Imatges de pÓgina

comrade had long since been executed. in Japan, when at last he learnt that Bright days now smiled upon the a ship bearing the red cross of Engeore-tried Dutchmen and their honest land had reached Firando. pilot; they were given everything She was the “Clove" of London, they needed, treated most kindly, but belonging to the East India Comthey and their stout bark were never pany (then in its infancy), and comagain to leave Japan. The “Erasmus” manded by Captain John Saris, fur

. was ordered to the city of Yedo, then, nished with a letter from King James as now, the capital of the Tai-koon, I., and suitable presents to theemperor as Miaco was that of the Mikado. The good ship“ Clove” had pushed to Will Adams's merits were so appre- sea from the Thames on April 18th, ciated at court that he eventually 1611, and reached Firando on the 11th obtained great influence. When, in of June 1613, two years having been 1609, the next Dutch ships arrived profitably spent in trading on the in Japan to act hostilely against the way, as ships were wont to do in those Portuguese, they found the Japanese days. Adams was then at Yedo, government very well disposed to- and was immediately sent for by the wards them, and considerable privi- Prince of Firando, who, in the mean leges, as well as the port of Firando, time, treated the newly-arrived Engwere conceded to them, through lishmen with marked attention. On the good offices of William Adams. the 29th July 1613, poor Will Adams Though he individually behaved with arrived, and greeted his long-expected forbearance to the Portuguese, and, countrymen ; thirteen weary years as he assures us, returned good for he had looked forward hopefully, and their evil, the Dutch had no such at last the old man's prayer was intention, and it is certain that, in granted. Early in August, Captain introducing the Hollander to the Saris, William Adams, and ten Engcommerce of Japan, our Englishman lishmen, started for Yedo, bearing struck the deathblow to Portuguese the royal letter and presents. The interests there. By the Dutch ships dignified bearing of Saris and the Will Adams sent the interesting let- intluence of Adams soon obtained ters we have quoted, and at last, as from the emperor, or Tai-koon, a fahe desired, stimulated his countrymen vourable treaty,* granting to Engto enter upon the same remunerative land the most important privileges trade. He had been thirteen years that had ever been conceded by Japan


OF GREAT BRITAIN.- A ugust 1613. "Art. 1.- We give free license to the subjects of the King of Great Britain-viz. Sir Thomas Smith, Governof, and the Company of the East India merchants and adventurers--for ever safely to come into any of our ports of our empire of Japan, with their ships and merchandise, without any hindrance to them or their goods ; aud to abide, buy, sell, and barter, according to their own manner with all nations ; to tarry here as long as they think good, and to depart at their pleasure.

“Art. 2.-We grant unto thein freedom of custom for all such merchandises as either now they have brought, or hereafter shall bring into our kingdoms, or shall from hence transport to any foreign part; and do authorise those ships that hereafter shall arrive and come from England to proceed to present sale of their commodities, without further coming or seuding up to our court.

“ Art. 3. - If any of their ships shall bappen to be in danger of shipwreck, we will our subjects not only assist them, but that such part of ship or goods as shall be saved be returned to their captain or cape merchant, or their assigns. And that they shall or may build one house or more for themselves in any part of our empire where they shall think fittest, and at their pleasure.

“Art. 4.- If any of the English merchants or others shall depart this life within our dominions, the goods of the deceased shall remain at the disposal of the cape merchant, and that all offences committed by them shall be punished by the said cape merchant according to his discretion; and our laws to take no hold of their persons or goods.

"Art. 5. - We will that yo our subjects trading with them for any of their com

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to a foreign power. Saris carried however, of late years, wrought a back a letter likewise from the Tai- change in the law on this point, and koon Tyeyas, in which he says he more than one Japanese seaman now, especially desires the friendship of who has against his will been blown James I., promises that his subjects away to the Sandwich Islands or the shall be heartily welcome," ap- American continent, has been replauds much their worthiness and stored to his country. skill as navigators, and promises that When, in 1673, the East India Comin their “ honourable enterprises of pany attempted to reoccupy their discoveries and merchandising, they former factory, there was no Will shall find the said Tai-koon further Adams to be their advocate with the them according to their desires." emperor. The selfish Dutchmen did

