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Arts and Sciences.-On extinguishing Fires. [Jan. bustible ingredients, consequently, becomes tinguish fire, are to be put into the vessel ; necessary to make quality supply the place of and then the room remaining for the fourth quantity, and hus with the smallest portion gallon to be filled with closely-condensed prevent the fire rekindling.

air, to effect which, the jet-pipe is to be To give the most extinguishing pro- unscrewed, the condensing syringe fixed in perties to common water has engaged the its place, and the air to be pumped in, to experimental attention of many, in dif- the utmost power of the strength of the vesferent countries *, and it has been rendered sel to contain it; the stop-cock is then to by them more effective to extinguish fire be closed, condensing syringe taken off, and than forty times the same quantity of the jet-pipe replaced. common water (a circumstance not spe- On turning back the stop-cock, the conculative, but confirmed by trial made upon densed air re-acts on the water, and casts it buildings erected for that purpose); but the to a height proportioned to the degree of simple ingredient of pearl ash dissolved in condensation. water, when applied on burning substances, That the machine may be more easily forming an incrustation over the surface ex- carried, where access is difficult, it is put tinguished, and thereby preventing the access, into a leathern case with a strap, and, slung has, in my estimation, a decided preference; over the shoulders of the bearer, is thus conit has likewise the superior recommendation veyed easily, and then directed with the utof the readiness with which any person may most precision to the point requiring the imbue the water with it, while the compounds cannot be bad but at considerable Remarks on the necessity of a better cost, nor be prepared without labour and

Security against Fire. nice accuracy in their respective proportions. The public at large are greatly interested -Thus, at the moderate ratio of 20 times in every circumstance which shall tend to increasing the quality, the Cart would con- lessen the calamity of fire; and the Fire vey an extinguishing Auid equal to one tun Insurance Companies, who incur great losses and a half of common water.

in every part of the British Empire, it is Specification in reference to the Apparatus presumed, must have similar feelings, with belonging to the Fire Cart.

the desire, from motives of justice as well as Each machine is a strong copper vessel, that of humanity, to promote whatever is of a cylindrical form, two feet in length, calculated to its preventiou. The loss of a and eight inches in diameter, capable of single house by fire is great to the insurers ; containing four gallons : a tube of the same but the loss, inconveniences, and injury to metal, of one-fourth of an inch in diameter, the insured, whose residence it was, is so curved so that its end is carried to the side far beyond the reparation to be received of the vessel, with a stop-cock and jet-pipe, from the insurance, that something further the vent of which is one eighth of an inch is required, by the establishment of a fire in diameter at its top, reaches to within police, to lessen the losses, and preserve the half an inch of the bottom, and is to be property the public are so often doomed to screwed so closely into the neck of the ves- suffer from the want of earlier methods of sel, as to preclude the possibility of the es- application in the extinguishment of fire,

than the present system offers for that purpose. Three gallons of water, holding in solu- The protection of the metropolis from tion any ingredients best adapted to ex- fire depends solely on the Insurance Com

cape of the air.

Names of persons having employed their attention for giving the common water the most efficacious extinguishing property, for the purpose of subduing fire :

1734. M. Fuches, a German Physician, by throwing Balls into the fire, containing certain preparations which burst with violence, instantly quenched the Alaine.

1761. Zachary Grey used the same process, in which were allum, sal ammoniac, and other saline matters, with water.

In the same year Dr. Godfrey, in & public exhibition in a house erected for that purpose near Mary-le-bone, applied the like ingredients with great success, by the action of confined gunpowder only, which exploding dispersed the solution on the materials in combustion, and effectively extinguished the same.

1792. M. Von Ahen, at Stockholm, made numerous public experiments, to show the effects of several combined ingredients to render materials entirely incombustible ; he is stated to have subdued an artificial fire by 2 men and 40 measures of preparation that would have required 20 men and 1500 of the same measures of simple water.

In the same year, M. Nil Mosheio made many public exhibitions, to confirm that combustible materials might be made perfectly incombustible; as also did Mr. W. Knox, of Gottenburg

+ Pearl Ash dissolved in water, when applied on burning substances, forms an incrustation over the surface extinguished, and prevents that part from re-inflaming.

