Imatges de pÓgina
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brisk demand for lean cattle to go to of Commons, by a majority of 49 (the the straw-yards. On the other hand, numbers being 150 to 101,) to refer cattle for fatting were somewhat de- these petitions to a Select Committee. pressed about the beginning of winter, On this occasion, ministers were in the from an expected deficiency of the minority, and they seem to have sudturnip crop. The state of the wea- denly adopted the resolution of ren. ther in May and June, when the land dering this unexpected vote almost nu. was under preparation for turnip, had gatory; for a much fuller House habeen very unfavourable ; and this crop, ving been procured the day following, therefore, was likely to form perhaps to which the debate on the appointthe only exception to the general abun. ment of the Committee was adjourned, dance.

it was moved by Mr Robinson, that Petitions from the occupiers of land, the inquiries of the Committee shond complaining of distress, and praying be limited to the mode of taking the for relief, which began to be present- averages which regulate the importaed early last year, poured into Parlia- tion of foreign corn ; and this was carment during the session of the

present, ried by a majority of 143. The Comfrom all parts of the country. It was mittee, in their Report, which was preimpossible to deny, that, owing to the sented to the House on the 8th July, fall of prices, the situation of many of point out in a very striking manner the the petitioners had become exceeding- errors and defects of the present sysly distressing. They had entered into tem on this head ; and the means by contracts for time, under an impres- which the ports were opened to oats sion that the average prices of the a few weeks after, afforded a practical twenty years preceding would be sup- illustration of the statements of the ported, whereas prices were now one- Report. But the session being too far third lower, and still sinking. With- advanced to found any enactment upon any

fault of their own, they found the recommendations of the Committheir hard-earned, and in general very tee, Mr Robinson expressed his intenmoderate capitals, fast melting away, tion of proposing some new regulaand saw nothing before them but utter tions on the subject in the following ruin at no distant period. At last, on 30th May, it was carried in the House




The present year formed a very ployed were either dismissed, or forced distressful epoch, in regard to all the to work for wages which with difficulty branches of manufacturing and com- afforded a bare subsistence. It was almercial industry. A general failure of most an aggravation of this straitened demand was felt both at home and and distressed state of those engaged in abroad, in all the branches of national active employments, that money was industry. A large diminution, by a seen overflowing in the coffers of the ca. necessary consequence, took place in pitalist, who sought in vain a vent by their produce ; and the labourers em- which it could be disposed of to ad


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vantage. Instead of the eager compe- want of that employment which had tition for the use of money, and high been afforded to it by the greater &rate offered for it, there were now more tivity that formerly pervaded all the lenders than borrowers, and tolerable branches of industry. bills were readily discounted at four The following was published as es. per cent. This superfluity of capital, hibiting a comparative view of the though it certainly proved the exist- state of the woollen manufacture in the ence of sound stamina in the country, years 1819–20 :evidently arose immediately from the

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The deficiency in the great staple of 791,9781. Total value of India and the cotton manufacture was, we be- China Imports, in 1818, 12,291,4511; lieve, still more extensive.

in 1819, 12,089,9161.; and exports, The aggregate value of goods (the in 1818, 4,852,5121. ; in 1819, produce of the East Indies and Chi- 4,392,411]. The total value of exna) imported from the East Indies, ports from Great Britain to the East was in 1818, 8,693,063l. ; in 1819, Indies and China, in 1818,6,289,5277; 7,832,965l. ; and exported, in 1818, in 1819, 2,953,8161. 3,990, 1001. ; in 1819, 3,600,4331. The following regulations were pubThe aggregate value of goods im- lished at Batavia ; where all the preported from China, was, in 1818, existing laws and ordinances relative 3,598,391.; in 1819, 4,256,951l. ; and to the subject were abrogated. exported, in 1818, 862,4021. ; in 1819, 1. All vessels coming from Europe, America, or any possessions of the Eu- of Germany." These circumstances ropean powers in Asia and Africa, are tended to strengthen that jealousy of to enter only the port of Batavia. The British superiority which had been long said vessels are to make their declara- prevalent on the continent, and partition of entry and discharge at Batavia, cularly in Germany; and notes were unless for particular reasons, a permit said to have been presented to the Diet has been granted them from the Supe. of the Empire, demanding a monopoly rior Regency, to discharge and make of the German market. Considerable declaration at Samarang, or at Soura- efforts were indeed made, particularly hayd.

