Imatges de pÓgina

explained, 240 ; exceptions to gen-
eral simplicity of, 241 ; the ex-
pression 'Ancilla Dei,' ib.; hopeful
spirit of, compared with pagan
epitaphs, 242, 243; importance of

further research, 249
Christian Sculpture. See Sculpture,

Christian VII. (King of Denmark,

1719-1776), description of, at his
accession, cxxiii. 494 ; repugnance
to his marriage with Matilda, 495;
symptoms of insanity, 497, 498;
his visit to Hanau, 499; Walpole's

description of him in England, ib.
Chrono-lithography, progress of the

art of, cxxv. 186 note
Chronology, method of, in ancient

Rome, cxx. 227
Chrysoberyl, or oriental chrysolite,'

cxxiv. 243; specimens of, ib.
Chrysolite, the mineral described,

cxxiv. 246
Chrysoloras (Manuel, d. 1414), his

arrival at Florence, cxxxvi. 119;

his Greek lectures, 120
Chrysostom (John, Saint, d. 407),

his intercession for Eutropius, cxxi.

Church of England, position of, in

Australia, cxiii. 4; prospects of
religious thought in, 497

Clerical Subscription in, cxv.
577 ; origin of present regulations
thereon, 582; not obligatory at
first, 585; Elizabeth's Second Act
of Uniformity, 586; burdens im-
posed by Whitgift, 591; declaration
of voluntary assent superadded,
596; the Etcetera Oath, 597; strin-
gency of the Act of 1062, 599 ;
treatment of devotional forms as
doctrine, 603; form of assent should
be deferential, 606

- its outward characteristics of
supremacy, cxviii. 564; those ad-
vantages absent in the Colonies,
565 (see Colonial Episcopate);

legal status of, compared with

Dissenters, 572
Church of England, the Vow' re-

solution in the Commons, cxx. 32;
union of civil and ecclesiastical
powers represented by, 287; doc-
trine of eternal punishment in,292 -
296; Article on Justification by
Faith, 297 ; prospects of union, 307

doctrine of the Crown's su
preinacy, cxxi. 153; paramount
authority of the law, 154; theory
of interpretation opposed to that
of Rome, ib.; on the Decrees of
General Councils, 156 note ; its
relations with the Common Law,
157; arbitrary tendencies of recent
clerical claims, 158; on the Mil-
lenarian doctrine and eternal pun-
ishment, 159; statute authority
of the Crown, 166 (see Ecclesiasti-
cal Courts); validity of lay-baptism
in, 172 note; duty of clergymen
to obey the law, 179 ; present
religious crisis in, 574; evils of
doctrinal litigation, 576; its mis-
sion to defend Christianity, 578

official neglect of theology
in, cxxii. 104

its status under Elizabeth,
cxxiii. 147, 148

its alleged latitudinarianism
under Elizabeth, cxxiv. 499, 500

its traditions violated by the
· Ritualists,' cxxv.

of its identity with the State, ib.;
absurd scheme of a Free National
Council,' 463

opportunities of reconciliation
by the Ritual Commission, cxxvi.
504 ; reforms proposed for laity
and clergy, 505-518; the parochial
system, 520; shortcomings of the
clergy, 521. See Rubric, Anglican

fixity of her position since
Establishment, cxxviii.251 ; liberal
principles needed to combat exist-
ing dangers, 252 ; its educational
functions, ib.; arbitrary principles

461 ;


of Tudors and Stuarts, 263; change
to religious liberty, ib., 254; fal-
lacies as to Establishment, ib. ;
the theological argument exposed,
ib.; broad principles of Sir G.
Lewis, 255; viewed as a positive
institution, 256 ; rival theories of
Hooker and Chalmers on Estab-
lishments, ib.; nature of Church
property,257; national endowments
not the essential idea of Establish-
ment, 258; imperfect definitions
of Paley and Sir G. Lewis, ib.;
Establishment inseparable from
the idea of law, 259; supremacy
of the civil power at the Reform-
ation, 260; authority of the Crown,
261 ; spiritual pretensions of the
High Church party, 262; Presby-
terian scheme of the Westminster
Assembly, 266 ; Parliamentary
controlover, retained by Cromwell,
ib.; Episcopal intolerance of dis-
sent after 1688, 267; disabilities
of Dissenters removed by Parlia-
ment, ib.; civil authority over
Ritualists, 268 ; advantages of
State connexion, 269 ; spiritual
peers, 271; legal principles of,
violated in the Colonies, 274;
latitude of theological opinion in,
ib. ; is the bulwark of Protest-
antism in Europe, 275; she owes
her position to her legal character,
276; is the basis of the parochial
system, ib.; extra-legal meaning
of Disestablishment, ib. ; endow-
ments not touched thereby, 278 ;
its boundaries as a National Church
should be enlarged, 285; recent