1922.]
Arts and Sciences.-On extinguishing Fires.

69 panies who make establishments for that the Magistrates and Insurers of each place purpose. But those bodies extend no such interesting themselves with the Insurance protection to other places, although the Companies, and urging from them a better same rate of insurance is paid to them. preservation of their property from fire than

To the Insurance Companies, therefore, the at present exists. public look with the anxious hope and ex- The Magistrates, &c. should then examine pectation of their affording equal protection the cause from which the destructiveness of to all adopting some design calculated to fires generally proceed, and if it should appossess the properties of instantly opposing pear to be from the want of early assistance, Fires in their incipient state, and on the first they should endeavour to remove that dealarm), until a supply of water is provided, lay. They should next direct their attenand engines are collected, and brought into tion to the means of conveying assistance to action,-a circumstance, among other consi- fires in the readiest and simplest way, by derations, that would tend to prevent the applying it immediately for extinguishing necessity of pulling down houses contiguous with simplicity, and to recommend to the to buildings on fire, resorted to by them Insurance Companies whatever, in their opiupon the principle of safety.

nion, has a tendency to attain those objects, When fire makes a progress before disco- better than the methods now in use. very, or extends itself from local difficulties The Insurance Companies should then be impeding the arrival of assistance, every in- invited to examine the merit or demerit of stant of time, until the means of extinction the plan recommended by Fire Carts, and we applied, the flames rapidly increase in if found to possess the properties of oppostheir destructiveness: and it often occurs ing fires by instant and effective application (even in London, where the facilities of af- they should be requested to adopt the same. fording assistance and obtaining water are On the Insurance Companies being satisgreater than most other places) that half an fied of the utility of such design, it is rehour or upwards has transpired from the spectfully submitted to them, in order to slarm being given to the engines acting to carry the same into effect, to associate for check its fury, a period too distant to save the purpose of naking arrangements for & the building where the conflagration com- general establishment of the plan, and for menced, and often even to prevent its being raising a fund by a small per centage on the extremely destructive to the neighbourhood. premiums received, that it may fall equally In the metropolis the Insurance Compa- upon

the whole. nies, as already stated, provide powerful en• The necessary apparatus being provided gines, and make arrangements for the at- at the joint expence of the Insurance Comtendance of persons (confident from expe- panies, the firemen would consequently be rience) who are trained to apply them to selected by those bodies, who no doubt the best effect.

would appoint such as are distinguished The reliance for extinguishment in case for expertness, judgment, and resolution. of fire in small towns offers no such protec- That the most zealous endeavours might tios, and is consequently placed on the parish be called forth, I venture to suggest appliengines and assistance of the inhabitants, cations to His Majesty's Government, or who, from the want of due arrangements in Petitions to Parliament, soliciting some conveying water to the spot (which is usu- premium or legislative bounty to reward exally by the hand) and practice in working ertion and excite emulation for services perengines, their exertions, however great, suf- formed in the preservation of life and profer materially from confusion,—the general perty, when it could not have been effected result of inexperience.

but by extraordinary exertion and at great The liberality with which the Insurance hazard. Companies are known to act to those who In the adoption of a plan to give early eseri shemselves strenuously in subduing and immediate assistance to fires, it must fires, encourages a respectful confidence in be obvious how important it is to all classes their patriotic and humane readiness to of persons. To the Insurance Companies adopt such means as may be found to coun- it would be an immense saving, by freteract the extension and rapidity of the quently preventing that great destruction flames, by instant application, and to obviate they are bound to repair; and it might the interval of delay between the alarm of fire consequently lessen the hazard of insurance. being given, and the engines getting into To the public it would afford consideraction to oppose it.

able security, by preserving the property la arranging a plan for the general pre- which cannot be insured, as papers, picvection of destructive fires, it appears to tures, &c. which no value can repair, me, in the first place, that the Insurance replace, or recompense the owner for Companies, and the Police of the Country, the loss of. The promptness with which Disst necessarily be organized; and to carry assistance could be conveyed to any spot, ruch plan into effect I am induced to sug- would deter, if not detect, the too frequent gest that it would best be accomplished by crime of arson, so wilfully resorted to by

offenders,

70
Arts and Sciences.

(Jan. offenders, who, from fraudulent insurances of fire in its early stages, I cannot refrain and desperate circumstances, often doom the from relating to you, that in the late fire property of their neighbours to destruction close to my house, and which I myself disto gain their criminal ends; and the same covered, if I had had one of the machines reason would also serve to render the ma- at my immediate command, I do not hesilignant attempt at revenge by the incendiary, tate to say, I could have saved the whole of which there have been so many degrad- premises and an uninsured property of nearly ing and shocking instances, less frequent. 12,0001. I can venture to assert this fact,

