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ing up the report on these points, relieves his mind from the dryness of detail by a touch of satire not uncongenial to him. He observes in the name of the Commissioners that the principle of giving a boy an exhibition on the mere certificate of the examiners that he is not absolutely unfit to hold it, is to us a novel one;" and that “to bestow a sum of money upon a young man as a reward for having obtained a considerable addition to his income, is a proceeding the reasons of which are not self-evident."
School Hours-Recreation. The school hours have been reduced from eight to six, an interval of only half an hour being allowed between the morning and after noon session-which is too short for lunch and play. For boys coming from a distance a mid-day meal on the premises should be provided, and for all pupils, opportunities of out-door recreation in the intervals of school should be secured.
Discipline. The relations of boys to each other and to the masters in a dayschool are much simpler than in a boarding school.
The same writer in Blackwood's Magazine, (for October, 1864, above quotedo) on this point of discipline, observes:
“In some points St. Paul's is what many parents would consider a model school. There is no fagging, and no flogging. “That truly British institution, the rod,” is, to Mr. Commissioner Vaughan's astonishment, uuknown in those happy precincts. There is only its weak substitute, the cane. Even that instrument, however, in able hands, bad been made in former times to do a good deal of duty. Now, only six formal cuts are administered, always on the hand; but when the present head master first entered upon his duties, he found a good deal of what cricketers call "lively hitting to all parts of the field " going on“especially about the legs and back;" so much so, that "the noise alone formed a great obstruction to the progress of the school duties." The reason why the young Paulines are neither fagged nor birched lies in the fact of the school being exclusively a day school. When boys only associate with each other in the school room, under the immediate eye of the masters, and separate immediately afterward for their several homes, any system of fagging would be neither possible nor desirable; and any exceptional instances of the kind the master would very properly check: so also, having little or no connection with the school except during lesson hours, the only offenses which usually come under the master's eye are those of idleness or disorder; the moral discipline of the boys must be supposed to rest wholly with the parents, and those graver moral offenses, to which the punishment of flogging in most public schools is now almost exclusively confined, can very rarely come under the master's cognizance. Of course, a mere day school education in a city like London, and where the boys, as at St. Paul's, spend perhaps two hours of the day in going and returning from school, with an additional hour's break in the middle of the day, when they are allowed to go wherever they please to get their lunch or dinner, is liable to the serious objection that the gravest moral misconduct may go on without either master or parent being aware of it. In fact, Dr. Kynaston fairly disclaims for himself any real responsibility for his scholars in any respect except their school work; "he has not an opportunity of observing the moral conduct of the boys, except in their general propriety of demeanor, and in matters of discipline between the master and the boys." This, with the want of social intercourse in the boarding house and the play ground, which has been already noticed, is the point in which London day school life falls so far short of the best public school training. Such school friendships as are formed, depend, it is confessed, somewhat on the accident of "going home the same way," or some other chance association. Yet with all these disadvantages, one is pleased as well as surprised to find that it used to be said of the Paulines at the universities, that they "hung together more than other schools;" though it was "perhaps because they went up only three or four together, not like a large school, where they send up thirty or forty."
Religious Observances and Instruction. The chapel provided by the founder was consumed in the great fire and was not restored, and the chaplain was converted into an assistant master. The observances originally required were, (1.). that every child on entering the school shall salute the child Jesus, an image of whom well sculptured, stood at the upper end of the room; (2.) that at the time of the "saving," (elevation of the Host,) in the adjoining chapel, every child should remain kneeling; and (3.) that thrice in a day, (morning, noon, and evening,) they shall say the prayers duly prescribed. At present, at the beginning and ending of each school time, Latin prayers, including two of Erasmus's, are read by the captain. The Greek Testament is read, and certain scripture lessons got. But the boys depend on their parents and religious patrons for their religious education. Boys of all denominations are admitted provided they can produce certificates of baptism.
School Terms and Holidays. The school terms occupy forty weeks, and half holidays are Wednesdays and Saturdays, and whole holidays are Shrove Tuesday, Ash Wednesday, Queen's Birthday, Coronation Day, Fawkes' DayFifth of November, and Lord Mayor's Day, and such other days as are commanded by the sovereign, or a bishop.