The year 1613 saw the English not choose to remember that they factory established (as was the Dutch) owed their own introduction to Japan at Firando. The English, from poli- to the influence of the English sailor. tical reasons, very soon withdrew, Although the English were civilly and so avoided the troubles that treated, yet, at the instigation of the overtook the other European resi- Dutch, our trade was refused, because dents in Japan. It is worthy of note our then reigning king (Charles II.) that in the following year


perse- was married to a daughter of the cution of the priests and their con- King of Portugal! The Dutch reverts recommenced with renewed mained undisputed masters of the vigour, and ended, as I said before, field until Sir Stamford Raffles made in the expulsion of the Portuguese, two attempts to break down their and then the close imprisonment of monopoly, but failed. After that no the Dutch to the Island of Decima, nation except Russia, whose ends are where they have submitted to be purely political, gave Japan further considered anything but Christians. notice until 1831.

In that year, In 1637 the great interdict was American attention was directed to published, of which one paragraph the islands, and it was thought that runs thus :-“No Japanese ship or a good plea for introducing America boat whatever, nor any native of to their notice in a kindly way Japan, shall presume to go out of might be found in sending back some the country; and who acts contrary shipwrecked Japanese sailors. They to this shall be put to death, and received a very uncivil welcome, the ship and goods shall be forfeited; and, repelled with violence, the ship and all Japanese who return from

“ Morrison

desisted from her purabroad shall be put to death.” pose. But not so the persevering

From that time their vessels have nation that had sent her forth! If never voluntarily left the coasts of smaller ships did not succeed, bigger Japan, though many a ship-load of ships might; so the huge two-decker poor wretches has drifted away in "Columbus,” of 90 guns, and the corstorms, and reached some foreign vette “ Vincennes,” were sent. This land. But when, as once or twice time, to speak the truth honestly, was done, Christian ships carried America wanted intercourse for comback these men to Japan, they have mercial and political purposes with been sternly refused admittance. Japan. She then intended to be The American Government have, very shortly on the shores of the

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modities, pay them for the same, according to agreement, without delay, or return their wares again unto them.

“ART. 6.- For such commodities as they have now brought or shall hereafter bring, fitting for service and proper use, we will that no arrest be made thereof; but that the price be made with the cape merchant, according as they may sell to others, and present payment upon the delivery of the goods.

" Art. 7. If in discovery of other countries for trade, and return of their ships, they shall need men or victuals, we will that ye our subjects furnish them for their money as their need shall require.

“Art. 8.— And that without other passport, they shall and may set out upon the discovery of Jesso or any other part in or about our empire.”

Pacific, and this great force ought means he employed to this end, that to have shown the Japanese that we need say no more than that he Brother Jonathan was in earnest. fully succeeded. The treaty he obBut the Tai-koon still held out. No tained in itself is no great thing; but trade except with Holland was still it was the small end of the wedge; his motto; and America, being in no and, after all, sailors cannot be immediate hurry, was patient but expected to finesse in diplomacy. watchful. In 1849 the Japanese Hardly was the ink dry with which were foolish enough to retain some this treaty was signed, when the American sea men shipwrecked upon lamentable war with Russia broke the coast. The U. S. ship “ Preble,” out, and the Japanese found their Captain Glynn, forthwith dropped in islands, creeks, and inland seas used and gave them such a shaking that for a game of hide-and-seek played they gladly liberated the citizens of by the Russian and Allied squadrons. the United States. Then a very Then everybody wanted treaties with efficient officer and admirable squad- the Japanese ; and in apparently a ron were sent from America in 1853, waggish humour, they gave a British to bring about by moral force some admiral one in 1854, which must ever specific terms regulating the inter- stand unique amongst such docucourse of the two countries. Com- ments. modore Perry, in his voluminous

(To be continued.) work, has so recently told us what


So here we are safe at home once

sense to do.

