppose Kean have sunk beneath the waves of obto have been. So Garrick was, and livion.' Talma. And the secret of the influ- " Hamilton was evidently nettled at ence of these men was, that they burst this invidious and unnecessary comthe bonds of art and histrionic trick, parison, and cast about in his mind how and stood before their audience in their he might retort upon Spencer. I do untrammelled natural strength. Gar- not know that my conjecture is right; rick, at his first appearance, could not but it has always seemed to me that command an audience. It was first his reason for introducing his repartee necessary for him entirely to revolu- to Spencer in the odd place where he ti ze the English stage.

did, just after a most eloquent and pa" Ministers have, very often, a sancti- thetic peroration, was something as folmonious tone, which by many is deemed lows : – I have now constructed and a symbol of goodness. I would not arranged my argument, and the thread say it is a symbol of hypocrisy; as many of it must not be broken by the intervery pious men have it. One man ac- vention of any such extraneous matter. quires a tone, and those who study with Neither will it do to separate my perhim learn to associate it with his piety, oration from the main body of my arguand come to esteem it an essential part ment. I must, then, give up the opof ministerial qualification. But, in- portunity of retorting at all, or tack it stead of its being to me evidence of on after the whole, and take the risk feeling, it evinces, in every degree of it, of destroying the effect of my arguwant of feeling; and whenever a man ment.' rises in his religious feelings sufficient- “He rose, and went through his arguly high, he will break away from the ment, which was a tissue of the clearshackles of his perverse habit, and est, most powerful, and triumphant reaspeak in the tone of nature.

soning. He turned every position of “The most eloquent preacher I have his opponent, and took and dismantled ever heard was Dr. L- General every fortification. But his peroration Hamilton at the bar was unrivalled. was inimitably fine. As he went on to I heard his great effort in the case of depict the horrors consequent upon a People versus Croswell, for a libel upon muzzled press, there was not a dry eye Jefferson. There was a curious chang- in the court-house. It was the most ing of sides in the position of the advo- perfect triumph of eloquence over the cates. Spencer, the Attorney-General, passions of men I ever witnessed. who had long been climbing the ladder “When he had thus brought his of democracy, managed the cause for speech to its proper, and what would the people, and Hamilton, esteemed an have been a perfect close, he suddenly old-school Federalist, appeared as the changed his tone, and, a strain of champion of a free press. Of course, consummate and powerful irony, began it afforded the better opportunity of to rally his antagonist. He assented witnessing the professional skill and to the gentleman's eulogium upon Lord rhetorical power of the respective ad- Mansfield. It was deserved. He ac'vocates.

knowledged the justice of his remarks “Spencer, in the course of his plea, in relation to himself (Hamilton) and had occasion to refer to certain de- his ephemeral fame; but he did not cisions of Lord Mansfield, and em- see why the gentleman should have braced the opportunity of introducing included himself in the same oblivious a splendid ad captandum eulogium on sentence. His course hitherto in the his Lordship,-“A name born for im- race of fame had been as successful, for

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aught he knew, as was ever his Lord- speak. I have the pleasure of a slight ship’s. His strides had been as long personal acquaintance with him, and, and as rapid. His disposition, too, to from what I know of him, should think run the race was as eager, and he he would have less power over the knew no reason why he might not yet passions of men than Hamilton. He soar on stronger pinions, and reach a is a giant, and deals with great princiloftier height, than his Lordship had ples rather than passions. done.

Bishop Mcllvaine will always be “During the whole reply, the audi- heard. He has an elegant form, a ence were in a titter ; and he sat down fine voice, and a brilliant imagination, amidst a burst of incontrollable laugh- and he can carry an audience just ter. Said Spencer to him frowningly, where he pleases.” (I sat by the side of the judges on the Mr. C. "You, of course, have heard bench, and both Hamilton and Spen- Dr. Cox." cer were within arm's length of me,) Dr. N. “ Yes, often.

