Imatges de pÓgina
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account of the want of skill of the artillerymen, few shots, if any, took effect: the negroes became indifferent to this prelude, and were only stimulated to a more obstinate resistance. The thundering of the cannon at first caused more consternation than their effects, but the fears of the negroes ceased as soon as they became accustomed to it. Before the attack commences, all avenues to the village are blocked up with large stones or other impediments, the village is provided with water for several days, the cattle and other property taken up to the mountain; in short, nothing necessary for a proper defence is neglected. The men, armed only with lances, occupy every spot which may be defended, and even the women do not remain inactive; they either take part in the battle personally, or encourage their husbands by their cries and lamentations, and provide them with arms; in short, all are active, except the sick and aged. The points of their wooden lances are first dipped into a poison which is standing by them in an earthen vessel, and which is prepared from the juice of a certain plant. The poison is of a whitish colour, and looks like milk which has been standing; the nature of the plant, and the manner in which the poison is prepared, is still a secret, and generally known only to one family in the village, who will not on any account make it known to others.

with horror; and his description of slave-hunting in Nubia presents a picture of oppression which must stamp this plausible tyrant with everlasting infamy. The number of persons carried off from the Nubian mountains between 1825 and 1839, omitting the thousands who were captured by the Bakkara, amounted to at least 100,000. As soon as the rainy season is over, the capturing excursion, called Gasna, commences, and the necessary number of camels, one for each soldier, and others for arms, ammunition, and tents, is demanded. The soldiers seize all that comes in their way, and in a few days all that is necessary is obtained. The capturing expedition consists of from 1000 to 2000 regular foot soldiers; 400 to 800 Mograbini (Bedouins on horseback) armed with guns and pistols; 300 to 500 of the militia (half-naked savages) on dromedaries, with shields and spears; and 1000 more on foot, with bucklers and small lances. "As soon as every thing is ready, the march begins. They usually take from two to four field-pieces, and only sufficient bread for the first eight days. Oxen, sheep, and other cattle, are generally taken by force before at Cordofan, although the tax upon cattle may have been paid. When they meet with a flock, either feeding or at | the watering-places, they steal the cattle, and do not care whether it belongs to one or more persons; they make no reparation for necessary things, whoever may be the sufferer, and no objection or complaint is listened to, as the governor himself is present.

show this ambassador particular marks of honour, and such as are contrary to custom, I mean not thereby to give a precedent to others. I particularly love and esteem him for the affection which I know he has for me, for his firmness in our religion, and his fidelity to his master.' I dare not repeat all that he said to my advantage." At this and other meetings, Sully showed great tact, and was successful in getting James to form a treaty with Henry of the kind desired. On the whole, the ambassador formed rather a low estimate of James, of whom he pronounced on this occasion that he was the most learned fool in Christendom, To describe his services and connexion with Henry his master, is, as mentioned before, to tell at once Sully's history, and to show his literary abilities. The slavery in which the king was held by his passions, was a great source of vexation to Sully, both on account of his personal love for him, and of the expenses attending such a course of life. One day, when the minister was resisting some improper application, the temporary favourite, D'Entragues, said impudently and haughtily to him, "To whom would you have the king grant favours, if not to his relations, courtiers, and favourites ?" "Madam," replied Sully, "you would be in the right if his majesty took the money out of his own purse; but is it reasonable that he should take it out of those of his poor subjects, to gratify such people as you speak of?" Holding such sentiments, it may be conceived that Sully's administration was a continued blessing to his country. He was easy of access, and methodical in all his habits. Though sometimes galled into anger by his remonstrances, Henry raised him to the highest honours of the peerage, and, with his other posts, gave him the governorship of Poitou. Henry's death in 1610 terminated Sully's official career, and he received at its close a gratuity of 100,000 crowns. Occasionally, after this period, he was sent for to the councils of Louis XIII., and at these times he appeared in the antiquated garb of the old court. Some silly young courtiers laughing once at his appearance, "Sire," said the venerable minister to the king, "when your father, of glorious memory, honoured me by a call to his state consultations, he previously sent away the buffoons." The king felt the rebuke, and remained alone with Sully.

Sully died in 1641, at the age of eighty-two. His "Memoirs" and his memory have ever been highly esteemed in France.

As soon as they arrive at the first mountains in Nubia, the inhabitants are asked to give the appointed number of slaves as their customary tribute. This is usually done with readiness; for these people live so near Cordofan, and are well aware that, by an obstinate refusal, they expose themselves to far greater sufferings. If the slaves are given without resistance, the inhabitants of that mountain are preserved from the horrors of an open attack; but as the food of the soldiers begins to fail about that time, the poor people are obliged to procure the necessary provisions as well as the specified number of slaves, and the Turks do not consider whether the harvest has been good or bad. All that is not freely given, the soldiers take by force. Like so many bloodhounds, they know how to discover the hidden stores, and frequently leave these unfortunate people scarcely a loaf for the next day. They then proceed on to the more distant mountains: here they consider themselves to be in the land of an enemy; they encamp near the mountain which they intend to take by storm the following day, or immediately, if it is practicable. But before the attack commences, they endeavour to settle the affair amicably; a messenger is sent to the sheik, in order to invite him to come to the camp, and to bring with him the requisite number of slaves. If the chief agrees with his subjects to the proposal, in order to prevent all further bloodshed, or if he finds his means inadequate to attempt resistance, he readily gives the appointed number of slaves. The sheik then proceeds to procure the number he has promised; and this is not difficult, for many volunteers offer themselves for their brethren, and are ready to subject themselves to all the horrors of slavery, in order to free those they love.

SLAVE HUNTS IN EGYPT. THE recent publication of a work entitled "Egypt and Mohammed Ali,"* by Dr R. R. Madden, has brought prominently into notice a variety of circumstances connected with the legalised system of slavery in Egypt, as well as the manner in which it is supported by the practice of hunting down and carrying off the unfortunate inhabitants of Nubia and Abyssinia. As little is popularly known on the subject, we propose, with the assistance of facts gleaned from the work of this intrepid and philanthropic writer, to bring it before our readers.

In all the undertakings of Mohammed Ali, with the ostensible view of civilising the nation of which he is the ruler, he appears to be animated by one prevailing sentiment, and that is, the desire to serve his own selfish purposes, and yet deceive the people of Europe, who, he is fully aware, have an eye to his public actions. In accomplishing this object, he has, by the aid of French tacticians, been eminently successful. The trick of his highness is generally well managed; it consists in issuing orders of the most liberal nature respecting any matter of serious complaint, for which he receives a great deal of praise, but which orders, except in particular instances, he takes good care shall never be carried into execution. Two or three years ago, when on an expedition into Eastern Africa, he found it his interest to be very much shocked with the practice of capturing slaves for sale within his dominions, and issued an immediate order that this barbarous trade should be prohibited. So pleasing a circumstance gave much satisfaction in England, and the Anti-Slavery Convention held in London sent an address applauding his generous and humane conduct. Dr Madden was the bearer of this document to his highness; but, greatly to his surprise, he found, on its presentation (August 1840), that the pacha had taken no step whatever to give effect to those orders for which he was now congratulated. The slave hunts and slave sales went on the same as ever.