wise legislation, 286
Church of England, services of

Nonconformists to, cxxxiii. 408 ;
theories of Liberationists cri-
ticised, 410, 411; importance of
the Purchas and Voysey judg-
ments, 412; impartial spirit of
recent legislation, 413; growing
liberality and expansiveness in,

stir for reform among parties
in, 417; advances to Dissenters,
418; alleged tendencies to Dises-
tablishinent, 420; deteriorating
effects thereof, ib.; doctrinal causes
of secession fro 422; prospects

of federal union, 425
Church of England, moderate spirit

of compromise at the Reformation,
cxxxiv. Ili, 112

lifeless state of, in the last
century, cxxxv. 66; relations of,
with the Conservative party, 252;
its duration as an Establishment
depends on public opinion, 253;
Mr. Miall's recent motion for Dis-
establishment, 367 ; future import-
ance of the question in politics,
ib.; reticence of Nonconformists
as to Disendowment, ib.; their
ground of objection to Estab-
lishment, 369; fundamental legal
character of, ib.; the congé d'élire,
370; result of Disestablishment,
ib.; representatives of various par-
ties in, 373; advantages of legal
discipline in, ib.; reforms needed
• in Church revenues, 375; value
of Episcopal life-peerages, 376;
evils of a congregational system,
377 ; former pictures of the paro-
chial clergy, 378 ; galloping
curates,' ib. note; satires thereon
now obsolete, 380; devotion and
energy of present clergy, 381;
their status and usefulness would
be destroyed by Disestablishment,
382; disendowment would follow
of necessity, 383; Irish parallel
examined, 385; the country not
ripe for the congregational system,
386; argument of social inequalities
of Dissenters, 388_390 ; Disestab-
lishment not the proper re

ib.; fallacies on Church and State,
391 ; progress of voluntary endow-
ment, 393; recent agitation due
to soreness of feeling, ib.

the Lutheran doctrine of the

440; of Nicæa, 442; the Arian
heresy, 443; superiority of the
East, 447; election of the hierarchy,
450 ; value of secular patronage,

Church (Early), transition-period in,

after the latest events recorded in
the Acts, cxl. 487; originally a

Hebrew Church, 495
Church, the, perverted application of

the word ' Ecclesia,' cxx. 380
«Church and the Age, the,' recent

High-Church pamphlet, cxxxiii.

Church Discipline Act, the, effect of,

on the Judicial Committee, cxxi.

Churchill (Charles, 1730-1764), his

malicious lines on Warburton,
cxxii. 7,20

Windham's criticism of his
writings, cxxiii. 573
Cibber (Colley, 1671-1757), his edi-

tion of Shakspeare's Richard III.,

Eucharist declared lawful, cxxxvi.

292. See Bennett, Rev. Mr.
Church of England, relations of, with

Dissent, cxxxvii. 196 ; recent pub-
lications, ib. ; national basis of, at
the Reformation, 199; two master
principles gradually established,
202; modern dogma against a
National Church, 203 ; league of
Nonconformists and High Church
Liberationists, 205 206; proper
policy of, towards both opponents,
207 ; a religious census deprecated,
208; question of utilising Dissent,
209; history and services of the
Latitudinarian School, ib. ; prac-
ticable approaches for Dissenters,
216 ; changes suggested in litur-
gical forms, 217; relaxation of
Prayer-Book, 218; freer use of
pulpits by other communions, 219;
general intercourse and co-opera-
tion, 220; transient character of
present hostility of Dissenters,
222; national importance of the
Establishment, ib.; ministerial
energy the best means of defence,