As directions for the effective arrange- because it came under my own inspection ; ment of Fire Carts in populous places, the I therefore cannot be deceived. The fire, following plan I should propose : that at wheu I first saw it, was just caught, and I each watch-ḥouse, from the time of the conceive was quite extinguishable by your watch setting, there should be in attendance machine for at least 20 minutes. & regular fireman instructed in the use and I may also here give my opinion as a Namanagement of the apparatus ; and that val man, as to its great use, in my opinion, each parish should be provided with one or on-board ships, in case of fire below, where more Fire Carts, according to its extent, or water is not easily conveyed. I shall vever number of wards, and the vessels or engines go to sea again without one of them for the composing the compliment of the cart, to use of the store rooms, &c. Upon the whole be kept charged ready for being immediately I do declare to you, it is, in my opinion, applied. When watch-boxes or stations are one of the best inventions I ever saw, and at a considerable distance from the watch- wishing you every success in the prosecuhouse, some central watch-box should have tion of your generous plans; I am a single engine lodged ready for application, Yo &c.

P. B. PELLÆW. to be brought on the alarm by the watchman, and delivered to the fireman who re

FIRE Shield. pairs to the spot on the alarm of fire being Mr. Buckley, of New York, has invented given, with as much expedition as possible. and obtained a patent for a Fire Shield. It Should the fire have broke out near the de, is intended to protect firemen whilst empot of the Fire Cart, the fireman in attend- ployed in extinguishing fires, but particuance will take the cart with bim, or an en- larly designed to prevent fire from spreadgine from it ready to apply; if otherwise, ing. It is made of a metallic substance; the watchmen will each bring an engine, thin, light, and impervious to heat; it is which the fireman will expend, and by re- of a length and breadth sufficient to cover ceiving from others their engines, a regularly the whole person, and it may be used in continued and well-directed stream will be several different positions. For example : kept up, which, from the early opposition when used in the street, it is firmly fixed to the fire, will no doubt check the flames, on a small platform, with wheels, and a if not entirely subdue the fire; should the short elevation from the ground. The firedistance be considerable, the fireman, aided man takes his stand on this platform and by a watchman, would convey the cart to behind the shield; he is drawn by ropes a place on fire with as much dispatch as near the current of heat and flames, withpossible.

out being scorched or feeling any inconLetter from the Hon. Capt. Pellew, R. N.

venience; and with the hose pipe, or to Captain Manby.

leader, in his hand, he directs the water to

the part where it is most required. In this MY DEAR SIR, London, June 27, 1816.

way a line of shields may be formed in close Having been one of those who witnessed, order, in front of a powerful heat, behind with much satisfaction, the trial of your which the firemen may stand with safety, and newly-invented machine for the extinction play upon the houses with their water-pipes.

Crystallo-Ceramie, or Glass introduced into the body of the liquid glass
INCRUSTATIONS.

while hot, and the air is gradually withIn our December Magazine, p. 544, we drawn by the blow-pipe ; thus the composislightly noticed this curious invention. We tion becomes actually incorporated with the have since had an opportunity of witnessing glass, “ære perennius," without the design the process, and of observing inany inte- or likeness it is intended to represent being resting specimens of incrustation. The

in the least degree injured. great difficulty in bringing the art to its pre- Amongst innumerable others we noticed sent perfection, appears to have been that of a head of Shakspeare incrusted in a circular disovering a composition less fusible than piece of glass about half an inch thick. In glass. This composition is of a silvery ap- order to give additional beauty these glasses pearance, and has a most splendid effect are cut at the back in radii, and suspended when introduced into richly-cut glass. Bas- by metallic ornaments. In this style porrelief portraits, or any other ornaments, are traits of public characters and private indi

viduals

1822.]
Arts and Sciences. --Glass Incrustations.

