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Leafits of the lower-leaves oblong-wedge-shaped, those of the upper elliptical, sharply serrated, toothed. Stipula, the lower with three or four awl-shaped teeth; the upper spear-shaped, entire. Bunches long. Flowers bent back, scattered. Pedicles short, hairy. Floral-leaves awlshaped, small, one at the base of each pedicle. Calyx one third the length of the blossom, clefts extending half way down, segments nearly equal. Woodw, Blossom yellow. (Stem about two feet high, branched, furrowed. When dried, this plant exhales a fragrant odour like that of Anthoxanthum. E.)
(A variety bearing white blossoms has been observed by Mr. Winch growing on Willington Ballast, Durham; and on the Ballast Hills below Gateshead. E.)
COMMON MELILOT, KING'S CLOVER, HART'S CLOVER. (Welsh: Meil lionen y ceirw. E.) Corn-fields, meadows, and ditch banks, in stiff soil. A. June-July.*
(2) Legume covered; many-seeded.
Heads globose: flowers somewhat stalked: legume four-seeded: stem creeping. E.)
Curt. 193-Fl. Dan. 990-E. Bot. 1769-Mich. 25. 3 and 4-Riv. Tetr. 17. 2, T. repens-Dod. 565-Lob. Obs. 493. 2, and Ic. ii. 29. 1-Ger. Em. 1185. 1-Park. 1110. 1—J. B. ii. 380. 3-H. Ox. ii. 12, row 1. 2.
(Stems six to eighteen inches long, solid; by which latter circumstance, according to Smith, it is essentially distinguished from T. hybridum of Linn. E.) Stipulæ in pairs, oval-spear-shaped, lengthened out into an awn. Leafits varying in shape, but generally oval and blunt, sharply serrated, with a strong mid-rib, and numerous branching ribs terminating in the serratures. Leaf-stalks and fruit-stalks long, upright, rising nearly at right angles from the stem. Flowers in a close head, upright, when shrivelling bent downwards. Pedicles short. Stipula small, awl-shaped, one to each pedicle. Calyx teeth nearly equal, the two upper rather longer, reddish. Blossom white. Standard oval. Woodw. Leafits inversely-heart-shaped, and egg-shaped. Calyx greenish white, with purple streaks. When the flowering is partly over, the heads assume a peculiar appearance, the florets diverging from the centre, spreading outwards and downwards like an umbrella.
Var. 2. Bloodwort. Leaves a deep purple.
Var. 3. Proliferous. Small heads of leaves growing out of the flowers.
This is more fragrant when dry than when green. (It was formerly considered emollient and digestive, and therefore used in fomentations and cataplasms, but it has been laid aside as too acrid and irritating. E.) A water distilled from the flowers possesses but little odour in itself, but improves the flavour of other substances. Horses are extremely fond of it; cows, goats, sheep, and swine eat it. (The capsules containing the seeds are so tough and adhesive, that even thrashing will not dislodge them; so that in samples of wheat, the wrinkled capsule is called the seed. Prof. Martyn. Mr. Holdich, in his Essay on the Weeds of Agriculture, asserts this to be the most pernicious seed in wheat, a few seeds communicating a very strong and disagreeable smell to the flour. In arable land, it cannot be too much guarded against, and ought never to be sown with seed corn. It should be sedulously rooted up by weeding in the spring, for where it has once got in the land, it propagates itself by scattering many seeds before the crop be ripe. It does not appear to have been cultivated in England. E.)
Canal between Limehouse and Bromley. Curtis.
(Var. 4. T. repens hybridum. Huds. T. hybridum. With. Ed. 3 and 4, but not of Linnæus. It is distinguished by its ascending and more branched stem.
Moist pastures near Peckham and Battersea. Hudson. E.)
WHITE TREFOIL. DUTCH CLOVER. (Welsh: Meillionen wen y waun.
(3) Calyx villous.
T. SUBTERRA'NEUM. Heads hairy; three or four-flowered: involucrum central, reflexed, rigid, stellate, inclosing the fruit.
Curt. 128-(E. Bot. 1048. E.)-Riv. Tetr. 17.2, T. subterraneum-Ray. 2-Barr. 881-H. Ox. ii. 14, row 1. 5.