duties of, since the late Edu-
cation Act, cxxxix. 229

abolition of separate taxation
of the clergy, cxl. 431; reforms
in the present century effected
without Convocation, 443; position
of the clergy and laity in, 441;
no necessity for a separate Council
of, 448 (see Convocation); its

national character, 450
Church (Early), revolutions in the

4th century, cxi. 4:22; materials
for history of that epoch, 425;
need of caution in using them,
426; social revolution under the
Roman Empire, 432; phases of
persecution, 433; Constantine's
opportune conversion, 435; ques-
tion of his spiritual authority, 437;
schism of the Donatists, 439;
Cæcilian, ib.; Council of Arles,

cxv. 313

Cicero ®(Marcus Tullius, B.c. 107–
43), his character, cxv. 475

his opinion of Lucretius,
cxxii. 245

his bust at the Vatican au-
thenticated, cxxiv. 353; his treatise
De Gloria, 356 ; plagiarism of his
De Officiis, 357; M. de Conches
on his Letters, 377; his character
by Napoleon III., 414; unfairly
accused of cowardice, 415; and of
complicity in the death of Clodius,
416; his character vindicated by
Mr. Newman, 418

earliest MSS. of, cxxxvii.
64, 65; Petrarch's copy of his
Epist. ad Fam., 72 ; his Orator,'
73; Editio princeps of bis collected

works, 90
Cimabue (John, 1240-1300), story

of his mode of study, cxxii. 85;
his altar-piece of S. Maria Novella,
in ; his conventional treatment,



Cintra, Convention of (1808), cxii.

Ciphers, use of, by the Romans,

cxxiv. 354, 355
Circeo, Cape, naval defeat of the

Saracens off, cxviii. 368
Ciudad Rodrigo, capture of, cxvi. 58
Civilisation, its supposed require-
ments of centralisation, cxv. 331

Mr. Gladstone on the two
factors of modern, cxx. 165
Civil Service, the, value of perma-

nent officials in the conduct of
government, cxxxvi. 91 ; evils of
open competitive examinations,

cry of 'Administrative Re-
formers' in 1855, cxxxix. 72; ob-
jections to official reports on con-
duct of subordinates, 89, 90; nom-
ination and competition compared,
357 ; evils of surrendering patron-
age, ib. 358; recent dissensions in

public offices, 556
Civitali (Matteo, Tuscan sculptor),

his different styles of sculpture,

cxxi. 544 ; his figure of Faith, ib.
Civita Vecchia (Centumcellæ), cap-

tured by the Saracens, cxviii. 366;
inhabitants removed to Leopolis,
ib. note; origin of its present

Clarence (Duke of, d. 1478), story of

his murder, cxv. 303
Clarence and Richmond district

(Australia), rival claims to, cxvii.
308; its annexation to Queensland

desirable, 309
Clarendon (Earl of, 1800-1870),

his qualifications as Foreign Min-
ister, cxxiv. 297; his retirement
in 1866 a misfortune to the
country, ib.

his negotiations with Russia
respecting the Black Sea, cxxxiii.

267, 268
Clark (G. T.), manager of the Dow-

lais Ironworks, cxxx. 400; his evi-

dence on Trades' Unions, ib.
Clarke (Algernon), his report on

Steam Culture, cxxiii. 200
Classical busts and statues, question

of their trustworthiness, cxxiv.
351; risks to which they were ex-

posed, ib.; specimens of, 353
Classical education, imperfections

of, in public schools, cxxvii. 150.

See Public Schools
Classical Manuscripts, relative value

of existing MSS., cxxxvii. 57; lost
autographs, ib. 58; the mass not
older than 9th century, ib.; de-
generacy of language a safeguard
against forgeries, ib.; external evi-
dences of genuineness, 59; long con-
cealment no disproof, 60; abundant
evidence furnished by tradition, ib.;
remoteness of textual error proved
by early misquotations, ib.; au-
thority of age, 62; groups in rela-
tion to lost archetype, 6:3; MSS.
older than the 7th century, ib.;
antiquity of biblical MSS. com-
pared, ib. 64; testimony of colo-
phons, 65; MSS. of Tacitus, Livy,
and Virgil, 66; evidence derived
from corrections, ib.; from draw-
ings and handwriting, 67; errors
of author's amanuensis, 68; varia-
tions in autograph, ib.; imperfec-
tions and unrevised originals, ib.

name, ib.

