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bility, which has never yet obtained its due commendation. Nothing is far-sought, or hard-laboured; but all is easy without feebleness, and familiar without grossness.
It has been observed by Felton, in his Essay on the Classicks, that Cowley was beloved by every muse that he courted; and that he has rivalled the ancients in every kind of poetry but tragedy.
It may be affirmed, without any encomiastick fervour, that he brought to his poetick labours a mind replete with learning, and that his pages are embellished with all the ornaments which books could supply; that he was the first who imparted to English numbers the enthusiasm of the greater ode, and the gaiety of the less; that he was equally qualified for sprightly sallies, and for lofty flights; that he was among those who freed translation from servillity, and, instead of following his author at a distance, walked by his side ; and that, if he left versification yet inprovable, he left likewise from time to time such specimens of excellence as enabled succeeding poet's to improve it.
OF SIR JOHN DENHAM very little is known but what is related of him by Wood, or by himself.
He was born at Dublin, in 1615; the only son of sir John Denham, of Little Horsely, in Essex, then chief baron of the exchequer in Ireland, and of Eleanor, daughter of sir Garret More, baron of Mellefont.
Two years afterwards, his father, being made one of the barons of the exchequer in England, brought him away from his native country, and educated him in London.
In 1631 he was sent to Oxford, where he was considered « as a dreaming young man, given more to dice and cards than study :” and therefore gave no prognosticks of his future eminence; nor was suspected to conceal under sluggishness and laxity, a genius born to improve the literature of his country.
When he was, three years afterwards, removed to Lincoln's Inn, he prosecuted the common law with sufficient appearance of application ; yet did not lose his propensity to cards and dice; but was very often plundered by gamesters.
Being severely reproved for this folly, he professed, and perhaps believed himself reclaimed; and, to testify the sincerity of liis repentance, wrote and published “An Essay on Gaming."
He seems to have divided his studies between law and poetry : for, in 1636, he translated the second book of the Æneid.
Two years after his father died; and then, notwithstanding his resolutions and professions, he returned again to the vice of gaming, and lost several thousand pounds that had been left to him.
In 1642 he published “The Sophy.” This seems to have given him his first hold of the public attention; for Waller remarked, “ That he broke out like the Irish rebellion three score thousand strong, when nabody was aware, or in the least suspected it ;” an observation which could have had no propriety, had his poetical abilities been known before.
He was after that pricked for sheriff of Surrey, and made governor
of Farnham Castle for the king; but he soon resigned that charge, and retreated to Oxford where, in 1643, he published “Cooper's Hill."
This poem had such reputation as to excite the common artifice by which envy degrades excellence. -A report was spread that the performance was not his own, but that he had bought it of a vicar for forty pounds. The same attempt was made to rob Addison of Cato, and Pope of his Essay on Criticism.
In 1647 the distresses of the royal family required him to engage in more dangerous employments. He was intrusted by the queen with a message to the king; and by whatever means, so far softened the ferocity of Hugh Peters, that, by his intercession admission was procured. Of the king's condescension be has given an account in the dedication of his works.
He was afterwards employed in carrying on the king's correspondence; and, as he says, discharged
this office with great safety to the royalists : and, being accidentally discovered by the adverse party's knowledge of Mr. Cowley's hand, he escaped happily both for himself and his friends.
He was yet engaged in a greater undertaking. In April, 1648, he conveyed James the duke of York from London into France, and delivered him there to the queen and prince of Wales. This year he published his translation of “ Cato Major."
He now resided in France, as one of the followers of the exiled king; and, to divert the melancholy of their condition, was sometimes enjoined by his master to write occasional verses; one of which amusements was probably his ode or song upon the embassy to Poland, by which he and lord Crofts procured a contribution of ten thousand pounds from the Scotch that wandered over that kingdom. Poland was at that time very much frequented by itinerant traders, who, in a country of very little commerce and of great extent, where every man resided on his own estate, contributed very much to the accommodation of life, by bringing to every man's house those little necessaries which it was very inconvenient to want, and very troublesome to fetch. I have formerly read, without much reflection, of the multitude of Scotchmen that travelled with their wares in Poland; and that their numbers were not small, the success of this
negotiation gives sufficient evidence.
About this time, what estate the war and the gamesters had left him, was sold, by order of the parliament; and when, in 1652, he returned to England, he was entertained by the Earl of Pembroke.
Of the next year of his life there is no account. At the Restoration he obtained that which many missed,
the reward of his royalty ; being made surveyor of the king's buildings, and dignified with the order of the Bath. He seems now to have learned some attention to money; for Wood says, that he got by this place seven thousand pounds.
After the Restoration, he wrote the poem on Prudence and Justice, and perhaps some of his other pieces : and as he appears, whenever any serious question comes before him, to have been a man of piety he consecrated his poetical powers to religion, and made a metrical version of the Psalms of David. In this attempt he has failed ; but in sacred poetry who has succeeded ?
It might be hoped that the favour of his master, and esteem of the publick would now make him happy. But human felicity is short and uncertain ; a second marriage brought upon him so much disquiet, as for a time disordered his understanding; and Butler lampooned him for his lunacy. I know not whether the malignant lines were then made publick, nor what provocation incited Butler to do that which no provocation can excuse.
His frenzy lasted not long;* and he seems to have regained his full force of mind; for he wrote afterwards his excellent poem upon the death of Cowley, whom he was not long to survive, for on the 19th of March, 1668, he was buried by his side.
Denham is deservedly considered as one of the fathers of English poetry. “Denham and Waller," says Prior, “improved our versification, and Dryden perfected it.” He has given specimens of various composition, descriptive, ludicrous, didactic, and sublime.
* In Grammont's memoirs many circumstances are related, both of bis marriage and his frenzy, very little favourable to his character. R.