As soon as the signal is given for the attack, the infantry sound the alarm, and an assault is made upon the mountain. Thousands of lances, large stones, and pieces of wood, are then thrown at the assailants; behind every large stone a negro is concealed, who either throws his poisoned lance at the enemy, or waits for the moment when his opponent approaches the spot of his concealment, when he pierces him with his lance. The soldiers, who are only able to climb up the steep heights with great difficulty, are obliged to sling their guns over their backs, in order to have the use of their hands when climbing, and, consequently, are often in the power of the negroes before they are able to discover them. But nothing deters these robbers. Animated with avarice and revenge, they mind no impediment, not even death itself. One after another treads upon the corpse of his comrade, and thinks only of robbery and murder, and the village is at last taken, in spite of the most desperate resistance. And then the revenge is horrible. Neither the aged nor sick people are spared, women, and even children in their mother's womb, fall a sacrifice to their fury; the huts are plundered, the little possession of the unfortunate inhabitants carried away or destroyed, and all that fall alive into the hands of the robbers, are led as slaves into the camp. When the negroes see that their resistance is no longer of any avail, they frequently prefer death to slavery; and if they are not prevented, you may see the father rip up first the stomach of his wife, then of his children, and then his own, that they may not fall alive into the hands of the enemy. Others endeavour to save themselves by creeping into holes, and remain there for several days without nourishment, where there is frequently only room sufficient to allow them to lie on their backs, and in that situation they sometimes remain for eight days. They have assured me, that if they can overcome the first three days, they may, with a little effort, continue full eight days without food: But even from these hiding-places, the unfeeling barbarians know how to draw them, or they make use of means to destroy them: provided with combustibles, such as pitch, brimstone, &c., the soldiers try to kindle a fire before the entrance of the holes, and by forcing the stinking smoke up the holes, the poor creatures are forced to creep out, and to surrender themselves to their enemies, or they are suffocated with the smoke.

Here the most heart-rending scenes may be witnessed for who is willing to separate himself from his home, from his parents, brothers and sisters, and relations?-who likes to forsake the cottage that has sheltered him from his infancy, and where he has spent so many happy hours in the society of those by whom he is beloved-who likes to go forth to meet a horrible futurity, which promises nothing but misery, eruelty, and, what is perhaps most desirable, death? and yet they feel the necessity that one of them should suffer in order to exempt the rest; the father may frequently be seen disputing with his son, the brother with his brother, as to which of them is to deliver himself freely into slavery, for every one wishes to save his affectionate and endeared relative.

The anticipation of falling into the hands of the unfeeling Turks, where nothing but misery and torments await them, to which they must submit-the prospect of being obliged to forsake all that is dear to them, and that for ever-overpowers them. They bedew the cheeks of those they love with their tears, while they press the last kiss, and take the last farewell; they then deliver themselves into the hands of their unfeeling, hardened tormentors. Sometimes they are obliged to be torn by force from the embraces of their friends and relations. The sheik generally receives a dress as a present for his ready services.

Our author was much shocked to find the Egyptian But there are very few mountains that submit to despot so much less a man of humanity than English such a demand. Most villages which are advantaphilanthropy had supposed, and he took leave to pre-geously situated, and lie near steep precipices or insent to him a very bold address, in which he stated accessible heights, that can be ascended only with that there were three hundred slaves for sale at that difficulty, defend themselves most valiantly, and fight moment in the markets of Cairo and Alexandria; that for the rights of liberty with a courage, perseverance, the number sold in the preceding twelve months was and sacrifice, of which history furnishes us with few above ten thousand; and that the government not examples. Very few flee at the approach of their only permitted, but practised, the horrible traffic, the enemies, although they might take refuge in the high pacha's soldiers being regularly employed in seizing mountains with all their goods, especially as they slaves in Nubia, and a tax upon their exportation being receive timely information of the arrival of the solone of the resources of his treasury. Mohammed Ali diers; but they consider such flights cowardly and equivocated, and threw the blame upon the law and shameful, and prefer to die fighting for their liberty. the sultan; but his issuing licenses to slave-merchants is in itself sufficient to establish his guilt. The particulars which Dr Madden gives of the mutilation of children for certain purposes makes the flesh thrill

* London: Hamilton and Adams. I vol. 1841.

If the sheik does not yield to the demand, an attack is made upon the village. The cavalry and bearers of lances surround the whole mountain, and the infantry endeavour to climb the heights. Formerly, they fired with cannon upon the villages and those places where the negroes were assembled, but. on

After the Turks have done all in their power to capture the living, they lead these unfortunate people into the camp; they then plunder the huts and the cattle, and several hundred soldiers are engaged in searching the mountain in every direction, in order to steal the hidden harvest, that the rest of the negroes, who were fortunate enough to escape, and have hid themselves in inaccessible caves, should not find any thing on their return to nourish and continue their life.

As soon as they have obtained about 500 or 600 slaves, they are sent to Lobeid, with an escort of country people, and about fifty soldiers, under the command of an officer. In order to prevent escape, a sheba is hung round the necks of the adults. A sheba is a young tree, about eight feet long, and two inches thick, and which has a fork at the top; it is so tied to the neck of the poor creature, that the trunk of the tree hangs down in the front, and the fork closed behind the neck with a cross piece of timber, or tied together with strips cut out of a fresh skin; and in this situation the slave, in order to be able to walk at all, is obliged to take the tree into his hands, and to carry it before him. But none can endure this very long, and to render it easier, the one in advance takes the tree of the man behind him on his shoulder. It is impossible for them to get their head free, and it frequently happens that they have their necks wounded, which is followed by an inflammation, and sometimes even by death.

Boys, between ten and fifteen years of age, who cannot bear such a sheba, are tied together, two and two, with wooden clasps on their hands: this is done by placing the wood on the right arm of one, and on the left of another, above the wrist, and then lacing it tightly. Other boys are tied together, by two and two, with leather strings. Boys under the above-men

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country, they rise thirty or forty feet high, without a
single branch or a single leaf, and it is generally upon
the tops of mountains that they grow. Pæping, a
German botanical traveller in Brazil, says that, in
that country, a hill top bristling with the cactus
speciosissimus, resembles nothing so much as a hog's
back!

whimsical in their forms, since long before there was
such a thing as the human mind to regard them either
in one light or another. We see jocularities and
and to which no moral error can be imputed. Finally,
merriments in animals which existed long before man,
we see man himself organised so thoroughly for mirth,
that his very health is liable to be improved by it.
Well, indeed, might Grecian imagination include
Thalia amongst the children of Jove.

POPULAR INFORMATION ON FRENCH

LITERATURE.

ELEVENTH ARTICLE.-SULLY.

increased to upwards of three thousand, whi the French to fly for an asylum into the ho ambassador. I at last imagined something and Gadancourt, they informed me of the p dinary had happened, and having questione

In this council I made choice only of the olde sently determined, I sent Arnaud to inform the the wisest of my retinue; and the affair being of London of it, and to desire him to have his o ready the next day, to conduct the culprit to the of execution, and to have the executioner there to receive him."