by the smaller states, to establish the 2. Vessels departing for Europe, liberty of commerce in the interior of America, or any possessions of Euro- Germany ; but though the general pean powers in Asia or Africa, may, principles of the measure were approat their option, make their declaration ved by the Diet, yet through the dilaof departure at Batavia, Samarang, or tory measures of that body, these proSourahayd, provided they have taken ceedings did not come to any decisive their entire lading in any of these three result. places.

In Britain itself, a much happier 8. No vessel designated in articles revolution of public sentiment took 1 and 2 will be allowed to touch at any place. Her leading mercantile characother port or place in the islands of ters became fully impressed with the Java or Madura, and much less to load principle which had long since been or unload any kind of merchandize or proved by the best writers on the subother articles, without a special permit ject, that the system of prohibition from the Superior Regency.

against the import of foreign rival ma4. Vessels under the denomination of nufactures, was founded altogether Chineesche Jonken are admitted only upon an erroneous policy, and was proat Batavia.

ductive of real injury to themselves. 5. All vessels belonging to inhabi- The merchants of London, in a petitants of Java or Madura, or any other tion presented to the House of Comparts in the Oriental Seas under the mons, avowed these principles in the Belsic authority, as also all vessels be- most unqualified manner. It is here longing to places of Indian people and observed, that “ freedom from restraint princes in alliance with the Batavian is calculated to give the utmost extenRegency, may enter and quit all thesion to foreign trade, and the best diports of Java and Madura, conforming rection to the capital and industry of to the existing regulations and ordi- the country”-“that of the numerous

If these vessels depart for protective and prohibitory duties of Europe, America, &c. like all others, our commercial code, it

may prothey will be subject to articles 1, 2, ved, that while all operate as a very and 3.

heavy tax on the community at large, Notwithstanding the existing de- very few are of any ultimate benefit to pression of commerce, the Leipsic fair the classes in whose favour they were was well attended, and considerable originally instituted, and none to the quantities of goods were sold. Among extent of the loss occasioned by them the rest, English cotton yarns and ca- to other classes”-that a declaration licoes met with purchasers ; and it was against the anti-commercial principles observed, that our “ japanned wares of our restrictive system is of the more preserved their superiority over those importance at the present juncture,

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inasmuch as, in several instances of re- raise within itself, every thing which cent occurrence, the merchants and it is to consume, acts in direct contramanufacturers in foreign states have diction to this principle, and against assailed their respective governments its best interests”-that the principle with applications for further protective of exclusion once admitted must apply

. or prohibitory duties and regulations, equally to the different districts of urging the example and authority of which a country is composed ; yet the this country, against which they are inhabitants of Lancashire and Lanarkalmost exclusively directed, as a sanc- shire, though engaged in the same mation for the policy of such measures” nufacture, found their interest in ex

_" and that nothing would tend to changing their commodities with each counteract more the commercial hos other-ihat this principle, recognized tility of other states, than the adoption 80 fully by these rival districts, apof a more enlightened and conciliatory plies, with no less undeniable effect, to policy on the part of this country.” the general commerce between na

A similar petition was presented by tions, and they concluded with ex. the Directors of the Chamber of Com. pressing their conviction, that the merce at Glasgow, and enforced by question will not so much lie with re. arguments equally judicious. They ob. gard to the wisdom of abandoning the served, “ that the division of employ- restrictive system, as with respect to ments among countries, according to the means by which our steps from it the different natural advantages they may be safely retraced-how we are to respectively possess, is upon the same return to the sound and beneficial pria. principle, and attended with the like ciples of trade, with the least possible beneficial consequence, that follows injury to individuals. the division of labour in the processes

These views have not been without of industry among individuals, the some influence on the national counpowers of each country being increa. cils ; the extent of which will be seen sed thereby, and each individual's share in the report of parliamentary proceed. in the products augmented-that a na- ings. tion attempting to manufacture, or



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