Clancarty (Donough Macarthy, Earl

of), episode of, described by, Ma-

caulay, cxiv. 309
Clapham (Surrey), early history of,

cxxxi. 161
Clare, Earls of, early residence of,

in London, cxxxi. 178
Clare, Viscounts, early history of,

cxiv. 384. See O'Briens
Clare (Fitzgibbon, Earl of, 1749–

1802), his career at the Irish bar,
cxxxiv. 65; made Attorney-Gen-
eral for Ireland, 66; Irish Chan-
cellor, ib.; his character and
talents, ib. 67

his appearance and character,
çarxix. 487

69; theory of two recensions by Classical study, decreasing import
author, ib.; mistakes of contem- ance of,cxx. 158; dominant system
porary copyists, 70; similarity of of, at public schools, 160; Mr.
writing in early MSS., ib. ; imita- Gladstone's defence of, 163
tions of old copies in Middle Ages,

present efforts to popularise,
ib.; common parentage of later cxxiii. 365 ; modern Greek verses,
copies ascertained by collation, 366; defects in classical transla-
71; MSS. between revival of tions, 367 ; excellence of modern
learning and printing, ib.; parent scholarship, 383; necessity of
MSS. found, 72; Poggio's dis- combining modern languages, ib.
coveries, ib.; rarity and corrupt

pretended indifference of the
state of discovered archetypes, ib.; age to, cxxxiii. 530; influence of,
authority of transcripts therefrom, on recent English scholarship, ib. ;
73; pedigree traced by colophons, broader view taken of the life of
74; difficulties of determining antiquity, 531 ; essential to general
their relative value, 75; confusion culture, ib.
introduced by conjectural emenda- Claude (Lorraine, 1600-1682), his
tions, ib.; undue authority at- picture of the Sermon on the
tached to numbers, ib.; corrup- Mount,' cxx. 107
tions of copyists caused by igno- Claudius (Tiberius Drusus, Roman
rance, 76; by wrong division of Emperor, B.c. 9-A.D. 54), his lost
continuous writing, 77; fancied work on Carthage, cxiv. 65
poetic licenses, 78; abbreviations, Clausewitz (General, 1780-1831),
ib.; differences of spelling a stum-

his intelligent system of strategy,
bling-block, 79; errors due to cxxxii, 583
caligraphy, 80; sciolism of scribes Claverhouse, John Graham of. See
and correctors, 81; intentional

per- Dundee
versions of text, ib.; early origin of Clayton (Mr.), his treaty with Sir
textual criticism, 83; corruptions H. Bulwer, cxv. 21
of false critics, ib. ; interpolations | Clayton and Bell (Messrs.), their
of commentators, 84; glosses, ib.; painted window at Doncaster,
depravations of scholastic teachers, cxxv. 181; windows at Lincoln,
ib.; looseness of æsthetic criticism, 184; and at Windsor, 185
84; Italian ignorance of Greek at Cleasby (Richard, 1797-1847), Ice-
the revival, 86; license of con- landic-English Dictionary of, com-
jecture, ib.; false authority at- pleted by G. Vigfusson, cxl. 228;
tached thereto, 87; testimony of his parentage and education, ib. ;
first editors as to their materials, Dr. Dasent's memoir of, 229;
ib. 88; their fragmentary and cor- foreign travels, 230; attends lec-
rupt character, ib.; their insuffici- tures at Edinburgh, 232 ; at Leip-
ency proved by later research, 91; sig, ib.; friends at Munich, 233;
modern discoveries, 92; difference his return to England, 235; visit
between authentic and genuine, ib.; to Upsala and inspection of the
authority of 'first editions,' 93; Codex Argenteus, 236; death of
progress of error checked by print- his brother, ib. ; his theological
ing, 94; analytical treatment by studies, 237; works at German

subsequent critics of the text, ib. philology at Munich, ib.; at the
• Classical Museum,' the, started by Queen's Coronation at Guildhall,
Sir Cornewall Lewis, cxviii. 164 ib. ; revisit to Upsala and collation

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