The honour of my nation, my own in and the interest of my negotiation, were the jects that presented themselves to my min Then we have the creeping cereus (cereus flagelliforalso most sensibly grieved that my entry int mis), which looks like a number of cats' tails tied toshould be marked at the beginning by so fats dent; and at that moment, I am persuaded, gether, and hung over a flower-pot, with a few crimson flowers stuck into them irregularly. The spines with tenance plainly expressed the sentiments wi I was agitated. Guided by my first impulse which these hanging stems are completely covered are took a flambeau, and ordering all that wer what give them the cats' tail appearance: they have HAVING described the early warlike portion of Sully's selves round the walls, hoped by this mean house (amounting to about a hundred) to ran no leaves, but the tails are sometimes forked. The career, we now take him up as a grave and calculating cover the murderer, which I did without any leaf cactus (Epiphyllum phyllanthoides) is of totally dif- minister of state. The section of his Memoirs devoted by his agitation and fear. He was for deny ferent but equally quaint form, the stems appearing to this part of his history presents a picture of politi- first, but I soon obliged him to confess the tr to consist of a series of leaves stuck into each other, cal sagacity remarkable for that age, leaving us scarcely was a young man, and the son of the Sieur and having notches in the sides from which spring the senior, was often checked, when about to do a foolish a kinsman likewise of Beaumont, who ente room to wonder that his royal master, though his baut, principal examiner in Chancery, very r flowers. The porcupine cactus (echinocactus) has a thing, by the consideration, “What will Sully say to that moment, desired me to give young Comb round ball-like stem, often with projecting angles like all this?" He commenced his career as a minister in his hands, that he might endeavour to save h a lady's reticule, covered with hard sharp spines. The 1594, in the capacity of secretary of state. Four years do not wonder,' replied I to Beaumont, with a flowers of this genus appear thrown carelessly on the after, he was appointed superintendant of finances, authority and indignation, that the English: stem, and not to belong to it. We might expatiate as he had previously shown military fire and skill in interest of yourself and your relations to that having displayed as much ability in that department are at variance, if you are capable of preferi upon the eccentricities of this order of plants for half the time of war. Many important negotiations were king and the public; but the service of the k a day, but shall content ourselves with adverting to conducted by him. One is very remarkable, as show-master, and the safety of so many gentlemen that crowning conceit manifested by one of the family, ing the liberties which Sully took with the king, and the families, shall not suffer for such an impruden of blowing in the middle of the night-emblem apt state of feeling existing between the two. The king, ling as this.' I told Beaumont, in plain term and true of a certain class of whimsical mortals. his master, had given a rash and unworthy promise Combaut should be beheaded in a few minutes. Every one has heard of lusus naturæ-sports of na- in confidence consulted by Henry. On reading the sessed of two hundred thousand crowns, an onl of marriage in one of his fits of passion. Sully was sir,' cried Beaumont, behead a kinsman of mi ture-things which she was supposed to produce in document, he slowly and gravely tore it in pieces.it is but an ill recompense for the trouble the way of freak, and as exceptions from her ordinary "Are you mad?" cried the infuriated monarch, given himself, and the expense he has been at laws. Fossil shells, for example, were considered as "Yes," answered Sully, "I am mad, sire, and I wish company you.' I again replied, in as positive lusus naturæ, no one being able to understand how, if I were the only madman in France!" Sully's firm- I had no occasion for such company; and, they had been originally real shells of marine molluscs, marriage with the person whose alliance in those times I thought it would be improper to have him ness had the result of making Henry enter into a short, I desired Beaumont to quit my apartme they could ever have got into those deep-seated rocks was best suited to the exigencies of the state. As in the council, which I intended to hold immed where they were found embedded. It is now believed regards mutual liking and individual feelings, these in order to pronounce sentence of death upon that there are no such things as lusus naturæ, every are seldom held of consequence in such affairs. baut. one of her organic creations being formed after a disThe many important negotiations in which Sully tinct type, and designed for a particular purpose in affairs, had reference chiefly to the maintenance of was engaged at home, exclusively of mere financial creation, just as there is no character used in a printed the Protestant interests, and to the suppression of book but what there is a type for in the compositor's the petty feudal sovereigns yet existing in France, case, and is liable to appear accordingly in other printed and possessing sufficient power to brave and embarrass books of the same language. The true sports of natheir liege lord. It was through the able management ture are to be seen in the many grotesque forms of perilous state of things was brought to an end, and of matters in Henry's days, that this anomalous and her legitimate and recognised children, animals and the real authority lodged in the hands of a single plants, and in the whimsical powers and properties monarch. Besides aiding his master powerfully in which she has assigned to many of at least the former such domestic concerns, Sully was employed in many class. With regard to grotesque forms in plants and foreign missions and negotiations. As ambassador animals, it may be said that these things are perhaps from Henry, he had a confidential interview with not absolutely grotesque, and that it is only in conse-Queen Elizabeth at Dover in 1601; and two years quence of some law of our minds that we think them afterwards, he went to London on a mission to her so. This, we conceive, may be the case without in successor, James I. Of the account given of the latter the least detracting from the force of what has been visit, we shall present some incidental snatches. said; for how can we judge of any thing but by virtue junction of France and England against the Spanish Sully, whose instructions chiefly related to the conof and in accordance with the habits of our minds? interests, found at Calais the vice-admirals of France, Undoubtedly, if the cheek of the fair young maiden Holland, and England, all of them anxious for the affects us with the sense of beauty, as truly does the honour of conveying him across the channel. By way figure of the Barbary ape affect us with the sense of of a compliment, he accepted the seemingly courteous comicality. So, also, of the powers and properties of offer of the English, and his going on board led to remany animals. The chatter of the parrot, the strut sults which prove that the English sailors of that day and crow of the cock, the wretched bray of the ass, the capers of the young goat, and the pranks of the kitten, French admiral, "De Vic, who only sought an opporwere just the English sailors of the present. The all affect us with the same risibility as the humour of a tunity of showing the English his resentment of the Mathews or the wit of a Sheridan. To come finally violences committed by their pirates, advancing, bearto man, he has been endowed with both the power ing the French flag on his maintop-gallant mast, I of creating mirth and the power of enjoying it. found these complaisant English were enraged at an He has a faculty of the ludicrous in his mental offence which, according to them, was equally injuriorganisation, and muscles in the face whereby to express the sensation in its well-known form of laughter. whom I represented; and I had reason to think them ous to the King of England, and the King of France, Some are born with such a predominance of the still more rude and impolite, when, without deigning ludicrous in their nature, and such wonderful powers to consult me, fifty shot were immediately fired into of awakening risibility in their fellow-creatures, as to De Vic's ship." Sully thought it wise to explain that seem to have been mainly designed, as far as the the flag was raised in honour of Henry's ambassador; worldly utility of their existence is concerned, for this and he also deemed it prudent to make a signal for its purpose. This is a class of men particularly apt at being lowered, which was done just in time, as appears perceiving the comicalities of the lower animal and from another broadside having been prepared by the vegetable worlds. While others see only what is English, which they fired at "random." Sully and his painful and melancholy in the scene around them, extensive suite, notwithstanding this untoward openthey are conscious only of what is merry and ridi- ing incident, were received with great honours at culous, and spend the part of their lives that is devoted Dover, whence they went by land to Gravesend, and, to common sensation in a constant flow of self-gene-entering a rich royal barge, sailed up the Thames. the finest thing of the kind (he says) that he had ever The Tower gave him a salute of three thousand guns, heard. He had scarcely reached London, and taken other untoward business occurred, of which he gives up a temporary residence in a house there, when an

rated humour.