I shall address mry more from Lady Scrubbs'; for which remarks to you, and challenge conlet us be thankful. Away with the tradiction. It is pleasant to have vanities of patent leather, and let us an imaginary opponent of this kind ; find those easiest of slippers. And one is always prepared for his argunow, Mary, you be off to bed, there ments, and they are so much easier have been three terrible yawns al- to answer. Whereas, your real live ready ; I must sit up an hour and articulate-speaking human adversary, philosophise. “That means, smoke," if he be worth anything, is never conyou say. Well, that's what a good vinced. Mahomet was quite right in deal of very reputable philosophy his system of persuasion; a man is begins and ends in. “Let you stay ?" seldom a hearty convert till he has By no manner of means; women been well thrashed. don't understand philosophy, and Did you ever read “Peter Pindar ?" don't require it :

Excuse me, my good friend, if, in " What moral is in being fair !"

these days of reading for the million,

I very much doubt it. You have "You don't mind the cigar !" Of read the last shilling novel off the course not, no sensible woman does. railway bookstall, no doubt, though But sitting up late, you know, is very there is such a strong resemblance bud for the complexion ; and, besides, between it and half-a-dozen of its who can philosophise with a pretty predecessors that you have not the face opposite him? Plato himself least idea at this moment what it was couldn't have done it; and I am not about; but as to your acquaintance Plato, as you very well know. with our really original English

Turk, sir, get up into that arm- writers, I suspect the less closely we chair opposite, and let me stick this examine you the better. Well, you paper cheroot in your mouth; there, possibly know that Peter was Dr that looks companionable. Now Wolcot, and that he amused himself look as wise as you can, and hold and the public by libelling-with your tongue ; it's what many other- tolerable good-humour, however, I wise rational beings haren't the should say—that best of men and monarchs, or that pig-headed Hano- had done their duty, and he had not verian farmer, (which was he ?) a toe left to stand upon. How had George the Third. He was, in short, the other managed was it long to that respected personage much practice, or a miracle? Neither one what Punch may be supposed to be to nor the other; the simplest thing in Prince Albert, only his jokes were the world, as all great discoveries better; and the fact of their being are ;–“Why, to tell the truth,” said rather broader was no discredit in the successful traveller,-his days. But as he may not be a very

“ Just before I ventured on my journey,

To walk a little more at ease, familiar acquaintance to the men of I took the liberty to boil my peas." this generation, let me tell you one of his stories, in which I assure you Now, in this story there lies an there is nothing whatever disrespect- admirable moral, which may perhaps ful either to the third George or to have been an unintentional prophecy the present Prince Consort, or even on our friend Peter's part, for, indeed, any scandal against poor Queen morals do not seem to have been much Elizabeth, which has been of late re- in bis line. But I trust you will not vived. The original is in verse, and imagine for a moment that such a is called “the Pilgrim and the Peas." story would have been introduced by Two unfortunate sinners, by way of me here except with a very high penance, were bid to undertake a pil- moral and philosophical purpose. griinage to Loretto: the place to which We have all of us heard this human (as all good Catholics, we will charit- life of ours very often described as a ably trust, do not believe) a little red pilgrimage. Very often indeed, espehouse belonging to the Virgin Mary cially in some of those dull sermons walked of itself one fine morning about which we have all on a sudden To Loretto, then, they were bound; become so critical. Rather a favourand by way of making the travelling ite theological fancy, in short, and, easy and pleasant, there being no ex- as such, common property, from cursion trains in those days, their Bishop Patrick and John Bunyan father confessor bad recommended down to the present archbishops and them to put peas in their shoes. Mr Spurgeon, - which is a long way Any one who has walked a mile with down. Yet the word is by no means an accidental grain or two of gravel so very happy a selection after all. It under the heel of his stocking may will not do to say that we have scripform some idea of what it would be to tural authority for it: in the English do fifty (that was the distance) under translation, no doubt, it stands visible their circumstances. One of them enough ; but there is nothing whathad scarcely got over half his jour- ever in the word in the original ney, in much bodily grief, and in a which at all corresponds to our Engframe of mind scarce befitting a lish notion of a pilgrim. We surely penitent-for, according to our friend understand by the term,a person who Peter, he was doing anything but undertakes a journey purposely long, blessing “the souls and bodies of the or wearisome, or perilous, or it may peas "--when he met his brother be all these combined, either as an sinner returning, stepping out as expiation of some crime, or with the briskly as if he were the daily post- view of thereby purchasing a certain man, and happy in the consciousness quantum of sanctity. “A superstiof having been thoroughly white- tious discipline” is what our modern washed, and free to begin a new theological dictionaries give us as score. He very naturally expressed the explanation of the word “pilhis surprise and envy, in pretty grimage.” And we picture to ourstrong language too, according to selves at once, if we call up our noDr Wolcot, whom therefore I de- tions of the pilgrim apart from the cline to quote. As to his getting to accident of theological association, Loretto, he said, it was quite out of a weary, way-worn traveller, volunthe question ; if his absolution de- tarily expatriativg himself for a pended upon that, there was an end while, from a high religious motive, of him ; for the peas, at all events, making an asceticism more or less

