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he will question about again and again, always spending some part of every hour over the back lessons. If the boys are old enough to take things down correctly, he will dictate to them a vocabulary of the marked words, and make them learn it. He will have the marked sentences learnt by heart, and will practice the pupil in variations of them. . He will dictate for translation into the foreign language sentences involving the marked words and constructions. When one of his marked words or constructions recurs, he will require his pupils to point out where they have met with it before. His pupils will thus by degrees get familiarized with a part, and that the most vital part, of the language.

Rate of Progress. One of the most interesting and most difficult problems in teaching is this—How long should the beginner be kept to the rudiments? If the boy is pushed on, he goes floundering about in the higher parts of the subject, and perhaps never knows any thing as he ought to know it. But, on the other hand, if the teacher delays long in the elementary part, the boys get bored and discouraged. They want to 'get on,' and to have some new ideas. Then, too, in some subjects the elementary parts seem clear only to those who have a conception of the whole. As Diderot says (I quote at second-hand from Mr. Keane, in Quarterly Journal of Education, Oct. 1873),—*Il faut être profond dans l'art ou dans la science pour en bien posséder les éléments.' 'C'est le milieu et la fin qui éclaircissent les ténèbres du commencement.' ('Le Neveu de Rameau.') This is so strongly felt in Cambridge that I believe the practice now is to ‘rush' men through their subjects and go back to them for elaboration. This plan would have found little favor twenty years ago. “Slow and sure' was then supposed to be the true motto.

Dictation. Dictation should be done in copy-books, not on loose sheets of paper, If only selected words are written, and these are put down in columns, there will not be much difficulty in correction. I like the plan of giving out chalk pencils when the writing of the dictation is over, and letting each pupil open his book and underline in his copy-book every word he has misspelt. The leaves of the copy-book may be creased down the middle, and the right hand column left for the re-writing of words spelt wrong in the column to the left. From time to time the pupils may be questioned about the words in the right hand column.

For exercises, there are many devices by which the pupil may be trained to observation, and also be confirmed in his knowledge of back lessons. The great teacher, F. A. Wolf, used to make his own children ascertain how many times such and such a word occurred in such and such pages. As M. Bréal says, children are collectors by nature; and, acting on this hint, we might say, "Write in column all the dative cases on pages a to c, and give the English and the corresponding nominatives.' Or, "Copy from those pages all the accusative-prepositions with the accusatives after them.' Or, .Write out the past participles, with their infinitives.' Or, “Translate such and such sentences, and explain them with reference to the context.' Or, questions may be asked on the subject-matter of the book. There is no end to the possible varieties of such exercises.

Preparation by Himself. M. Michel Bréal, in his 'Quelques Mots sur l'Instruction Publique,' remarks that all learning is often supposed to be done in the absence of the teacher, whose function becomes that of an examiner appointed to ascertain whether the lesson has been properly learnt. It would be more reasonable to consider the 'prepared' construing lesson, as Professor Pillans would have us consider uncorrected exercises, mere raw material, which is to be worked up into knowledge. But then comes the difficulty.

The boys will prepare their work very ill, or not at all, if they think they may not be put on, or may not be punished even in case of failure. So a great amount of the form-master's thought and energy is expended in testing the boys' preparation and awarding marks for it or punishment for the want of it. Some men spend years in struggling to get due preparation from the boys, and are at length obliged to acquiesce in failure. Perhaps all the time the master has been demanding impossibilities. The boys, he thinks, should have made out before they come to him the meaning of the piece set, and should be able to construe it with tolerable fluency. But if the boys had done their best during the whole of the time set apart for preparation, they would perhaps have only made out a small part, and would not have prepared any thing like a translation even of that. In point of fact, many of the boys do 'prepare' the work after their fashion. They go through it, and turn out in the dictionary any odd-looking words. This is their notion of preparation, and whether the piece is long or short makes little or no difference; so the master finds that he can increase or decrease the quantity of preparation, but can not affect its quality. Mr. Oppler has told us that his plan is to let the boys make out the piece with him, and I have no doubt this is the best way, with young boys at all events. If the construing is easy, the master may question it out of the boys, hardly telling them any thing. Unknown words he may give on the blackboard, but it will be found that many words will be recollected which the boys, if left to themselves, would turn out in the dictionary; for boys left to themselves do not use their heads so readily as their fingers. When a piece of the foreign language has been worked through in this way, it may be “prepared' for fluent construing, and the boys may also be required to know the substance of it, which is quite distinct from knowing the construing. On the subject of work done in the absence of the master, see Bréal, Quelques Mots,” &c., pp. 188, ff. The conclusion he arrives at is this: ‘La force mortrice est hors de la classe, laquelle marche à la remorque de l'étude' (p. 188); and yet c'est la confection, et non la correction, du devoir qu'il importe au professeur de diriger.' (p. 194.)

