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on my Bible, and on some photographs had come out of Russia with me after that I wished to take with me.
much suffering and imprisonment. The I cannot tell you all the details of my tears were rolling down her cheeks. journey out of Russia, for it is a long She buried her face on my shoulder story. About two in the afternoon of and sobbed out in a transport of joy, April 13, we finally approached the 'O Jean, Jean, the tartan breeks, the point near the frontier where persons tartan breeks!' and luggage were to be examined. The There is little more to tell. From the examination was very thorough: all the frontier we were taken to Terioki on the women were undressed, their shoes and Gulf of Finland, where we were all stockings taken off, and even their hair examined by a doctor and detained in taken down. Even so, many managed quarantine for a month. At the end of to smuggle their diamonds through, and the month we were taken to Helsingfors, I was able to slip into my box an old the seaport of Finland, and there emglove containing a pair of large solitaire barked on the transport Dongola for diamond earrings belonging to a friend. Southampton. I was fortunate in being one of the last Just outside of London was a home to be examined, and so I was allowed to for Russian refugees. To this home we pass more easily.
were all taken, and here I remained for After the examination we were taken some weeks until I could inquire about by a train a little farther, to the frontier my Scottish relatives and friends. I line, which is determined by a swift and had not heard from them for years, and narrow running stream. It is utterly undoubtedly some of the letters they impossible to describe our feelings as wrote to me were among the thousands we stepped from the bridge on the other that were stacked in a huge pile in the side and stood once again on free soil. courtyard of the General Post Office in Many hearts were full of thankfulness Petrograd and eventually burned. A to God, who had delivered us from the small box contained all my earthly power and tyranny of the Bolsheviki. possessions, and, as I looked at it, I came It was difficult to realize the fact that more and more to realize the uncer. now they could no longer harm us, and tainty of riches and the need of setting we need have no more fears, or nights of our affections on things above. After terror when sleep forsook our eyes from several months I finally received my the dread of arrest. When we crossed naturalization papers and was again a the frontier, we were greeted by mem- British subject; and in January, 1921, I bers of the British Red Cross, who con- left England for America, to visit my gratulated us warmly on our escape. only brother in far-off Montana. With them were some British and Irish Here, amid the changing majesty of officers who had just been released from these mountains, my mind often turns prisons in Moscow. One of their num- back to dear Russia, and the tears fill ber, belonging to a Highland regiment, my eyes. I spent many years there in a wore tartan; and when I saw this bit of happy home; and the soil in which I transplanted Scotland, my eyes filled laid my loved ones to rest will ever be with tears and my weak knees grew sacred. Now the newspapers are bringweaker with emotion. I doubt if the ing tales of more suffering and more pipes of Lucknow created greater emo- famine in that unhappy country. May tion in any breast than did that plaid the good God save Russia, and guide in mine.
the hearts and hands that would rescue I turned to Janet MacDonald, who her and bring her out of her distress!
A SUGGESTION ON COAL
BY WALTER L. BALLOU
In his article ‘What Shall We Do in order to meet the competition from About Coal?' in the September Atlan- another operator who is doing the same tic, Arthur E. Suffern has suggested a thing. He cannot mine clean,' because remedy through gradual extension of the cost of such mining will not permit government control over the waste in him to meet the competition of the pronatural resources and man-power which ducer who does not mine clean. present mining methods entail. It is to The result is to be found in England, be doubted whether many who are con- where to-day the pits have been worked versant with the industry will quarrel far back, and each year sees an added with his premise; there is every reason cost of production, making more diffito know that there are many who, hav- cult the competition that the British ing the best interest of the industry at producer has to meet. It is true that, if heart, will quarrel with his suggested present mining methods continue in this remedy. Nor is the quarrel prompted country unchecked, America will eventexclusively by selfish motives - pastually have to face the same problem. . experience has convinced many of the There is no question as to the overinadequate costliness of the Govern- production of coal in the country, ment's attempt to control the industry. caused by an over-development of
