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gume slightly compressed, bowed inwards. St. Leafits set with very fine silvery hairs. Blossom, standard very slightly notched at the end, marked with crimson lines, the claw yellowish brown; wings white, with a reddish tinge; keel pale straw colour. Seeds six. A beautiful plant, and not uncommon on dry heaths and downs; (varying from one inch to a foot in the extent of its branches: and remarkable for its seed-vessel, (lomentum of Willdenow, as being articulate, each cell containing one seed, and separating transversely at the joint) resembling a bird's foot. E.)
Var. 2. Flowers entirely yellow. Each leafit with a dark purple blotch.
BIRD'S-FOOT. (Welsh: Troed yr aderyn cyffredin. E.) Sandy banks,
Stems several, ascending, a span high, smooth. Stipule rather spreading. Leafits fifteen, oval-strap-shaped, expanding, rather firm in texture. Fruit-stalks between angular and scored, longer than the leaves, from the bosom of the upper leaves two or three. Umbel orbicular, with eight flowers. Blossoms standard somewhat arched, striated, underneath, not bent back at the edges except at the base, which is indented, forming a small cavity on each side. Linn. Root thick, woody. Stipula in pairs, oval, blunt. Leafits seldom more than six pairs, opposite, heart-shaped, or elliptical and indented. Flowers six to ten, disposed in a circle round the summit of the fruit-stalk, after flowering bent down. Pedicles slightly hairy, very short. Woodw. Plant sometimes quite free from hairs. Blossom dull yellow, with brownish streaks. (Legumes above an inch long. E.)
TUFTED HORSE-SHOE VETCH. Meadows and pastures in calcareous soil. Chalky grounds about Gogmagog Hills; between Northfleet and Gravesend; Kent, Surrey, and Bedfordshire. Limestone rocks, about Malham, Settle, Gigglewick, Kilnsay, and Wharf, Yorkshire. South side of Bredon Hill, Worcestershire, below the camp. Nash. Swaffham, Norfolk. Mr. Woodward. On the edge of the precipice all along Shell with Hill. Mr. Jackson. On Wick Cliffs in great plenty, and on St. Vincent's Rocks. Rev. G. Swayne. On the high grounds North of Marlborough. (Under Dover cliffs. Mr. W. Christy. On Cronkley Fell, at an elevation of above 1,500 feet. Mr. Winch. About Dundonald castle, near Ayr. Mr. Reid. Hook. Scot. E.) P. May-Aug.
(From laws, a horse; and xpeñis, a shoe; to which the figure of the legume may be compared, E.)
HEDYS'ARUM.* Keel broad and blunt: legume compressed, jointed, one seed in each joint.
H. ONO'BRYCHIS. Leaves winged: legume with one sced, prickly: wings long as the calyx: stem elongated.
Dicks. H. S.-Kniph. 8-Jacq. Austr. 352-E. Bot. 96-Riv. Tetr. 2. Onobrychis-J. B. ii. 335. 2-Ger. 1063. 1-Clus. ii. 232. 2-Dod. 548. 2 -Lob. Obs. 527. 1, and Ic. ii. 81. 1—Ger. Em. 1243, 1-Park. 1082. 1. (A very showy plant. E.) Stems cylindrical, scored, (two or three feet long. E.); at first trailing, but when in flower ascending. Stipula in pairs, oval-spear-shaped, terminated by a long point, membranous at the edges, sometimes fringed with a few hairs. Leaf-stalks furrowed above, slightly hairy. Leafits eight to ten pair, with an odd one; those of the lower leaves elliptical, of the upper spear-shaped, or strap-spear-shaped, all with projecting points at the end, the uppermost with the mid-rib beneath and edges fringed. Fruit-stalks long, slightly hairy.. Bunches long, closely tiled upwards. Flowers numerous. Floral-leaves awlshaped, longer than the pedicles. Calyx one fourth the length of the blossom. Woodw. Calyx, segments spear-shaped, hairy, the two upper distant, the lowermost the shortest. Blossom standard egg-shaped, with a little tooth in the notch at the end, red in the middle, with eight or ten deeper coloured lines, white at the edges, and mottled with red, the lines on the outside fainter, but more numerous; wings very small, not half the length of the calyx, spear-shaped, red and white; keel reddish, with deeper coloured lines. Legume oblong, hairy.