We would fain, from all that has been said, establish the importance of the comical in the mundane economy. It seems to us that it cannot be necessarily a reprehensible frivolity-to however absurd purposes it may be occasionally perverted-when we see traces of it springing directly from the common Origin of all things. Time and place may be necessary for its proper development amongst assembled human beings, but this is no more than what may be said of all things There is a time to laugh and a time to weep. Man, it is true, in his blind zeal for what his higher sentiments dictate, has sometimes acted as if to smile were a sin. He has, strange to say, thought that an invariable gloom and sadness was the proper habit of mind in which to live, as being more agreeable to the Deity. But when we look into the book of nature, we see these ideas completely contradicted. We there find types of being which must have been grotesque and

an account.

and "at the same place they met with some English,
His people went out to houses of entertainment,
English was killed. The populace, who were before
with whom they quarrelled, fought, and one of the
prejudiced against us, being excited by the family of
the deceased, who was a substantial citizen, assembled,
and began loudly to threaten revenge upon all the
gan to appear of great consequence, for the number
French, even in their lodgings. The affair soon be-
of people assembled upon the occasion was presently

merriment is good for digestion.
* Dr Hufeland of Berlin has expressed his opinion that light

delivered the culprit, let him escape at the insta The mayor, however, to whose justice Sully f the relative, and, satisfied with Sully, the people to have done nothing further in the matter. Ju it would seem, had not then come to the sta which Oliver Cromwell placed it, when Don F leon Sa, the very brother of the Portuguese am dor, was sent to the scaffold by the stern Prot in spite of all entreaties, individual and nat Sully is induced by what passed on this occasi "It is certain that the English hate us, and Hattering one, but tinged to some extent with give the following picture of our nation-not a hatred is so general and inveterate, that one almost be tempted to number it among their na dispositions: it is undoubtedly an effect of their gance and pride, for no nation in Europe is haughty and insolent, nor more conceited of its rior excellence. Were they to be believed, u among them: they are obstinately wedded to all standing and common sense are to be found and to hear others, or suspect themselves, is own opinions, and despise those of every other na they at one time believe to have wisely perform never enters into their thoughts. Their self-love ders them slaves to all their capricious humours. their knowing, or being able to give a reason: the firmly resolved, is at another time destroyed wi accordingly so undetermined in themselves, that quently one would not take them for the same sons, and from hence they themselves somet appear surprised on perceiving their own conti irresolution. If we examine what are called maxims of state, we shall discover in them only laws of pride itself, adopted by arrogance or lence." Admitting the correctness of the char national vanity, we must observe that Sully's nat prejudice has prevented him from seeing that probably in a great measure to this belief in our riority that we owe our actual greatness in arms arts.

with his embassy, is much more interesting tha Sully's account of accidental particulars conne personal demeanour he says little. Their first n description of his interviews with James I., of w men of his large suite, and a party of the royal gu tended by one hundred and twenty selected ge ing, however, must have been striking. Sully having sent to desire my appearance in his presen was above a quarter of an hour before I could g went to see the king at Greenwich. "His maj the foot of his throne, occasioned both by the g numbers that were already there, and because I'm perceived me than he descended. all my retinue walk before me. The prince no so have descended them all a

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with horror; and his description arther
Nubia presents a picture of onions
stamp this plausible tyrant with ornið,
The number of persons
bian mountains between 18
the thousands who were astute
amounted to at least 10 M
season is over, the capturing e****
commences, and the necessner wil
for each soldier, and others. POTAHANS
tents, is demanded. The w
in their way, and in a few doon s
obtained. The capturing rymati
1000 to 2000 regular foot sands m
(Bedouins on horseback
300 to 500 of the militis
medaries, with shields and sma
foot, with bucklers and cans.
every thing is ready, the mans' hamak,
take from two to four hel
bread for the first eight des
cattle, are generally take. 2-*
although the tax`umor
When they meet wi
the watering-places, the
care whether it belong
make no reparati
may be the sufferers
listened to, as the gverd

show this ambassador particular marks of honour, and
such as are contrary to custom, I mean not thereby
to give a precedent to others. I particularly love and
esteem him for the affection which I know he has for
me, for his firmness in our religion, and his fidelity to
his master. I dare not repeat all that he said to
my advantage." At this and other meetings, Sully
showed great tact, and was successful in getting James
to form a treaty with Henry of the kind desired. On
the whole, the ambassador formed rather a low esti-
mate of James, of whom he pronounced on this occa-
sion that he was the most learned fool in Christendom.
To describe his services and connexion with Henry
his master, is, as mentioned before, to tell at once
Sully's history, and to show his literary abilities. The
slavery in which the king was held by his passions, was
a great source of vexation to Sully, both on account of
his personal love for him, and of the expenses attend-
ing such a course of life. One day, when the minister
was resisting some improper application, the tempo-
rary favourite, D'Entragues, said impudently and
haughtily to him, "To whom would you have the
king grant favours, if not to his relations, courtiers,
and favourites?" "Madam," replied Sully, "you
would be in the right if his majesty took the money
out of his own purse; but is it reasonable that he
should take it out of those of his poor subjects, to
gratify such people as you speak of?" Holding such
sentiments, it may be conceived that Sully's adminis-
tration was a continued blessing to his country. He
was easy of access, and methodical in all his habits.
Though sometimes galled into anger by his remon-
strances, Henry raised him to the highest honours of
the peerage, and, with his other posts, gave him the
governorship of Poitou. Henry's death in 1610 ter-
minated Sully's official career, and he received at its
close a gratuity of 100,000 crowns. Occasionally,
after this period, he was sent for to the councils of
Louis XIII., and at these times he appeared in the
antiquated garb of the old court. Some silly young
courtiers laughing once at his appearance, "Sire," said
the venerable minister to the king, "when your father,
of glorious memory, honoured me by a call to his state
consultations, he previously sent away the buffoons."
The king felt the rebuke, and remained alone with
Sully.

Sully died in 1641, at the age of eighty-two. His
"Memoirs" and his memory have ever been highly
esteemed in France.

SLAVE HUNTS IN EGYPT.
THE recent publication of a work entitled "Egypt
and Mohammed Ali,"* by Dr R. R. Madden, has
brought prominently into notice a variety of circum-
stances connected with the legalised system of slavery
in Egypt, as well as the manner in which it is sup
ported by the practice of hunting down and carrying
off the unfortunate inhabitants of Nubia and Abvs
sinia. As little is popularly known on the subject
we propose, with the assistance of facts gleaned from
the work of this intrepid and philanthropic writer, ta
bring it before our readers.