He is an "What do you mean, sir ?' Said Ham

Said Ham- original, powerful man, unequal in his ilton, with an arch smile, ‘Nothing but performances: sometimes he hits, somea mere compliment.' “Very well, sir, times he misses ; sometimes he rises to I desire no more such compliments.” the sublimity of powerful speaking, and

Mr. C. “What was the difference at others sinks below the common between the oratory of Hamilton and level." that of Burr?"

Mr. C. “Have you read his book Dr. N. “Burr, above all men whom on Quakerism ?” I ever knew, possessed the most con- Dr. N. “As much of it as Î can. summate tact in evading and covering Some Presbyterians like it. For my up the arguments of his opponent. part, I confess I do not. He carries His great art was to throw dust in the his anti-Quaker antipathies too far. It eyes of the jury, and make them be- is perfectly natural he should do so. lieve that there was neither force nor Men who go over from one denominasense nor anything else in the argu- tion to another always stand up more ments of the opposite counsel. He than straight, and for two reasons ; never met a position, nor answered an first, to satisfy their new friends that argument, but threw around them the

they have heartily renounced their mist of sophistry, and thus weakened former error ; secondly, to convince their force. He was the prince of their former friends that they had good plausibilities. He was always on the reasons for desertion. Baptists who right side (in his own opinion), and have become such from Presbyterians always perfectly confident.

are uniformly the most bigoted, and “ Hamilton, on the other hand, al- vice versa. lowed to the arguments of his oppo- “ I am disgusted and grieved with the nent all the weight that could ever be religious controversies of the present fairly claimed for them, and attacked


The divisions of schools, old and demolished them with the club of school and new school, and the poHercules. ( He would never engage in lemical zeal and fury with which the a cause unless he believed he was on contest is waged, are entirely foreign the side of justice and he often threw from the true spirit of Christianity. into the scale of his client the whole The Christianity of the age is, in my weight of his personal character and view, most unamiable. It has none opinion. His opponents frequently of those lovely, mellow features which complained of the undue influence he distinguished primitive Christianity. If thus exerted upon the court.”

Christianity as it now exists should be Mr. C. “ You have heard Webster, propagated over the world, and thus I suppose."

the millennium be introduced, we Dr. N. “I have never heard him should need two or three more millenniums before the world would be ter of Luther. The world owes more, fit to live in.”

perhaps, to Martin Luther than to any Mr. C. Why do you judge so, other man who has ever lived; and as Doctor?”

God makes the wrath of man to praise Dr. N. “ By the style of our reli- him, and restrains the remainder, so gious periodicals. If I had suddenly he raised up Luther as an instrument dropped down here, and wished to adapted to his age and the circumascertain at a bird's-eye view the re- stances of the times. But Luther's ligious and moral state of the com- character in some of its features was munity, I would call for the papers harsh, rugged, and unlovely; and in and magazines, and when I had these it was not founded upon the glanced at them I should pronounce Gospel. that community to be in a low moral “Compare him with St. Paul. Once and religious state which could tolerate they were placed in circumstances alsuch periodicals. A bad paper cannot most identically the same. Luther's live in a good community.

friends were endeavoring to dissuade “I have been especially grieved him from going to Worms, on account and offended with the recent Catholic of apprehended danger.

Said Luther, controversy. I abhor much in the . If there were

as many devils at Catholic religion; but, nevertheless, Worms as there are tiles on the roofs I believe there is a great deal of re- of the houses, I would go.' ligion in that Church. I do not like * When Paul's friends at Cæsarea the condemnation of men in classes. wept, and besought him not to go up I would not, in controversy with the to Jerusalem, knowing the things which Catholics, render railing for railing would befall him there, “What mean They cannot be put down so. They ye,' said he, “to weep, and break my must be charmed down by kindness heart? For I am ready, not to be and love."

bound only, but to die also at JerusaMir. C. “ I have been much amused lem for the name of the Lord Jesus.' by reading that controversy."