SAINTFOIN. COCK'S-HEAD. (Welsh: Codawg. E.) Meadows and pastures, particularly in chalky soils, or magnesian limestone. Burnham, Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. Gogmagog Hills, near Cambridge. Mr. Woodward. Wick Cliffs, near Bath. Mr. Swayne. (On Harton-Down Hill, and in fields near Ryhope, Durham. Mr. Winch; from which the farmers, who in that neighbourhood cultivate a sterile calcareous soil, might take a profitable hint. About Grafton and Bilsley, Warwickshire. Purton. In a park between Pentraeth and Llanddyfnan, Anglesey. Welsh Bot. Road side about half way between Teignmouth and Torquay. E.) Wilts, and the higher grounds of Gloucestershire, frequent, both wild and cultivated. P. June-July.t
Caps. generally two-celled; gibbous: the
solitary filaments cylindrical.
(1) Stems trailing, leafy.
A. HYPOGLOT TIs. Stem prostrate: flowers in roundish heads : legumes egg-shaped, compressed, hairy, grooved, the point reflexed: leafits blunt.
(From us, sweet; and apo, perfume; certain species exhaling an agreeable scent.
+ This is cultivated like clover for feeding cattle, and is particularly advantageous in dry hilly situations, and chalky soils, (being equally valuable both green and in bay. In the south of England, Mr. Salisbury states it is the life and support of the upland farmer. Mr. Sinclair proves that for sheep especially, it is more economical than turnips. For various details respecting its uses and culture, see Young's Annals, Hort. Gram., &c. E.) (From aστpayaños, a bone of the foot; which the legume of this plant somewhat resembles. E.)
Dicks. H. S.-E. Bot. 274-Ray 12. 3—Fl. Dan. 614. Stems (three to six or nine inches long, E.) weak, as many as six or upwards, towards the base lying close to the ground, the heads of flowers rise up at some distance from the root, as if without any leaves or stems belonging to them. Leafits six to twelve pair, with an odd one elliptical, or spear-shaped, hairy, especially on the upper side, opposite. Leafstalks hairy, furrowed. Stipule egg-spear-shaped, sessile, in pairs, fringed. Fruit-stalks mostly from near the ends of the branches, ascending, larger than the leaf-stalks, about as long as the leaves, hairy, hairs white towards the base, black above. Flowers five to six, rarely more, in a close head, on short pedicles. Floral-leaves oval-spear-shaped, one to each pedicle. Calyx beset with black hairs; teeth short, nearly equal. Blossom bluish purple, sometimes white. Woodw. Dr. Afzelius first satisfied me that what had been taken for A. arenarius by Hudson, Lightfoot, and Relhan, was A. hypoglottis of Linn. Mant. which information is since confirmed by specimens received from Professor Thunberg. PURPLE MOUNTAIN MILK VETCH or COCK'S-HEAD. A. Danicus. Oed. Retz. With. Ed. ii. Sandy and chalky meadows and pastures. Gogmagog Hills, Newmarket and Royston Heaths. Ray. About Hazlewood, Yorkshire; Pigburn Fields, near Doncaster. Richardson. Hills in the King's Park, Edinburgh; sands of Musselburgh; Hill of Moncrief, near Perth; and York cascade at the Duke of Athol's seat at Blair. Lightfoot. Side of Bredon Hill, Worcestershire, near the camp. Nash. About Thorp-Arch, Yorkshire. Mr. Wood. Swaffham Heath, Norfolk; Hills near Dunstable. Mr. Woodward. Coast of Augus-shire, plentiful. Mr. Brown. (On the Links at Tynemouth; Dunstanburgh; Holy Island; and on Ratcliff Crag, Northumberland. Winch. E.) P. June-July. A. GLYCYPHYLLOS. Stems prostrate: legumes obscurely triangular, incurved leaves longer than the fruit-stalks: leafits oval.
Dicks. H. S.-E. Bot. 203-Fl. Dan. 1108-Riv. Tetr. 103, Astragalus— Kniph. 3-Trag. 599-J. B. ii. 330-Clus. ii. 233. 1-Lob. Obs. 526. 1, and Ic. ii. 80. 1-Ger. Em. 1233. 2 – H. Ox. ii. 9. 8.