The white filaments, which put forth from the extremities of the fruitstalks, resemble roots, but they do not penetrate the earth as supposed by Dillenius, but rise upwards, their ends expanding into little star-like points, and finally inclose the seed-vessels in a kind of prickly head. Curt. Stems (three to six inches long. E.) numerous, prostrate, disposed in a circle round the root. Stipula in pairs, oval-spear-shaped. Leafstalks long, downy. Leafits sessile, inversely, heart-shaped, blunt, obscurely serrated, downy, especially underneath. Fruit-stalks from the bosom of the leaves, the lower shorter, the upper as long as the leaves, with three or four flowers. Floral-leaves none. Calyx cylindrical, cloven half way down; segments nearly equal, bristle-shaped, fringed with soft hairs. Blossom white; standard oval, claw long and narrow. Woodw. Tube
* (Dutch Clover is so called from the seeds being usually imported from Holland; but as it is probable it might be raised as well in England, and the quantity required for annual sowing is prodigiously great, one house alone supplying forty or fifty tons, it must be highly desirable that such an article of commerce should be provided at home. E.) Horses, cows, and goats eat it. Sheep are not fond of it. Swine refuse it. Linn. (This ́species, being remarkably sensible to atmospheric changes, affords a good rustic hygrometer. The leaves are always relaxed and flaccid in dry weather, but erect in moist or rainy. E.) Wherever this plant abounds spontaneously, it is considered as an indication of the goodness of the soil. The richness of meadows and pastures is naturally owing to their abounding principally with the Trefoils, and others of the same class, with a due mixture of the more acceptable grasses. Pulteney's View. (On the soil of our moors, (in the north of England) being turned up for the first time, and lime applied, White Clover appears in abundance; a circumstance in no way satisfactorily accounted for, but which is known to take place in wastes both in Britain and North America. See Pursh's Flora Americana, ii. 477. Winch. In such situations the seed might have lain dormant a very great length of time, till stimulated into vegetation by the application of lime. Ashes have in the same manner been found suddenly to augment the growth of clover before scarcely observable, to the great surprize of farmers. Dutch Clover creeps on the ground and forms a fine bottom. It has not the property of blowing cattle in so great a degree as other sorts. Salisbury. Top dressings and frequent use of the roller encourage its growth wonderfully. Pure Clover may be very hurtful to sheep. Hort. Gram. liarly subject to depredation from the small weevil, Apion flavipes, which deposits its eggs in the heads of this species only. Kirby. The Welsh Apostle Maenwyn, better known as St. Patrick, landing near Wicklow, A. D. 433, on a mission from Pope Celestine, met with much opposition to his doctrine, till plucking a Trefoil, and thereby illustrating the mystery of the Trinity in Unity, his Pagan hearers are said to have become converts, and were baptized. Hence originated the custom of wearing the Shamrock, (a bunch of Trefoil) on the anniversary of that Saint; and hence has it become the national emblem of Ireland as is the Rose that of England, or the Thistle of Scotland. E.)
It is pecu
of the blossom very long. There is something so singular in this plant, that its economy merits further inquiry. The strong horny stellated substance which grows from the extremity of the fruit-stalk, stretching its rays outwards and downwards, incloses and presses the capsules to the ground, thus partially burying them. (Mr. G. E. Smith observes, that its seedlings are distinguished in winter by the varied pale and dark spotted pattern upon their leaves; and that upon the sandy ground below Folkstone church, this plant, with its singular stellated floralradicles, may be studied to advantage. E.)
SUBTERRANEOUS TREFOIL. (Welsh: Meillionen wen ymgydd. E.) Barren heaths and pastures in sandy or gravelly soil. About London, frequent. Gamlingay by the wind-mill; and near Whitewood, Cambridgshire. Between Eltham and Deptford, Ray. Bath Hills, near Bungay. Mr. Woodward. Mangotsfield Common, near Bath. Rev. G. Swayne. Salt marsh at Lymington, between the town and the salt pans. (On Sunderland Ballast Hills. Mr. Weighill. On the sandy pasture at the bottom of Bwlan farm, near the bridge which leads from it to Aberfraw Common, Anglesey. Welsh Bot. On the bank below the house called Avon Farm, near Keynsham, Somerset. E.) A. May-Aug. T. (GLOMERA'TUM. (Heads sessile, hemispherical, axillary, smooth: calyx furrowed: teeth heart-shaped, expanded, equal: stems prostrate. E.)
Curt. 227-(E. Bot. 1063. E.)-Barr. 882-Pluk. 113. 5.