True Student Life.

Studies and Conduct : Letters, Essays, and Thoughts, on the relative value of Studies
and the right Ordering of Life by Men Eminent in Literature and Affairs : Edited by
HENRY BARNARD, LL. D., 416 pages : Special Edition, 544 pages. 1873.

INDEX

TO

SPECIAL EDITION.

0

Abstract Thought, 149, 447, 457.

Bach, method on piano, 352.
Abstract and Relative Truths, 457, 470.

BACON, FRANCIS, 71, 92,
Academy, equivalent to College, 154.

Essay on Discourse, 177.
Accomplishments, 379, 392.

Essay on Riches, 255.
Accuracy, difficulty in reaching,

Essay on Studies, 103.
Action and Knowledge, 514.

Essay on Travel, 235.
ACKLAND, HENRY W., 479,

Bacon, Nathaniel, 140.
Physiology, Physics, and Chemistry, 479. Basil, St., of Cappadocia, at Athens, 589, 543.
Activity, self-determined, 15,

BARROW, Isaac, 13, 93, 94.
Law of growth, 20.

Beauty, sense of, 47, 393,
ADDISON, JOSEPH, 16, 133, 184.

In age, 397.
Advice, respecting studies and conduct, 67, 81, 123, Beguines, hospital Sisters, 403.
165, 193, 205, 231.

Behavior, in children, 316.
Adults, education, 193.

Benevolence in trifles, 136.
Æsthetics, science of the beautiful, 512.

Bent, the Natural, 148, 107.
Agriculture, 80, 155, 394.

Bequeathing property, 263.
Age for Study, 73, 77, 154, 158, 435.

Beza, remarkable memory, 90.
Augustine, St., 384.

BIBLE, Estimate of,
Affectation, 103.

Humbolt, 273. Sedgwick, 228.
AIKEN, JOHN, 239,

Jerome, 293. Southey, 101
Eyes or No Eyes--Art of Seeing, 239.

Newman, 274. Taylor, 286.
Air, pure, importance of, 35.

Raumer, 809. Whately, 108.
AIRY, GEORGE B., 448,

Bible, influence on nations, 274.
Scientific Studies, 448.

Biblical History, 157, 361.
Ambition, as a motive,

Biographies, 50, 229.
Carlyle, 528.
'Chesterfield, 124.

Biology, 470, 478.
Chat'aam, 142.

Birth-day festivals, 331.
Amr.sements, from books, 121, 205.

Boarding-schools for girls, 364.
Children, 320

BODLEIGH, SIR THOMAS, 71,
Girls, 320, 324

Letter to Francis Bacon, 71.
Analysis of a book, 112, 225, 230.

Body, 14, 44.
Anatomy, 79, 474.

Boethius, 372
Anaxageras, a teacher of Pericles, 135.

Bolingbroke, 12, 139.
Anaxarchus, 100.

Book and Voice, as a teacher, 22, 529, 544.
Ancient Geography, History, and Ideas, 426, 521. Books, value and use, 205.
Anger, 73, 137, 319.

Bacon, 108, 110, 205. Herschel, 205.
Annotations by Whately, 103, 178.

Barrow, 94.

Hillhouse, 208.
Antipathies, 148, 315.

Burleigh, 74.

Locke, 222.
Appetites in children, 53, 321.

Carlyle, 203.

Macaulay, 206.
Aristotle, 78, 117,502.

Channing, 207

Masson, 27.
Aristippus, 100.

Choate, 206.

Milton, 205, 223.
Arithmetic, 156, 460.