In all the undertakings of Mohammed Ali, with
the ostensible view of civilising the nation of whi
he is the ruler, he appears to be animated by en
prevailing sentiment, and that is, the desire to se
his own selfish purposes, and yet deceive the peoper
Europe, who, he is fully aware, have an eye to his y-UB!
actions. In accomplishing this object, he has, za
aid of French tacticians, been eminently success
The trick of his highness is generally well manDET
it consists in issuing orders of the most liberal mater
respecting any matter of serious complaint, for war
he receives a great deal of praise, but whiel
except in particular instances, he takes goo
shall never be carried into execution. Tw
years ago, when on an expedition into Easter:
he found it his interest to be very munt
with the practice of capturing slaves for
his dominions, and issued an immediate
this barbarous trade should be prohibited
a circumstance gave much satisfaction r
and the Anti-Slavery Convention held i
an address applauding his generous anr
duct. Dr Madden was the bearer of t
to his highness; but, greatly to his
on its presentation (August 1840), ti
taken no step whatever to give effer
for which he was now congratulated
and slave sales went on the same

Our author was much shocker
despot so much less a man of hum
philanthropy had supposed, and
sent to him a very bold addre
that there were three hundrec i
moment in the markets of Carings
the number sold in the pres
above ten thousand; and t
only permitted, but practi
pacha's soldiers being re
slaves in Nubia, and a ta
one of the resources of
equivocated, and thre
the sultan; but his i
is in itself sufficient
culars which Dr M.
children for certai

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f course arrives at emperance are the ney spend much prec injure their health, I all for what?—the goo sumed and ostensible cau at the evil is also in no s inclinations of the travel raveller cold with his out a glass! Is he fatigued w rom shop to shop?-he take > scarce, and his mind depress r the other glass!! Is the din ought to be enhanced by an ex usages are therefore to be conside nwillingly borne. "Think," he adds, example of these men; what attract ibit, and what good disseminate, were narked by intelligence, sobriety, and ues of human nature! In place of th the road' is marked by puerile monoton nly by eating and drinking, and the etern ent, ever-soothing idea- I think I'll pull t I have a glass of

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Enough of this dreadful picture! Let us hope that European, or at least British public opinion, will in some way be brought to bear upon the smooth-tongued monster who is at the bottom of all these atrocities.

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tioned spa, a well a girl, women, and aged persona,`are, tanzfully destrated with white and gold, to the leads one to suppose that he is out of place, the scene are auswed to Face Seny. Many a mother carries principai re battere, my dear Jane, i regnt my around being cne of intense belaney and diner. He ber nacing babe, si a few days 600, in her arms; | otter inakulity to ACSTRY to you, as distinctly as i oni | is dressed in a plain sn of bak Lord Byron's, I trom have to carry on their backa, or in their arma, i wish, the extraordinary appearance of things on enter- thenud suppose, is not what might be ecuandered a fine two or three of their ehlidren, as they are too young, ing. Imagine a nem about a hundred feet long 'per- | Horn. The face is not se expressive or intellectual and fish to walk by turmelter. Od people, tetter-Laps more, and lefty in proportion, the wall king in its character as one is led to expect, in seeing a reing was their tate, the wick and wounds, wat with market cloth, willen, before reaching the celling, is presentation of this distinguished poet. His dress is surrounded by their daughters, wives, or relations, and, terminated by a jedre running round the whole room; partly escealed by a cloak thrown over his shoulders. areated and even carried sermonally by them, on this ledge are placed, at regular intervals, elegant The face is modelled from a bast of Lord Byrte exeIf one of these unfortunate persona remaina belindrama, git, with a thick garland of mis fower for exted in Italy while he restled there. Another group, the Ene but one step, be is immediately forced to tooned from rase to rase. Over the doorway is a gallery comprising the King of Hanover, Lord Brotam, Sir pressed by blows from the botten da of the gang, or by splendidly gilt, filed with muncians who play on va- Francis Burdett, and Daniel O'Connell, corries a postripea of the whip; and if they even then should not be rows instrumente. All the pillars and diers are of ation on this side of the room; as also the Earl of Leiabe to move on, from ten to twelve of them are tied white and git, which lightens the effect produced by caster, a fine reperable-locking personage, Earl Spenwith their hands to a cord, one end of which is fastened the scarlet walls. The whole place is brilliantly La- cer, and Lord Durham. Attester end of the room to the pommel of a camel, and the dying tona dragged ¦ minated with gas, issing from numerus lastres is a fine commandir figure of the king of the Belgians, along." No pity is shown to those who sink down; depending from the roof. With all this grandeur, taken from life in 1917; and at a little distance apart they are not released, but dragged along with the rest, take into account the crowd of figures, animate and is Queen Caroline, in a court dress of black velvet, and even if one abould die before they arrive at the ap-, inanimate, with which the apartment was filed-some | a hat with white feathers. This brings us to the upper pointed halting place. Before the caravan haite, no in groups, some standing as if in doubt whether the end of the room, where a still more gorgeous scene refreshment, enter of food or drink, is given to the objects before them were of flesh and blood, or merely opens up, showing a spacious recess or anterom, the dessitated negrosa; the unfeeling Turks have no artificial; every countenance impressed with the feel-whole of which is seen at one glance, magnificently ampion-rim if a drop of water should be suffi-ing of gratified wonder, and koking as if under the fitted up. The walls are hung, in the richest manner, ent to refresh the feeble, it is not given to him, but, influence of a dream. with crimson silk velvet, and the floor laid with crimson; he is left to perish." the whole got up in the most tasteful and superb style. The scie cecupant of this grand apartment is his late Majesty George IV, in his coronation robes. The figure is said to have been modelled from life; the attitude is at once easy and commanding. The king is decorated with the order of the Bath, the order of the Garter, and the Guelphic order. The principal robe, which is the identical one worn at the procession to Westminster Abbey on the day of the coronation, measures seven yards in length, by three in width; is of crimson velvet, splendidly embroidered with gold; and, with the parliamentary robe, and the imperial rebe, which is of parple velvet, both of which are also exhibited, contains 567 feet of velvet and embroidery, and cost, along with the ermine lining, eighteen thousand pounds! The throne is also introduced on which the king received the allied monarchs. The crown, orb, and seeptre, which are arranged on a table, are correct copies of those used at the coronation. The jewels, of course, are imitation, but so dazzlingly brilliant, that it would take a good judge to discover the deception. After looking on this, and turning to the comparatively humble figure of Queen Caroline, the effect is painful. She is, as it were, standing a spectator of that splendour in which she was not allowed to participate. Beyond this opening, on the other side, is the Princess Charlotte, in a velvet dress, taken from a bust for which her royal highness sat on the day of her marriage. Near to this is the late Duke of York, in the robes of the order of the Garter, said to have been taken from life.