It is a truism that the history of mines. That, too, is the result of the American development has been the basis of open competition that obtains. history of wasted natural resources. Good years in the industry call forth Man seldom thinks of conservation the opening of new mines, or the reuntil the approach of total consump- opening of old ones that have been idle tion of a natural resource prompts him during dull years. What control, other to do so. This is true of forests, agri- than through government ownership, cultural resources, and mines. It is can the Government exercise, which true of man-power and the potential will check the natural effort of one man possibilities of man-power, to such an to make money in a market where othextent, that it has been said that in its
ers are making it? treatment of men America is to-day Admitting the evil, we believe there wasting her greatest natural resource. is a solution which, while at the further
Conservation is out of the question end of the social pole, will come nearer without the moral support of the public to being a solution than that proposed that consumes the product to be con- by Mr. Suffern. Let us first consider served. As long as an industry dealing some of the evils which might be exwith a natural resource is operated on a pected to accompany government concompetitive basis, so long must waste trol, and then state the suggestion. be the key-note of operation. One During the 'tight' coal market of the mine-operator is forced, for instance, to summer of 1920, various attempts at mine the cream of his potential output, control were made by the Government,
directed chiefly toward forcing lower rather than more, conservation of both prices. These were attempted through money and good-will. regulation of the car-supply by priority That control is necessary before conorders favoring coal-movements. One servation can be accomplished is evipriority order alone, however, which in dent, since conservation means control. effect permitted the abrogation of con- May we suggest that that control can tracts with dock operators in the north- best be effected by increasing industry west, if, in fact, it did not force that control, rather than lessening it through abrogation, - resulted in adding ap the introduction of government control? proximately $13,000,000 to the fuel- Railroad heads to-day are confrontbill of that section, without getting a ed by the evils of divided authority as pound more coal moved into the terri- the result of a paternalistic attitude tory than would have moved without on the part of Government. They are the orders. Other priority orders, in- much in the state in which Browntended to make possible greater pro- ing's Saul found himself, — death duction, resulted in a dispersion of gone, life not come,' – unable to put available equipment to an extent which into effect those economies that are esmilitated against the object in view. sential if railroad transportation is to
As to control by the Government in recover from its present chaotic condiother industries, the railroads and the tion. Is it not reasonable to believe merchant marine are eloquent of what that an extension of control over coal to waste is possible and actual under such government agencies would have a simdirection. Not only was there an actual ilar result in this industry? loss of millions of dollars during federal The history of what is commonly operation of the roads, but the loyalty called 'big business' has been marked of the railroad men was squandered to by a degree of conservation that has not an almost irremediable extent. Re- been found in other forms of industrial cent figures given out by the present arrangement. Whether we take the head of the Shipping Board show that packing industry, the steel industry, or the loss in that venture alone ran high- the petroleum industry, the gathering er than $1,000,000 daily during the last of control into a few hands has made fiscal year of operation.
possible a saving and elimination of Nor is this condition one that is due waste that never could have existed, and to questionable motives or willful in- did not exist, under open competition tent. Government control lacks that between hundreds and thousands of personal interest which nature has small firms and individuals. 'Big busidecreed must underlie conservation. ness' not only has adopted modern There is a lack of centralization of re methods of production, accounting, sponsibility that no idealism of good in- marketing, and labor-adjusting,' but tent can offset. Delegation of authority has developed raw natural resources and responsibility carries with it a cost to the highest degree, bringing forth which prohibits conservation as it fos- by-products in profusion out of what ters waste. In New Zealand, where under former management had been government operation of mining in the waste. Through maximum production, coal-industry has been tried, it has been which this control fostered, prices have found that production costs were high- been frequently lowered as compared er and labor troubles greater and more with prices under competitive condifrequent than under private operation. tions. Monopoly, with all it is frequentThe experiment has resulted in less, ly said to imply, has been a benefactor to the public as well as to the industry ties of evils and dangers; but it is to be in which it is born.