Results as to Scholarship. The number of boys leaving for the universities is not more than five or six annually, and these principally to Cambridge. And while scholarships, prizes and other distinctions are won by Paulines, the Com." misssioners think "that much more ought to be done." The paucity of Fellowship, obtained at Trinity as compared with the Scholarships, seems to prove that first-rate attainments are at present rare, and confirms us in the view we have already expressed, of the necessity for a more effective and vigorous competition, and a better system of admission to the school. It is certain that the founder looked for great literary and educational results, and in past times his hopes were not disappointed. But of late years the school appears to have contributed but little to the educating body of either university, or to the wis. dom of public schools, or the military service of the country.
Proposals for Improvement. The Commissioners recommend the sale of the present site, where the noise of the traffic seriously interrupts the work of the school, and affects unfavorably the health of the boys, and the erection of better and larger accommodations within the metropolitan district, so as to realize the design of Dean Colet, for a day-school for the dwellers in London, which might and ought to become the first in the city, and one of the first in Great Britain. To the school “the present system of admission by nomination should be aban. doned, and the foundation thrown open, as at Eaton and Winchester, to per. fectly unrestricted competition. Until this is done, St. Paul will not take that rank among schools which its founder designed, and which it can actually possess." They recommend a radical change in the Governing Body, and investing the high master with the power of appointing and dismissing all the assist. ant mastors; and that the choice of masters be not restricted to former Paul. ines, nor to particular colleges.
As guardians indeed of the school property, the Court of Assistants appear as we have already remarked, to bave performed their duty both honorably and efficiently; nor are we disposed to criticise too severely their distribution of its annual income, though we may think that in some important particulars its ample funds might have been, not more honestly, but more wisely, applied. But the administration of the school property is one thing, the government of the school is another; and assuredly a body constituted as is the Court of Assistants, can not be considered as in all respects "suitable and efficient for the purposes and duties" which the Governing Body of a school is or ought to be called upon to fulfill. The number is, in our opinion, too large, and as it is impossible that the members of the Court should be selected with any special view to their knowledge or experience of educational matters, or to their literary or scientific attainments, it must, we think, inevitably happen that the majority will consist of persons indisposed to trust to their own judgment in considering any plan that may be brought before them for the improvement of the school, or the extension of its field of usefulness. The tendencies of such a body will not be progressive, and it is, therefore, no matter of surprise that we should have bad to echo the complaint of a Commission which reported more than a quarter of a century ago. The plan for the extension of the school which we have proposed, will probably necessitate important changes in the nature and working of the system, and it is evidently most desirable that the renovated institution should be watched during its early years with an attentive and intelligent eye.
That a school of such magnitude as this will be, should be administered with a view solely to the higher educational interests of the metropolis, is what the country has a right to demand of those who will have the distribution of its ample resources; but the recent history of St. Paul's School has shown that there has been a growing tendency in the Court of Assistants to narrow the sphere of its operation, and oonvert it more and more from a public school into a mere charitable foundation, useful doubtless to individuals, but of inferior public importance. It would be a grievous injury to the cause of classical edu. cation if the same principles of exclusive patronage were allowed to obstruct admission to a school which might and ought to become the first in London, and one of the first in Great Britain. More liberal views we know to be entertained by those members of the Court who have taken the most active part in the management of the school, and whose opinion is therefore most valuable; but the evidence of these gentlemen gives us little reason to suppose that their views are gaining ground among their colleagues..
These, in our opinion would, under circumstances otherwise favorable, be valid reasons for recommending some modification in the Governing Body, similar in principle to the changes proposed in those of Eaton, Winchester, and Westininster. The time seems to have arrived when more formal and systematic effect should be given to the memorable ordinance of the founder, that on important occasions recourse should be had to the advice of "well-literate and learned men." The spirit of this ordinance would be preserved by such a reconstitution of the Governing Body as should include on the one hand the Magter, Wardens, and Surveyors, with perhaps one or two elective members of the Mercers' Company, and on the other an equal number of persons extraneous to the Company, to be selected by the Crown in consideration of personal eminence or special fitness to superintend a place of liberal education.