Many a bold, reckless man of the. Dr. N. “ My dear sir, I am sorry to world could have said what Luther hear you say so. You cannot have read said. None but a Christian could have that controversy with pleasure, without uttered the words of Paul.” having been made a worse man by it.” Mr. C. “ Was it not in part a con

Mr. C. Why, I was amused by it, stitutional difference? Peter and Paul I

suppose, just as I should be amused were very different men; so, if Luther by seeing a gladiator's show."

had not been a Christian, he would Dr. N. “Just so; a very good com- have exhibited the same rugged feaparison, a very accurate comparison ! tures of character." It is a mere gladiatorial contest; and Dr. N. “That is just the point, sir. the object of it, I fear, is not so much These traits in his character were no. truth as victory.”

part of his Christianity. They existed, Mr. C. “ But Luther fought so, not in consequence, but in spite, of his Doctor."

religion. I want to see, in Christian Dr. N. “ I know it; and I have no character, the rich, deep, mellow tint. sympathy with that trait in the charac- of the Scriptures."





ws. Consul in Cen I.

from their crossed arms ; grave Turks,

smoking their nargiles in front of the CANEA.

cafés that open on the Marina, turned IT T was by a happy chance that my their chairs round to look at us without

first acquaintance with Crete and stopping their hubble - bubbling; and the Cretans was made just previous to all about us, where nothing else was, the outbreak of the insurrection which a line of motley humanity - Greek, has just now brought the island so Turk, Egyptian, Nubian, Abyssinian, strongly to the attention of the world, under hats, caps, tarbouches, turbans, and which will prevent any future trav- hats Persian and ecclesiastical, and no eller of this generation from seeing it, hats at all — half circled us with mute as I saw it, at the highest point of that and mostly stupid admiration. comparative material prosperity which It was my first experience of a Turkthirty-five years of such peace as Chris- ish town, and perhaps I was tian lands enjoy under Turkish rule struck with the dilapidation and evihad created, and before the beginning dent decay than I ought to have been. of that course of destruction which has The sea-wall of the massive Venetian now made the island one expanse of fortification seemed crumbling and capoverty and ruin. It was in the be- rious ; the earth-work above it was half ginning of the last year of the admin washed away; the semicircle of houses istration of Ismael Pacha, in August, on the Marina looked seedy and tot1865, that, blockaded a month in Syra tering; the Marina itself was in places by cholera, I finally got passage on a under-cut and falling into the water; twenty-ton yacht belonging to an Eng- and above us, overtopping the whole lish resident of that place, and made city, the Pacha’s palace, built on the a loitering three days' run to Canea. still substantial, though time-worn and

Crete, though never visited by chol- neglected walls of the old Venetian era, was in quarantine at all Greek citadel, reared a lath-and-plaster shabports, and intercourse with the great biness against the glow of the western world was limited to occasional voy- sky, reminding one of an American seaages of the little caïques of the island side hotel in the last stages of popularito Syra, where they endured two weeks' ty and profitable tenancy, - great gaps quarantine, and whence they brought in the plaster showing the flimsiness back the mails and a cargo of supplies, of the construction, while a coating of so that any arrival was an event to the unmitigated whitewash almost defied Cydonians, and that of a yacht Aying the sunset glow to modify it. On the the English and American flags at once western point of the crescent of the was enough to turn out the entire pop- Marina, under the height on which ulation. The fitful northerly breeze stands the palace, is a domed mosque, had kept us the whole afternoon in one large central dome surroundsight of the port; and it was only as ed by little ones,

with a not ugly sunset closed the doors of the health minaret, slightly cracked

by earthoffice that we dropped anchor in the quakes, standing at one side in a middle of the little harbor, — the won- little cemetery, among whose turbaned dering centre of attraction to a wonder- tombstones grow a palm and an olive ing town, whose folk came to assist at tree, and beyond which the khan (also the sunsetting and our arrival. Lazy serving as custom-house), a two-story soldiers, lying at full length on the old house of the Venetian days, relieves bronze cannon of the batteries, looked the dreary white with a wash of ochre, out at us, only raising their heads stained and streaked to any tint almost.

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