71 viduals may be perpetuated. These subjects from the air. The Venetian Ball and the are sometimes incrusted between a white Bohemian ornamental stems are perfect inand blue, green, or yellow glass. The con- crustations, but they are curious rather than trast of the model of white silvery appear- useful. It was impossible to introduce into ance on the coloured ground produces a them any device or figure, which was the depleasing effect.

sideratum in the art, because the variegated We observed several beautiful specimens glass in the interior, being of the nature of of incrustation in decanters, wine glasses, enamel, is (especially the opaque) fusible at smelling bottles, water jugs, &c.; but the a less degree of heat than the coating of art is not confined to these minor orna- white transparent glass : consequently, any ments alone ; our curiosity was highly ex- impression must have been effaced, when, cited by representations of the Muses and in the process of manufacture, it became an Egyptian cariatyde, introduced into sic incased in the hot transparent glass. To numbra lamps; the former into the two render the art of Incrustation subservient to sides of the base, and the latter into the cir- any useful purpose, it was requisite, in the cular pedestal. An elegant girandole, de- first instance, to discover a substance casigned for the mantle piece or pier table of pable of uniting with glass, but requiring a a drawing room, was superbly decorated with stronger heat to render it fusible. various incrustations of illustrious individuals. About forty years ago, a Bohemian The representation of a sentry-box, made of manufacturer first attempted to incrust in one solid square piece of glass, with the glass small figures of a greyish clay. The figure of a grenadier in the middle, of the experiments which he made, were in but white composition, was extremely curious. few instances successful, in consequence of

Mr. Pellatt, the Patentee, has published the clay not being adapted to adhere proa short account of this invention; accom- perly to the glass. It was, however, from panied by some judicious remarks on "The the Bohemian that the idea was caught by Origin, Progress, and Improvement of Glass some French manufacturers, who, after havManufactures." This little Work appears ing expended a considerable sum in the alto have been drawn up for private circulation tempt, at length succeeded in incrusting seonly; but we really consider the interesting veral medallions of Buonaparte, which were matter it contains deserves the most ex- sold at an enormous price. From the extended publicity. It is pleasing to observe treme difficulty of making these medallions, · British artist adding the spirit of literary and their almost invariably breaking while research to his professional ingenuity. Dis- under the operation of cutting, very few coveries seldom fail of the greatest improve- were finished; and the inanufacture was zments when promoted by such a union of upon the point of being abandoned, when talents.

it was fortunately taken up by a French genWe shall close our desoltory remarks by tleman, who, with a perseverance not less giving a single extract from Mr. Pellatt's honourable to himself

, than in its results Publication ; and that must be confined advantageous to the arts, prosecuted a series solely to the history of the invention under of experiments, by which, in a few years, consideration, although the author's obser- he brought the invention to a state of great rations on the antiquity of making Glass improvement. The French have never sucare very curious and interesting.

ceeded, however, in introducing it into ar“The Glass-works of England indis- ticles of any size, such as decanters, jugs, or putably excel at this moment those of any plates ; but have contented themselves with other country in the world. The essential ornamenting smelling bottles and small and distinguishing qualities of good glass trinkets : nor had the invention been apare, its freedom from specks or rings, and plied to heraldry or any other useful puro its near resemblance to real crystal in its co- pose, antecedently to the recent improvebarie transparency. In both these re- ments upon the art in this country. spects, the productions of the British Glass- England has always been famed for bringing houses exceed those of any other nation, to perfection, and directing to a useful apIt only remained for them to evince their plication, the crude inventions of other superiority in the ornamental branches of Countries." the art; and this has been fully accomplished

Steam Boats. by the perfection to which recent discoveries A new-invented system of propelling have enabled them to carry the art of In- boats by steam has been invented by a percrustation.

son in New Bedford, by which a boat 26 “ The Ancients, we have seen, were not feet long has been propelled by two men akogether ignorant of this art, but their in- four miles in 20 minutes, and it thought tutations were very imperfect. The pic- the plan may be applied to propelling the ture of a duek, described by Winkelman, is largest Steam-boats with more velocity and bat a partial incrustation, as the painting is much less power than is required by the Deitter completely enclosed nor protected present system. New York.