ENGLISH PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF HER MAJESTY'S COMMISSIONERS.*
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS of England which have long held a prominent position as places of instruction for the wealthier classes the Colleges of Eton and Winchester, and the Schools of Westminster, the Charterhouse, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylors', Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury
- from their position at the head of the whole system of Public School Education in England, and from the interest which attaches to them as old, well-known, and influential institutions, are worthy of yet farther notice than has already been given them in preceding volumes of this Journal. We deem no apology needed for calling the attention of our readers to the exceedingly interesting and valuable report, recently published, of the Queen's Commissioners, appointed to inquire into their condition and management.
This Board of Commissioners consisted of the Earls of Clarendon and Derby, Lord Lyttleton, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd Twistleton, Sir Staf. ford Henry Northcote, William Hepworth Thomson, and Henry Hatford Vaughan, appointed July 18th, 1861, to inquire "into the nature and application of the Endowments, Funds, and Revenues belonging to or received by " the above-damed Colleges and Schools, “and into the ad. ministration and management of the said Colleges, &c., and into the system and course of studies respectively pursued therein, as well as into the methods, subjects, and extent of the instruction given to the Students," and the fullest authority was given to make such examination of persons and records as might seem necessary. In the course of the investigation, which has not wanted in thoroughness and diligence, series of questions were proposed to the several Governing Bodies and to the Head Masters of the schools, examinations were inade of persons who were, as well as of others who had previously been officially connected with them, and also of many who had been educated at them. The Professors and Tutors of the Universities, and the Council of Military Education, in respect of the Military Schools of Woolwich, &c.,) were inquired of, in order to learn the results of the instruction given and the standing of the graduates. The investigation was also extended to the more recently founded Colleges of Marlborough, Cheltenham, and Wellington,
• Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Revenues and Management of certain Colleges, Schools, and Foundations, and the Studies pursued and Instruction giver therein; with an Appendix and Evidence. Vol. I, Report. London, 1864.
and to the City of London and King's College Schools, with their improved systems of instruction, and advantage was taken of a favorable opportunity which presented itself, to inquire into the Higher Schools of Prussia.
In this first volume of the resulting report are embodied the conclusions at which the Commissioners arrived respecting the nine schools, collectively as well as separately. In Part II. of the report, the schools are treated of separately and a succinct statement is made of all the material facts that the inquiry had elicited in regard to each. Part I., on the other hand, contains the broader results of the inquiry, the conclusions which they suggest, and the views of the Commissioners respecting the government and management of these great English schools, and the education they afford, pointing out defects in the range and methods of that education, and suggesting enlargements and improvements.
From this first portion of the report we propose to make such abstracts and extracts as will express these views and suggestions of the Commissioners, and give a correct idea of the general character and condition of these schools which have become especially identified with what in England is commonly called Public School Education. For Public School Education, as it exists in England and in England alone, has grown up chiefly within their walls, and has been propagated from them; and though now surrounded by younger institutions of a like character, and of great and increasing importance, they are still in common estimation its acknowledged types, as they have for several generations been its principal centers. The opinions and suggestions of the Commissioners, moreover, no less than many of the facts which they disclose, give curious evidence of the strong power which traditions and custom have over the English mind, and how tenderly they treat and uphold opinions and laws that have the hoar of antiquity upon them. Yet their opinions, as here expressed upon various educational problems which have been long tested in these schools, are of great importance to ourselves in relation to our own present and future higher institutions of learning.
Origin.—These schools were founded within a period ranging from the close of the 14th century to the beginning of the 17th century-from the reign of Richard II. to that of James I. Winchester, the earliest, founded by William of Wykeham, is older by several generations than the Reformation, and the revival of classical literature in England. Eton, half a century.later, was modeled after Winchester; each was an integral part of a great collegiate establishment, in which the promotion of learning was the principal aim, but not the founder's sole purpose. Westminster is one of the many grammar schools attached to cathedral and collegiate churches for which provision was made after the dissolution of the monasteries; but it acquired, or perhaps inherited from the ancient school of the monastery of St. Peter, an importance peculiarly its own. Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, Merchant Taylors' and St. Paul's were among the multitude of schools founded in the 16th century, either by grants of