Stems (two or three feet long, E.) much branched, smooth. Leaves alternate. Leafits usually in five pairs, with an odd one, mostly opposite, sessile, or on very short foot-stalks, smooth, very entire. Leaf-stalks furrowed above. Fruit-stalks from the bosom of the leaves. Flowers greenish yellow, numerous, in a close bunch, on short pedicles. Stipula awlshaped, one at the base of each pedicle. Woodw. Leaves longer than the fruit-stalks. Leafits rather pointed, slightly hairy underneath. Floralleaves very slender, as long as the calyx. Pollen orange-coloured. (Legume about an inch long. E.)
(SWEET MILK VETCH. E.) WILD LIQUORICE. Meadows, pastures and ditch-banks, especially in a calcareous soil. About Charlton, (and in a wood, near Sceene Farm, Cheriton. Hutchinson, in Smith's Obs. E.) Kent. In the ditch of Northampton Castle. Mr. Wood. Near Diss, Norfolk, and Coddenham, Suffolk; in Huntingdonshire. Mr. Woodward. Baydales, Darlington. Mr. Robson. Many places on the coast between Nether Cramond, and Queensferry. Maughan, in Grey. Edin. On the banks of Wear, near Durham; and Tyne, above Ovingham. Mr. Winch. Oversley and Grafton, Warwickshire; Cleve Hill. Worcestershire; Buck Orchard, Hords Park, Salop. Purton. E.) P. June-July.*
(From the resemblance of a cluster of the pods to the fingers of an open hand, this plant has been called Ladies-fingers; or Crow-toes from their fancied similitude
(2) Stalk bare, without a leafy stem.
A. URALEN'SIS, (Stemless flower-stalk upright, longer than the leaves: legumes awl-shaped, villous, upright: leafits silky. E.) Jacq. Ic. i.-(E. Bot. 466. E.)—Lightf. 17. at p. 401-Hall. It. Helv. 2. 1, in Opusc. at p. 308, and Stirp. 5. 3, at p. 155, and Hist. 14. 3, at 1. p. 195. Leafits twenty to thirty. Spike short, rather oblong. Flowers sessile, Calyx egg-shaped, inflated; teeth short. Blossom purple or violet, rarely white. Whole plant, the blossoms excepted, covered with white shining soft hairs. Leaf-stalk surrounded at the base with spear-shaped withered scales. Leafits oval, oval-spear-shaped, and spear-shaped, with an odd one. Fruit-stalks much thicker than the leaf-stalks, but little longer than the leaves. Flowers eight or ten, crowded. Floral-leaves, the lowest longer, the rest shorter than the calyx. Woodw.
(HAIRY MOUNTAIN MILK VETCH. E.) Mountainous and alpine pastures in Scotland. Cromarty, and at the Bay of Farr. Mr. Robertson. On Carn-dearg, one of the lower heads of Ben Squilert, a high mountain of Glen Creran, in Upper Lorn, in a light sandy soil. Dr. Stuart. (On the top of North Queen's Ferry-hill, Fifeshire, but not so large as on Ben Lawers, where it was first observed by Mr. Don. Mr. Brown. E.)
A. CAMPES'TRIS. Stem none: stalk ascending: calyx hairy: leafits spear-shaped, acute: legumes hairy, inflated, erect: leafits somewhat hairy.
E. Bot. 2522-Fl. Dan. 1041.
Stalk sometimes decumbent. Flowers cream-coloured, or buff, with more or less of a purple tinge on the keel and wings. Leafits more or less silky. Legume more egg-shaped and inflated than in A. uralensis, covered with short, spreading, black as well as white hairs.
YELLOWISH MOUNTAIN MILK VETCH. A. campestris. Linn. Willd. A.uralensis. Oed. Discovered by Mr. G. Don, in great abundance, on a rock on one of the mountains at the head of Clova, Angus-shire, near the White Water. P. July-E. Bot. E.). TRIFO'LIUM.* Flowers mostly capitate: Capsule or Legume scarcely longer than the calyx; not opening, but falling off entire.†
to the toes of that bird. The more proper English name has been derived from its being supposed to increase the quantity of rich milk in cows feeding on it. It has the advantage of growing on the poorest soil, even on obdurate clays, where scarcely any other plant will vegetate. It will grow as tall as clover, and make exceedingly fine hay, though scarcely attaining perfection the first few years. When fully established, it produces annually a larger supply of fodder. It is peculiarly eligible in very poor lands; but, advancing slowly after once cut, it is greatly inferior to clover. The sweetish taste of the leaves is said to change on the palate to a disagreeable bitter. Swine refuse it. E.)