strict a necessary part of his vow, and I argue, then, if you will have it looking forward, as the termination still that life is a pilgrimage-(and of his wanderings, not to the city or really Bunyan and Bishop Patrick, the shrine towards which his vow to say nothing of the resuscitated leads him—and here lies the great Guillaume de Guileville, have had failure in the analogy—but to the possession of the field so long that it country from which he set out. Not may seem ungrateful as well as hopemerely to reach Jerusalem, or Rome, less to try to dispossess them)—at all or Loretto, was the real pilgrim's events, there can be no objection to object, but to return to his own boiling the peas. In fact, the great home, and resume his place in so- mistake we are all apt to make is the ciety when his penance was com- not doing so. Troubles we shall all pleted, or his religious standing have, plenty of them, Heaven help secured. It is plain that this is not us! But it has been admirably said, the idea conveyed in any passage that “the worst are those which where the word occurs in the Bible ; never come;" certainly they are it could not be, for pilgrimage is of those which we run to meet halfnecessity a comparatively modern way, and look at through magnifyidea; and one rather wonders, when ing-glasses when they do arrive. If one comes to think about it, that the life must be a pilgrimage, let us put Puritan writers especially, excellent a stout heart to it, and not make men, who hated palmer, and penance, it a more painful one than it need and absolution, and religious vows, be. Let us set the palmer's hat on with an honest and hearty hatred, jauntily, and take a little wine with should have been so very fond of the us in that medieval-looking bottle. word. Bunyan's pilgrim is, in fact, The peas must be in the shoes; that no pilgrim at all; the very last thing makes part of our sentence; little he would have wished to do would things in themselves, but with a have been to return to the City of wonderful capacity for making themDestruction where he was born ; he selves unpleasant; but there can be is a traveller, and a soldier; and no religious or moral obligation these are the real similitudes which against boiling them, and the differthe sacred writers use. Man is a way- ence it makes is wonderful. This farer, life is a journey; man is a secreto per esser felice is not a difficult soldier, life a campaign ; but surely one, yet few things seem so little unthe soldier will hardly fight the derstood by the pilgrims of this highly better for looking upon his vocation civilised nineteenth century. Some as a hardship, or the traveller get men, instead of boiling their peas, through his journey more successfully seem to take a pride and pleasure in for groaning at every step.

choosing for themselves the largest But I find myself basely taking and the hardest-Brobdignag maradvantage of the preacher's privilege rowfats-and disposing them conof having no one to contradict me, to scientiously under the tenderest add another to the dull sermons in- places. It would be nothing to them flicted on a helpless public,—and un- to walk through life without a grievder such a shabby disguise too! My ance. Grievances are part of their apology is, that I would not willingly inherited privileges as Englishmen. be suspected, even over a cigar, of They must have come in with Magna throwing the slightest ridicule, inten- Charta and Habeas Corpus. We tional or otherwise, upon any scrip- have been called “a nation of grumtural view of human life; but if it blers ;” and most of us probably take turns out to be only a theological it as a compliment. There was once view instead of a scriptural one, I a difficulty amongst the schoolmen have not the slightest additional re- in finding out for the human species spect for it on that ground ; it must its proper logical differentia (meanstand or fall by its own weight, and ing thereby, my unlogical friend, that put up with a little rough handling which specially distinguishes men like the rest of us ; if it be not ortho- from other animals) ; Plato, as is doxy, but only your-doxy, as Swift well known, had marked him down has it, then let it take its chance.

featherless biped,” which was


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