Stems numerous, prostrate, four to seven inches long, scarce perceptibly downy. Stipula in pairs, oval-spear-shaped, taper-pointed, scored, smooth. Leaf-stalks furrowed above. Leaves alternate. Leafits nearly sessile, obtusely oval, or oblong-wedge-shaped, smooth on both sides, strongly ribbed, the ribs terminating in pointed serratures, scarcely distinguishable by the naked eye, in the youngest leaves only the mid-rib lengthened into a projecting point. Heads terminal, with a pair of stipulæ similar to, but broader than, those beneath. Calyx smooth, shorter than the blossom; teeth expanding, triangular, pointed but not rigid at the end. Blossom pale red. Standard spear-shaped, somewhat keeled. Wings and keel equal. Woodw.
SMOOTH ROUND-HEADED TREFOIL. Sandy meadows, pastures, and moist
T. SCA'BRUM. Heads sessile, lateral, egg-shaped segments of the calyx unequal, rigid, finally recurved: (stems procumbent. E.) Curt.-(E. Bot. 903. E.)-Barr. 870-Vaill. 33. 1-J. B. ii. 378. 4H. Ox. ii. 13. 10.
Whole plant harsh to the touch. Stems prostrate, four to seven inches long. Stipule oval-spear-shaped, terminated by an awn, scored with red lines. Leaf-stalks short. Leaves few. Leafits oblong-wedge-shaped, sessile. Calyx scored, hairy; teeth triangular, the lowermost long, expanding, sharp, and giving the plant its roughness. Blossom but little
longer than the calyx, whitish. Woodw. It is in its seeding state that the segments of the calyx are most remarkably reflexed.
(HARD-KNOTTED or ROUGH (from the roughness of the heads, but not peculiarly appropriate, TREFOIL. E.) Chalky and sandy pastures. Chalk hills near the Thames between Northfleet and Gravesend. Dillenius. Bath Hills, near Bungay. Mr. Woodward. Caister Common, near Norwich. Mr. Crowe. Wick Cliffs, near Bath. Mr. Swayne. (Tide Mill Dam, Liverpool. Dr. Bostock. On Snettisham Beach, and in an old chalk pit near Wells, Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. Bishop_Wearmouth Paddock. Mr. Weighell. Hill of Denbigh Castle. Mr. Dawson Turner. Bot. Guide. King's Park, Edinburgh. Dr. Greville. E.)
A. May-June. T. STRIATUM. Heads sessile, mostly lateral, egg-shaped: (calyx furrowed, hairy; with straight, bristle-shaped teeth. E.)
(Fl. Dan. 1171-E. Bot. 1843. E.)—Vaill. 33, 2.
(Plant soft to the touch. E.) Stems from six to eighteen inches high, mostly upright, sometimes declining, but never prostrate. Leaf-scales in pairs, oval, pointed, scored, very downy. Leaves alternate, distant, the lower on long, the upper on short leaf-stalks, the uppermost sessile, or nearly so. Leafits of the lower leaves oblong-wedgeshaped, of the upper spear-shaped, sessile, downy on both sides, ribs not strongly marked, serratures barely distinguishable with a glass. Heads oval, woolly, sometimes on short fruit-stalks, some terminal, but mostly in pairs. Calyx just shorter than the blossom, scores almost hid by long soft hairs; teeth nearly equal, straight, awlshaped, not stiff. Blossom pale red. Standard spear-shaped. Wings and keel equal. Woodw. The ribs upon the calyx, and its rounded nearly globular shape when ripe, readily distinguish this species.
SOFT-KNOTTED TREFOIL. (Welsh: Meillionen rychog. E.) Dry meadows
T. ARVEN'SE. Spikes extremely villous, oval; teeth of the calyx bristleshaped, equal, hairy, longer than the blossom.
Dicks. H. S.-Curt.-(E. Bot. 944. E.)-Dod. 577. 1-Lob. Obs. 498. 4, Ic. and ii. 39. 1-Ger. Em. 1193. 3-Park. 1107. 6-H. Ox. ii. 13. 8Fl. Dan. 724-Riv. Tetr. 15, Lagopus-Ger. 1023. 2. Barr. 901 and 902 -Matth. 983-Fuchs. 494-Trag. 595-Lonic. i. 106. 5—Blackw. 450. Whole plant villous. Stem upright, (six to twelve inches high, E.) cylindrical, firm, much branched. Stipula in pairs, spear-shaped, scored with red veins, and ending in an awn. Leaf-stalks very short. Leafits of the lower leaves elliptical, of the upper nearly strap-shaped, somewhat notched at the end, the mid-rib lengthened into a short point. Calyx reddish, longer than the blossom, scored; teeth bristle-shaped, nearly equal, fringed with long hairs. Woodw. (Blossoms pale red, minute. Spikes sometimes long and cylindrical, (whence its trivial name. E.) Calyx teeth pinky; the hairs when much maguified appear rough and knotty. E.)