* (From Tug three; and puxor, a leaf; descriptive of its ternate leaves. E.) +(Sir H. Davy has shown that the nutriment of Clover contains a greater proportion of bitter extractive and saline matter than the proper grasses; and that when pure Clover hay is to be mixed as fodder, it should be with summer hay rather than after-math hay. Agric. Chem. The flowers of all the species, dried and powdered, may be made into bread, which, in times of scareity, has preserved the inhabitants of less hospitable climates from perishing. Trefoils may also be deemed the husbandman's weather-glass, always cor
(1) MELILOTS. Capsule naked, one-celled, containing several seeds. T. ORNITHOPODIOI'DES. Capsules eight-seeded, mostly three together, twice as long as the calyx: stems declining.
Curt. 124-Fl. Dan. 368-(E. Bot. 1047. E.)-Ray 14, 1, at p. 332Pluk. 68. 1.
Stems prostrate, two to five inches long, disposed in a circular manner. Leafits three, sessile, inversely heart-shaped, sharply and distantly serrated. Leaf-stalks long, slender. Stipule spear-shaped, sharply pointed, large, in pairs at the base of the leaf-stalks. Fruit-salks axillary, much shorter than the leaf-stalks. Flowers from one to four, but usually two on a fruit-stalk, parallel to each other. Calyx more than half the length of the blossom, pale green, with deeper lines, cloven half-way down; segments nearly equal, awl-shaped. Blossom pale red. Legumes short, thick, terminated by a short point turned downwards, which gives them something of the appearance of a bird's claw. Woodw. Root fibrous, furnished with small fleshy knobs, as in Vicia lathyroides and others of this Class, apparently to resist accidental drought, during summer. E. Bot. E.)
BIRD'S-FOOT TREFOIL. (Welsh: Corfeillionen wen. Trigonella. De Cand., but not precisely corresponding with any known genus. E.) In fine short dry sandy pastures and meadows, and amongst corn, (but not readily perceived without near inspection. E.) Half a mile from Tadcaster, towards Sherborn; near Oxford; Tolesbury, Essex, on sandy-banks by the sea-side. Ray. Tothill Fields, Westminster. Doody. Blackheath, near London. About Marazion and Penzance, Cornwall. Hudson. Moushold Heath, near Norwich. Mr. Pitchford. On Henllan hill, near Garn, Denbighshire. Mr. Griffith. Near the boat-house Sandgate, Kent. Mr. J. E. Smith. On the Green at Beaumaris. Welsh. Bot. Fisherrow and Musselburgh Links. Maughan, in Grev. Edin. E.) A. June-July.
(T. OFFICINALE. Capsules in unilateral bunches, mostly two-seeded, hairy, wrinkled, stem upright. E.)
Kniph. 7-Fl. Dan. 934-(E. Bot. 1340. E.)-Gmel. iv. 7-Sheldr: 72, Common Melilot-Ludw. 113-Dod. 567. 2-Lob. Obs. 501. 2, and Ic. ii. 43. 2-Ger. Em. 1205. 4-Park. 719. 1. 2—Ger. 1034. 3-Riv. Tetr. 6, Melilotus-Blackw. 80-Matth. 1162-Trag. 591—H. Ox. ii. 16, row 2.2 -Fuchs. 749-J. B. ii. 370-Ger. 1034. 4-Lonic. i. 106. 1.
tracting their leaves when storms impend. The different kinds exhibit a striking exemplifi. cation of spontaneous movement in vegetables, both leaves and flowers appearing to court the light with avidity, by regularly following the course of the sun. They afford nourishment and protection to various insects, among which will be found Apion flavifemoratum, A. Melilotum, A. vicinum, A. Loti, A. assimile, Lycana Idas and Alsus, Geometra clathrata and retata, Papilio Cinxia, and Phalana Fascelina; also the caterpillar of Phalana (Bombyx) Trifolii, whose pupa is sometimes surreptitiously occupied by the Ichneumon chrysopus, which rests therein till matured. Vid. Linn. Tr. v. iii. t. 2. The under surface of the leaves of several species of Trifolium are liable to be infested with minute black spots, which prove to be Polythrincium Trifolii, Gret. Scot. Crypt. 216., and under the microscope are each found to consist of "little roundish tufts of filaments, densely crowded, semi-transparent, erect, simple, with numerous articulations; sporidia two-celled, scattered among the filaments," E.)