A little farther on is another of the royal brothers, the late Duke of Kent, in the robes and orders of the Bath and Garter; but the most conspicuous group on this side of the room exhibits a cluster of six persons, Near this group, on the same side of the room, are arranged with good effect. The centre figure repreLouis Philippe, and the present Emperor of Russia. sents Mary Queen of Scots, in a sitting attitude, The King of the French, who is dressed in the uni- enduring the withering and bitter rebukes of her form of the National Guards, is a decided likeness. censor, John Knox, who is backed by John Calvin This figure and that of the Emperor of Russia were and Martin Luther, in their black gowns and bands, taken from life. Again, amongst the crowned heads with black caps. The introduction of these two latter may be noticed Henry IV. of France, in a suit of gentlemen is not in accordance with historical facts, chevalier armour, and Charles II. of England, also but they add to the effect pictorially. On the other wearing a suit of magnificent armour. On the right-side of Mary are figures of Queen Elizabeth and her hand side, the attention is arrested by the majestic father, Henry VIII. Henry, I must observe, is not in figure of Mrs Siddons, in the dress and attitude of the least like the bluff Harry with whose face every Queen Catherine, in the play of Henry VIII.; and one is familiar-it is the only failure in the room. near her is her celebrated brother, John Kemble, in The dress is quite correct, but the resemblance is not the character of Hamlet. The faces of both are fine, in the least like the portraits of Henry VIII. Queen and singularly expressive-such countenances as one Elizabeth does not appear to advantage by the side of looks for in vain in the every-day world. At a little her beautiful victim, Mary; her dress, however, is distance, in a sitting attitude, is Shakspeare, but for very good. Mary is dressed in a robe of black velvet, whom, it is possible, the talents of the last-mentioned with a profusion of splendid old white lace-her look personages might not have been brought so conspicu- expresses patient submission. ously forward.

The first figure, on the right-hand side of the door, represents the inventor of the Infernal Machine, Fieschi the person, you know, who attempted to destroy the King of the French; and as the head and eyes move in a manner perfectly natural, you are at first startled at being brought so immediately in contact with a, LETTERS FROM A LADY IN LONDON TO person of character so infamous, ani who appears to be in the act of discharging his terrile instrument of HER NIECE IN THE COUNTRY. death, consisting of twenty-five gun-barrels, loaded MADAME TUSSAUD'S EXHIBITION, with several inches of gunpowder, besides ball and MY DEAR JANE,—I arrived in London a few days ago, slugs; but as there are so many pleasing and attrae after a long and amusing tour with your uncle on the tive objects courting the attention at every step, I Continent; and having much to do in a very limited shall not linger beside one which is only calculated to time, before coming home to Scotland, it was only awaken feelings of horror. Near to this first figure, yesterday that I could begin to look about me, or forming a delightful contrast to the French assassin, visit any of the interesting sights in this wonderfully is the modelled figure of an infant asleep, a beautiful' large town. By the kindness of Mr, I was con-emblem of innocence and simplicity. It is told of this dicted to several public buildings in the early part of infant, that, in the year 1756, the Seine overflowed its the day; but none of these afforded me so much plea- banks, when the child was washed away in its cradle, sure as an exhibition to which I was taken in the but was rescued by some person who saw it floating evening-I mean the very curious wax-work at the down the stream. Bonaparte, having heard of the Bazaar in Baker Street, the proprietor of which is circumstance, had the child, who was a boy, taken care Madame Tussand. of till he was a proper age, when he had him placed at Madame Tussand, you must understand, is an the Polytechnic School in Paris, and ultimately proelderly French lady, who, in the early part of her life, vided for him in the army. Again, in contradistine figured in the higher circles of Paris at the time of tion to this, stands the figure of Edward Oxford, who the Revolution. She was the niece and adopted lately gained an undesirable notoriety in consequence daughter of M. Curtius, a Swiss medical gentleman, of his insane attempt to shoot the Queen, as she was who was famous for his skill in modelling figures in driving in the Park. There is not anything partiwaz; so much so, that the royal family of France cular in his appearance. He looks like a genteelish invited him to Paris, where he was greatly patronised. young man, who would not attract any attention His young niece becoming a proficient in wax-model- but for his crime. The next group, which is to be ling under his kind directions, she also attained emi-regarded with a much greater degree of interest, A fantastically dressed figure of Baron Swedenborg nence in the art, and was employed at the royal palace represents Louis XVI. of France, his unfortunate next attracts the attention. The costume is that of a to teach it to the Princess Elizabeth-a lady of amiable queen, Marie Antoinette, and the dauphin. One senator of Sweden. This individual, you perhaps have manners, who, with thousands of other persons equally is led to imagine that these must be true likenesses heard, was the founder of a small religious sect of worthy and unfortunate, perished during the revolu- of the originals, from the circumstance of their extraordinary opinions. The next objects of consetionary disorders. Under such respectable auspices, having been exhibited at La Petit Trianon at Versailles, quence are his late Majesty William IV., in an admiMadame Tussaud gained an entrance into the best where they must have been visited by many who ral's uniform, remarkably well executed; and Queen gociety, and became personally acquainted with almost could judge of the correctness of the resemblances. Adelaide, in a court dress of dark silk velvet, her all the distinguished men of the day. When the They were taken from life in 1790. They are dressed countenance more distinguished for gentleness and revolution broke out, she was among the few con- in the costume of the period, and are represented as mildness of expression than queenly dignity. nected with the aristocracy who were spared, and this sitting on a sofa, or chair of state, the dauphin standshe owed to her skill as an artiste: you see how much ing beside them. His figure or face must have been good may sometimes come of learning a useful art, taken subsequent to 1790, as he was not born till 1785, which may either embellish life in prosperity or support and here looks at least eight or ten years of age. it in the day of hard adversity. Well, Madame Tussaud was spared from the guillotine, because she was required by the revolutionary leaders to immortalise them by her craft. She made figures in wax of Robespierre, Marat, Danton, and a great many other worthies, dressing them, of course, in the new fashion of the period, called the costume of the sans culottes. She was also on many occasions employed to take models of heads which had been severed on the scaffold; the leaders of the terrorists, as they were called, not interfering to prevent her performing this melancholy task. By these and other means, Madame Tussaud was enabled to form a large and valuable collection of models of the most remarkable individuals in France-royalists, revolutionists, generals, men of science and literature, and also ladies of distinction. With this collection she afterwards came to England, where she was permitted by many distinguished personages to take models of them in wax; and here at last we find her, now advanced in years, On this side of the room there is a figure of Voltaire, exhibiting her unrivalled collection in one of the On this side of the room, in the centre, we are gra- as if addressing an old coquette, in the dress of the fashionable streets in the west end of London. tified with a representation of the marriage group of period-high-heeled shoes, powdered wig, ruffles, and The exhibition is open during the day; but we had the Queen: Prince Albert is in the act of holding the buckram. A little farther on is a group of eminent perheard that the effect was much finer at night, and pre-ring, preparatory to placing it on the finger of her sonages, the most striking of whom is Mohammed Ali, ferred seeing it under its best aspect. Externally Majesty, while the Archbishop of Canterbury is per- in a Turkish costume, and which includes Lord Palmer there is nothing to indicate the singular scene which forming his part of the ceremony with a look of great ston; Commodore Napier, in the uniform of an admiis going on within; and, on entering, you find yourself solemnity. The Queen is dressed in white satin, with ral; Joseph Hume, MP., Lord John Russell, and Sir in an elegant, well-lighted lobby, surrounded by sta- a beautiful lace robe over it, and a train bordered Robert Peel, the three last-named gentlemen said to tues. A double staircase-that is, a flight of stairs with orange flowers. A wreath of the orange blossom have been taken from life. Here we have Paganini playleading from each side of the lobby-unites on a encircles her head, from the back of which a white ing on his violin, and near him a fine figure of the late Landing at the top, from which, by a door pannelled lace veil is arranged with great elegance. Across Princess Augusta, in a splendid court dress of velvet with mirrors, you gain entrance to a beautiful outer the breast her Majesty wears the order of the Garter. and white satin, with a fine set of brilliants. Nearer to apartment, tastefully laid out with ornaments of va- Prince Albert is dressed in a field-marshal's uniform-the door is an interesting figure of Madame Malibran, rious kinds-mirrors, vases, &c. The walls, doors, &c., scarlet coat, &c., with the order of the Garter round in a black velvet dress and black lace scarf; and unbeing of white decorated with gold, have a lightness his leg, over stockings of white silk. derneath the pedestal on which she is placed, there is and elegance, the effect of which is very pleasing. At a humorous figure of Mr Liston, in the character of one side of the door, on entering, before a small table, Paul Pry, with his everlasting umbrella under his sits the venerable proprietor, neatly dressed in black, arm; and beside him, sitting at a desk as if writing, bowing to the company as they come in or out. Here with the pen in his hand, is Frost, the Chartist leader. the money is taken; and you advance through a passIt was some time before I discovered that this was