Rev. S. Dickenson observes that it is highly aromatic when dried, and that it long retains its odour.
HARE'S-FOOT TREFOIL. (Welsh: Troed yr ysgyfarnog. E.) Sandy pastures and corn-fields. A. July-Aug.
Var. 2. Dwarf. Ray. 14. 2. (Densely silky. Sm. E.)
Root running deep. Stems trailing, one to three inches long. Fruit-stalks very short. Heads numerous, roundish. Blossoms white or pale fleshcoloured. Dill. in R. Syn.
Sea coast. Brackelsham, Sussex. Yarmouth Denes; Lowestoft, plentifully. Mr. Woodward. (Upon sand at New Romney, and near Sand wich. Mr. G. E. Smith. E.)
T. ME'DIUM. Spikes loose; blossom nearly regular; stipulæ awl-shaped, converging; stems zigzag, branched. Afzel
(Hort. Gram. E.)—Jacq. Austr. 386—E. Bot. 190—Fl. Dan. 662. (1273. Sm. E.)
Differs from T. pratense as follows: Leaves longer, more strongly ribbed, smooth above. Stipulæ spear-shaped, green, not awned. Haller. Leaves longer and narrower, and blossoms of a deeper colour than those of the cultivated Clover. Ray. (Heads of flowers larger. Hook. Vid. Afzelius. Linn. Tr. i. E.)
ZIGZAG TREfoil. (MARL CLOVER or Cow-GRASS, of Sinclair. Welsh: Meillionen wyrgam. E.) T. medium. Linn. T. alpestre. Huds. Lightf. Relh. T. flexuosum. Jacq. With. Ed. ii. Elevated pastures and sides of hedges. At the foot of the Highland mountains in moist and shady places. Lightfoot. (Road sides about Libberton, near Edinburgh. Dr. Greville. E.) In Skirrith and other mountainous woods and pastures in the North, plentifully. Curtis. High pastures, usually among bushes, and in woods and ditch banks. Bath Hills, near Bungay. Mr. Woodward. Plentifully in Shortwood, near Pucklechurch. Rev. G. Swayne. (In the Old Park near Beaumaris. Welsh Bot. Oversley Hill, and Bilsley Field, Warwickshire. Purton. Upon the boggy tract below the road behind Beachboro', towards Lyminge, Kent. Mr. G. E. Smith. E.) P. July.*
T. PRATEN'SE. Spikes crowded; blossoms unequal: calyx with four of the teeth equal; stipulæ awned; stems ascending. Afzel. (E. Bot. 1770. E.)-Fuchs. 817-Trag. 586-J. B. ii. 374—Ger. 1017. 1— Matth. 835-Riv. Tetr. 11. 1, Trifolium—Blackw. 20—Kniph. 1—Lonic. i. 104. 4.
Flowers upright, when out of blossom hanging down. leaves roundish, those of the upper oval, slightly green, with a whitish, angular mark in the centre.
Leafits of the lower downy, dark blackish Stipula, the upper
The true Marl Grass of the shops is the native T. pratense. Marl Grass was first cultivated by a farmer Smith, (I believe) of Somersetshire. See Billingsley's Agricultural Report for Somerset.) A circumstance which particularly distinguishes T. medium, is its propagating itself by root. Mr. Swayne. (Calculated from its creeping roots to last longer in the ground than T. pratense, but it is not yet cultivated. It does not possess the dangerous quality of causing cattle to be hove or blown, by eating it when fresh and green. Salisbury.
By actual experiment Mr. Sinclair proves the produce and nutritive qualities of this species to be decidedly inferior to the Broad-leaved Clover, T. pratense, but adds, that
though unfit for alternate husbandry, for permanent pasture on light soils its value is undoubtedly considerable. Hares and rabbits are very fond of this Clover, selecting it from other kinds. Hort. Gram. E.)