doubted whether these would be as In the coal-mining industry such a great, from the public's standpoint, as monopoly would have even greater pos
would the waste and inadequacy of sibilities for good than in most other in- government control. The public has dustries. Present overdevelopment in not forgotten that heatless days and coal lands has resulted in wasteful dis- lightless nights were never known outpersion of railroad equipment, increase side of federal control of coal, and that ing the cost of transportation of fuel, they happened then even after warand, in times of emergency, cutting inconveniences were past. It may have down the potential haulage of the forgotten that it was government interroads. Were the coal lands of the coun- ference that gave the union miners a try in the hands of a comparatively few wage-rate which is largely responsible for well-financed corporations, new lands the present high price of fuel; and that it would be held in reserve while old ones was government operation of the railwere being developed along modern roads which brought about freightscientific lines. Without the struggle rates on coal that are the other real facthat now is frequently necessary in the tor in present coal prices. It finds it attempt to meet necessary overhead possible under monopolistic conditions expenses, it would be possible to in- in the petroleum field to buy gasoline at stall permanent equipment needed for a satisfactory price and with satisfaceconomic mining; the operator would tory service. It has voiced its sentiknow that he could depreciate that ments in favor of private control of priequipment on a producing-time, rather vate business, and it stands ready, we than on a largely idle-time, basis, and believe, to back that expression, if need would not feel the necessity to recover be, by revoking its presidential choice his investment in a year or two. of 1920 if the present administration
Such control would also tend to fails to deliver on its pledge. minimize the waste in man-power that
The Government has been far more accompanies present methods. Intro- successful in coping with the evils of duction of modern machinery would be private monopolistic tendencies than it one factor; but the elimination of hun- has been in attempts at direct control dreds of mines from operation would in of an industry. In those fields where a itself release thousands of men from few well-financed firms have gained the industry for other employment, and control of the output, - as in Frankat the same time tend to increase the lin County, Illinois, for instance, annual working time of those who re stability of policy tending toward effimained. Conservation would be accom- ciency is to be noted, as well as a staplished also in the selling end of the bility of price in what may be called industry, since duplication of merchan- runaway markets. Is it not reasonable dizing forces would be unnecessary. to suggest that an expansion of this
It is true that, as in other industries, control, rather than that of Governsuch concentration in a small circle of ment, may in the end prove the solucontrol of the vast coal resources of the tion of the problem, and result in a real country would carry with it possibili- conservation of coal?
THE CONTRIBUTORS' CLUB
MY WIFE'S ADDRESS-BOOK
Don't you find it, dear?' inquired
Cynthia with a note of gentle surprise. I WONDER whether other women's 'Perhaps you had better let me look. address-books are like Cynthia's. Hers You can never seem to learn my system defies definition: it cannot be indexed or of registration.' codified, but must be interpreted by its When the mystic volume was in her amazing creator. To give an idea of the hands, she appeared to go into a trance, system by which it has been compiled and with eyes closed muttered, 'Let me
' I must quote a specific instance. see now, would it be under W for
The other day a lady who was calling Washerwoman? No. Perhaps it might on my wife inquired whether she could be under G for General Housework recommend a good laundress.
don't you remember, Algernon, how ‘Oh, certainly!' cried the practical cleverly Nora was always able to do Cynthia, 'I always keep the names and things that we did n't want her to do? addresses of everyone who can possibly Here are the G's, – let me see, — Gasbe useful to anyone. Algernon,' she man, Gymnasium teacher, Mrs. Gorcalled out to me as I was trying to read don, Glove Cleansing, Miss Grant, Oh,
paper in the next room, 'just look in here we are! General Housework! Oh, my book of Social and Domestic Emer- no, that is n't Housework, it's General gencies and tell me Nora Mahoney's Houston - don't you remember that address. It is something River Street.' delightful man with the military mous
Obediently I took up the little red tache we met in Virginia? He gave me book with its alphabetical pages, and his card, and I just jotted his name turning to the M's, ran my finger down down in my address-book. I put him the list, encountering on the way an among the G's because I knew that alien group of P's who had somehow though I might forget his name, I strayed into the wrong fold. There was should never forget that he was a Genno Mahoney among them. But I knew eral; so here he is, just where he belongs some of my wife's mental processes, only, where is Nora?' and, nothing daunted, I turned to the She knit her brow for an instant and N's, remembering that Cynthia had then unraveled it hastily. Now I reonce dropped the remark that very few member! How stupid of me to forget of the people she had ever employed the workings of my own mind! I always seemed to have last names. There was used to think that Nora's name was no Nora among the Nightwatchmen, Agnes, - it's so exactly the same kind the Nurses, the Nellys, and the Neds. of a name, - and I probably put her 'Is your name M or N?'I murmured as down under A, thinking that is where I abandoned both initials and turned to I should look for her. Oh, yes, here she L for Laundress. Again I was thwarted, is!' she called to her patiently waiting but my hunting-blood was stirred, and friend. 'She leads off the A's, like Abou I feverishly, but vainly, sought the Ben Adhem. Nora Mahoney, 18 Brook needle of a Nora in the haystack of Street - just what I told you, except Hired Help
that I thought it was River Street.'