On this side, also, there is Lord Byron, as if conversing with Sir Walter Scott, whose likeness was taken by Madame Tussaud, while in Edinburgh in 1828. There is a substantial respectability in Sir Walter's appearance, which, on a first glance, almost

with horror; and his description of slave-hunting in Nubia presents a picture of oppression which must stamp this plausible tyrant with everlasting infamy.

The number of persons carried off from the Nubian mountains between 1825 and 1839, omitting the thousands who were captured by the Bakkara, amounted to at least 100,000. As soon as the rainy season is over, the capturing excursion, called Gasna, commences, and the necessary number of camels, one for each soldier, and others for arms, ammunition, and tents, is demanded. The soldiers seize all that comes in their way, and in a few days all that is necessary is obtained. The capturing expedition consists of from 1000 to 2000 regular foot soldiers; 400 to 800 Mograbini (Bedouins on horseback) armed with guns and pistols; 300 to 500 of the militia (half-naked savages) on dromedaries, with shields and spears; and 1000 more on foot, with bucklers and small lances. "As soon as every thing is ready, the march begins. They usually take from two to four field-pieces, and only sufficient bread for the first eight days. Oxen, sheep, and other cattle, are generally taken by force before at Cordofan, although the tax upon cattle may have been paid. When they meet with a flock, either feeding or at the watering-places, they steal the cattle, and do not care whether it belongs to one or more persons; they make no reparation for necessary things, whoever may be the sufferer, and no objection or complaint is listened to, as the governor himself is present.

As soon as they arrive at the first mountains in Nubia, the inhabitants are asked to give the appointed number of slaves as their customary tribute. This is usually done with readiness; for these people live so near Cordofan, and are well aware that, by an obstinate refusal, they expose themselves to far greater sufferings. If the slaves are given without resistance, the inhabitants of that mountain are preserved from the horrors of an open attack; but as the food of the soldiers begins to fail about that time, the poor people are obliged to procure the necessary provisions as well as the specified number of slaves, and the Turks do not consider whether the harvest has been good or bad. All that is not freely given, the soldiers take by force. Like so many bloodhounds, they know how to discover the hidden stores, and frequently leave these unfortunate people scarcely a loaf for the next day. They then proceed on to the more distant mountains: here they consider themselves to be in the land of an enemy; they encamp near the mountain which they intend to take by storm the following day, or immediately, if it is practicable. But before the attack commences, they endeavour to settle the affair amicably; a messenger is sent to the sheik, in order to invite him to come to the camp, and to bring with him the requisite number of slaves. If the chief agrees with his subjects to the proposal, in order to prevent all further bloodshed, or if he finds his means inadequate to attempt resistance, he readily gives the appointed number of slaves. The sheik then proceeds to procure the number he has promised; and this is not difficult, for many volunteers offer themselves for their brethren, and are ready to subject themselves to all the horrors of slavery, in order to free those they love.

show this ambassador particular marks of honour, and such as are contrary to custom, I mean not thereby to give a precedent to others. I particularly love and esteem him for the affection which I know he has for me, for his firmness in our religion, and his fidelity to his master.' I dare not repeat all that he said to my advantage." At this and other meetings, Sully showed great tact, and was successful in getting James to form a treaty with Henry of the kind desired. On the whole, the ambassador formed rather a low estimate of James, of whom he pronounced on this occasion that he was the most learned fool in Christendom. To describe his services and connexion with Henry his master, is, as mentioned before, to tell at once Sully's history, and to show his literary abilities. The slavery in which the king was held by his passions, was a great source of vexation to Sully, both on account of his personal love for him, and of the expenses attending such a course of life. One day, when the minister was resisting some improper application, the temporary favourite, D'Entragues, said impudently and haughtily to him, "To whom would you have the king grant favours, if not to his relations, courtiers, and favourites?" "Madam," replied Sully, "you would be in the right if his majesty took the money out of his own purse; but is it reasonable that he should take it out of those of his poor subjects, to gratify such people as you speak of?" Holding such sentiments, it may be conceived that Sully's administration was a continued blessing to his country. He was easy of access, and methodical in all his habits. Though sometimes galled into anger by his remonstrances, Henry raised him to the highest honours of the peerage, and, with his other posts, gave him the governorship of Poitou. Henry's death in 1610 terminated Sully's official career, and he received at its close a gratuity of 100,000 crowns. Occasionally, after this period, he was sent for to the councils of Louis XIII., and at these times he appeared in the antiquated garb of the old court. Some silly young courtiers laughing once at his appearance, "Sire," said the venerable minister to the king, "when your father, of glorious memory, honoured me by a call to his state consultations, he previously sent away the buffoons." The king felt the rebuke, and remained alone with Sully. Sully died in 1641, at the age of eighty-two. His "Memoirs" and his memory have ever been highly esteemed in France.

SLAVE HUNTS IN EGYPT. The recent publication of a work entitled "Egypt and Mohammed Ali," by Dr R. R. Madden, has brought prominently into notice a variety of circumstances connected with the legalised system of slavery in Egypt, as well as the manner in which it is supported by the practice of hunting down and carrying off the unfortunate inhabitants of Nubia and Abyssinia. As little is popularly known on the subject, we propose, with the assistance of facts gleaned from the work of this intrepid and philanthropic writer, to bring it before our readers.