SELECT

SELECT POETRY.

Fragments of not a Translation, buta Contentique suå vivebant sorte, quietein loose distant Imitation, of

Uno servantes usque tevore viam.
GRAY'S ELEGY.

XX.
STANZA VI.

Qui tamen exanimes horum defendere possit NEC reducem blæso gratabitur ore paren

Relliquias, custos * stat prope busta lapis; tem,

Sculpturâque rudi scabris et versibus horrens, Obvia dum properat, parvula progenies ; A populo lacrymas prætereunte rogat. Arreptumve manu ducet; gremiunve sedentis

QUIDAM.
Certatim scandens, oscula blanda petet.
VII.

LINES
Sæpe, illis rapido tondentibus arva sub æstu,
Procubuit facili falce resecta seges :

Written in Affliction, November 1821.
Illi sæpe alacres, junctis ad aratra juvencis, LONG has my lyre unstrung been laid,
Sulcârunt duro
vomere pingue solum :

In sad Afliction's dreary shade ; Illorum valido ceciderunt sæpe sub ictu And Poësyenchanting maidAëriæ quercus, fraxineæque trabes.

Has me resign'd! XI.

To livelier scenes her course has sped, An semel elapsam casso de corpore vitam

From me, and sorrow long has fled,

Where nought but pain on patience fed
In gelidum pectus jam revocare potest
Arte laboratus vivo de marmore vultus,

With grief combin'd!
Scriptave conspicuis nobilis urna uotis ? Come, Poësy, cheer my lonely hour,
XII.

Come, Hygeia, with thy healing power ; Forsitan hîc aliquem viridi tegit aggere

Bind round my brow thy mountain-flower,

With health perfuming! cæspes, Cui multo afflatum numine pectus erat ; Come let us join our triple aid, Qui bene difficiles rerum rexisset habenas, Come Hygeia, healthful mountain maid, Vel nosset doctå plectra movere manu. Burst through Affliction's sombre shade, XIII.

My griefs consuming! Musarum sed enim pretiosa volumina nun- Let me resume my humble lyre, quam

With pious breathings wake the wire, Divitias illis explicuêre suas :

My thanks in grateful themes aspire, Et gravis (heu!) vetuit duris in rebus egestas

For chast’nings kind ! Eniti innatis viribus ingenium.

Let praise, and prayer, be now my strain, XIV.

That

my

affliction 's not in vain ; Incassum splendens, oculisque incognita nos- But sanctified, my peace to gain, tris,

When Death I find!
Multa sub Oceani gurgite gemma latet : What's the world, and what's its noise,
Multi proveniunt deserta per avia flores,
Quorum odor in ventos irritus omnis abit. Its honours, and its gilded toys,

Its pride, its pomp, and loud applause,
XV.

Without health's blessing! ForsitanHampdeni situs hîc jacet æmulus acer, 'Tis vain, 'tis empty as the air,

Nescius indigno subdere colla jugo : A painted scene of grief and care ; Forsan et ingenio tibi par, Miltone, tuæque A giddy round of sad despairQui posset cantus æquiparare tubæ.

A dream distressing! XVI. XVII.

Come, Hope, and wave thy pinion o'er Eloquio arrectas aures mulcere senatās,

My drooping heart, and bid me soar Impavido tumidas spernere corde minas, Above despondence--madd’ning power Vestire uberibus ridentia messibus arva,

That me oppressen ! Et celebri fumâ per benefacta frui, Sors vetuit: sed ņec tantum virtutibus horum

Be your's the power when Sorrow's near,

To chase Obstitit ingenitis ; obstitit et vitiis.

away Affliction's tear; Per medias vetuit cædes invadere regnum,

And bid my aching heart not fear

The world's distresses ! Raptaque sacrilegâ prendere sceptra manu, Partoque imperio nimium crudeliter uti, Oh! let my soul in Him confide, Et nescire ullis parcere supplicibus.

Who on the storms and whirlwinds ride ;

And does in kind compassion chide :
XIX.

Our faith to try!
Sed, procul insani misero certamine vulgi,
Gaudebat propria sobria turba domo :

Laurus ....custos. Ovid. Mct, 1, 562.

Oh !

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