In all the undertakings of Mohammed Ali, with the ostensible view of civilising the nation of which he is the ruler, he appears to be animated by one prevailing sentiment, and that is, the desire to serve his own selfish purposes, and yet deceive the people of Europe, who, he is fully aware, have an eye to his public actions. In accomplishing this object, he has, by the aid of French tacticians, been eminently successful. The trick of his highness is generally well managed; it consists in issuing orders of the most liberal nature respecting any matter of serious complaint, for which he receives a great deal of praise, but which orders, except in particular instances, he takes good care shall never be carried into execution. Two or three years ago, when on an expedition into Eastern Africa, he found it his interest to be very much shocked with the practice of capturing slaves for sale within his dominions, and issued an immediate order that this barbarous trade should be prohibited. So pleasing a circumstance gave much satisfaction in England, and the Anti-Slavery Convention held in London sent an address applauding his generous and humane conduct. Dr Madden was the bearer of this document to his highness; but, greatly to his surprise, he found, on its presentation (August 1840), that the pacha had taken no step whatever to give effect to those orders for which he was now congratulated. The slave hunts and slave sales went on the same as ever.

account of the want of skill of the artillerymen, few shots, if any, took effect: the negroes became indifferent to this prelude, and were only stimulated to a more obstinate resistance. The thundering of the cannon at first caused more consternation than their effects, but the fears of the negroes ceased as soon as they became accustomed to it. Before the attack commences, all avenues to the village are blocked up with large stones or other impediments, the village is provided with water for several days, the cattle and other property taken up to the mountain; in short, nothing necessary for a proper defence is neglected. The men, armed only with lances, occupy every spot which may be defended, and even the women do not remain inactive; they either take part in the battle personally, or encourage their husbands by their cries and lamentations, and provide them with arms; in short, all are active, except the sick and aged. The points of their wooden lances are first dipped into a poison which is standing by them in an earthen vessel, and which is prepared from the juice of a certain plant. The poison is of a whitish colour, and looks like milk which has been standing; the nature of the plant, and the manner in which the poison is prepared, is still a secret, and generally known only to one family in the village, who will not on any account make it known to others.

As soon as the signal is given for the attack, the infantry sound the alarm, and an assault is made upon the mountain. Thousands of lances, large stones, and pieces of wood, are then thrown at the assailants; behind every large stone a negro is concealed, who either throws his poisoned lance at the enemy, or waits for the moment when his opponent approaches the spot of his concealment, when he pierces him with his lance. The soldiers, who are only able to climb up the steep heights with great difficulty, are obliged to sling their guns over their backs, in order to have the use of their hands when climbing, and, consequently, are often in the power of the negroes before they are able to discover them. But nothing deters these robbers. Animated with avarice and revenge, they mind no impediment, not even death itself. One after another treads upon the corpse of his comrade, and thinke only of robbery and murder, and the village is at last taken, in spite of the most desperate resistance. And then the revenge is horrible. Neither the aged nor sick people are spared, women, and even children in their mother's womb, fall a sacrifice to their fury; the huts are plundered, the little possession of the unfortunate inhabitants carried away or destroyed, and all that fall alive into the hands of the robbers, are led as slaves into the camp. When the negroes see that their resistance is no longer of any avail, they frequently prefer death to slavery; and if they are not prevented, you may see the father rip up first the stomach of his wife, then of his children, and then his own, that they may not fall alive into the hands of the enemy. Others endeavour to save themselves by creeping into holes, and remain there for several days without nourishment, where there is frequently only room sufficient to allow them to lie on their backs, and in that situation they sometimes remain for eight days. They have assured me, that if they can overcome the first three days, they may, with a little effort, continue full eight days without food. But even from these hiding-places, the unfeeling barbarians know how to draw them, or they make use of means to destroy them: provided with combustibles, such as pitch, brimstone, &c., the soldiers try to kindle a fire before the entrance of the holes, and by forcing the stinking smoke up the holes, the poor creatures are forced to creep out, and to surrender themselves to their enemies, or they are suffocated with the smoke. After the Turks have done all in their power to capture the living, they lead these unfortunate people into the camp; they then plunder the huts and the cattle, and several hundred soldiers are engaged in searching the mountain in every direction, in order to steal the hidden harvest, that the rest of the negroes, who were fortunate enough to escape, and have hid themselves in inaccessible caves, should not find any thing on their return to nourish and continue their life. As soon as they have obtained about 500 or 600 slaves, they are sent to Lobeid, with an escort of country people, and about fifty soldiers, under the command of an officer. In order to prevent escape, a sheba is hung round the necks of the adults. sheba is a young tree, about eight feet long, and two inches thick, and which has a fork at the top; it is so tied to the neck of the poor creature, that the trunk of the tree hangs down in the front, and the fork closed behind the neck with a cross piece of timber, or tied together with strips cut out of a fresh skin; and in this situation the slave, in order to be able to walk at all, is obliged to take the tree into his hands, and to carry it before him. But none can endure this very long, and to render it easier, the one in advance takes the tree of the man behind him on his shoulder. It is impossible for them to get their head free, and it frequently happens that they have their necks wounded, which is followed by an inflammation, and sometimes even by death.

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Boys, between ten and fifteen years of age, who cannot bear such a sheba, are tied together, two and two, with wooden clasps on their hands: this is done by placing the wood on the right arm of one, and on the left of another, above the wrist, and then lacing it tightly. Other boys are tied together, by two and two, with leather strings. Boys under the above-men

Here the most heart-rending scenes may be witnessed for who is willing to separate himself from his home, from his parents, brothers and sisters, and relations?-who likes to forsake the cottage that has sheltered him from his infancy, and where he has spent so many happy hours in the society of those by whom he is beloved?-who likes to go forth to meet a horrible futurity, which promises nothing but misery, cruelty, and, what is perhaps most desirable, death? and yet they feel the necessity that one of them should suffer in order to exempt the rest; the father may frequently be seen disputing with his son, the brother with his brother, as to which of them is to deliver himself freely into slavery, for every one wishes to save his affectionate and endeared relative. The anticipation of falling into the hands of the unfeeling Turks, where nothing but misery and torments await them, to which they must submit the prospect of being obliged to forsake all that is dear to them, and that for ever-overpowers them. They bedew the cheeks of those they love with their tears, while they press the last kiss, and take the last farewell; they then deliver themselves into the hands of their unfeeling, hardened tormentors. Sometimes they are obliged to be torn by force from the embraces of their friends and relations. The sheik generally receives a dress as a present for his ready services. Our author was much shocked to find the Egyptian But there are very few mountains that submit to despot so much less a man of humanity than English such a demand. Most villages which are advantaphilanthropy had supposed, and he took leave to pre-geously situated, and lie near steep precipices or insent to him a very bold address, in which he stated accessible heights, that can be ascended only with that there were three hundred slaves for sale at that difficulty, defend themselves most valiantly, and fight moment in the markets of Cairo and Alexandria; that for the rights of liberty with a courage, perseverance, the number sold in the preceding twelve months was and sacrifice, of which history furnishes us with few above ten thousand; and that the government not examples. Very few flee at the approach of their only permitted, but practised, the horrible traffic, the enemies, although they might take refuge in the high pacha's soldiers being regularly employed in seizing mountains with all their goods, especially as they slaves in Nubia, and a tax upon their exportation being receive timely information of the arrival of the solone of the resources of his treasury. Mohammed Ali diers; but they consider such flights cowardly and equivocated, and threw the blame upon the law and shameful, and prefer to die fighting for their liberty. the sultan; but his issuing licenses to slave-merchants If the sheik does not yield to the demand, an attack is in itself sufficient to establish his guilt. The parti- is made upon the village. The cavalry and bearers culars which Dr Madden gives of the mutilation of of lances surround the whole mountain, and the inchildren for certain purposes makes the flesh thrill fantry endeavour to climb the heights. Formerly, they fired with cannon upon the villages and those places where the negroes were assembled, but. on

*London: Hamilton and Adams. I vol. 1841.

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