Cicero, 209.

Moon, 208.
Argumentation, 128, 282.

Cowley, 208.

Newman, 530.
Art, 512, 394,

DeQuincey, 193.

Potter, 215.
Open to women, 394.

Everett, 211.

Rice, 210.
Arts in the University curriculum, 163,

Fuller, 91.

Sedgwick, 228.
Defective method of teaching, 153.

Franklin, 213.

Verplanck, 219.
Ashburton, Lord, 442.

Grimke, 230.

Watts, 216.
Ascham, R., 12,

Hall, 82, 84,210.

Whately, 104.
Lady Jane Grey, 377.

Heincius, 215.

Winthrop, 209,
Associations, early, 40, 443.

Book education, 28.
Astronomy, 138, 156.

Book-learning, 212.
Athens, estimation of Teachers in, 64.

Books, care of, 229.
University of, 529, 543.

Books, difficulty of recommending, 31, 203, 370
Athletic Sports, 38, 159.

Botany, as a school study, 359, 491.
Attention, to business in hand, 126.

Henfrey, 469.

Wilson, 49,
Soul of memory, 126.

Hooker, 472.
Habits of, should be attained, 460.

Boyle, Sir Robert, 227.
Austin, Sarah, 20,

Boy-training, Greek idea of
Authors, influence of, 205, 226.

Brothers and Sisters, 312.
Authority, method of, in teaching, 489.

BROUGHAM, HENRY, 163,
Aversion to school text books, 444.

Letter to Z. Macaulay, 161.

Training for public speaking, 162.
Appeal for human advancement, 164.

Teachers of mankind, 164.
Buffon, style, or manner, 302.
BURLEIGH, LORD, 74,

Advice to his Son, 75.
BURNS, ROBERT, 95.

Advice to a Friend, 95
Burke. Edmund, 17, 162, 187,

Model for English Student, in oratory, 162.

Conversational Power, 187.
Burnet's History, 139.
Business of life, 104.
Business Men, Value of books to, 216.
Butler, Bishop, 16.
Byron, Aversion to school associations, 443.
Calling to a pursuit. 79.
Camelford, Lord, 129.
CARLYLE, THOMAS, 524.

Letters to a Young Man, 203.
Address as Rector of Edinburgh University, 524.
Diligence and honesty in Study, 524.
Books should be made more available, 524.
Writers-the true Peers of nations, 526.
Wisdom-Endowments--Silence, 527.

Ambition avoided-Modesty-Wealth, 528.
Catechism, 309.
Catholic Church, 289, 399.

Female Education, 289.
Female Employments, 401.

Sisterhoods, 402.
Cecil, Sir William, 74.
Ceremonial behavior, 245.
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, 207.

Education and the Teacher, 22.

Books and Reading, 207.
Charity, 94, 371.
Charity, Sisters of, 403.
CHATHAM, Earl of, 129.

Letters to his Nephew, 130.
Chemistry, 470, 476, 490.
CHESTERFIELD, Earl of, 123.

Letters to his Son, 125.
Choate, Rufus, books and reading, 206.
Christianity in education, 309.
Choice of books, 219, 388.
Choice of paths, 78,
Christmas holidays, 328.
Church festivals, 330.
Civilization, modern, 434.
Cicero, cited, 74, 209,

Professional and oratorical training, 166, 538.
Clarendon, Lord, 140.
Classification of the sciences, 469.
Classical, origin of term, 200.
Classical studies, opinions respecting,
Byron, 443.

Macaulay, 440.
Chatham, 130.

Martineau, 445.
Donaldson, 435. Mill, 501.
DeQuincey, 200. Milton, 152.
Froude, 520, 521. Niebuhr, 171.
Gladstone, 433.

Southey, 443.
Herschel, 457.

Temple, 417.
Hodgson, 444.

Tyndall, 481.
Locke, 146.

Vaughan, 446.
Lowe, 421.

Whewell, 458.
Class-reading of books, 223.
Cleanliness, 36, 70, 322.
Cleanthes at Rome, 537.
Clear and precise ideas of any subject, 454.
Clepsydra, water time-piece, 191.
Clothes, and dress, 323, 362.
Clulow, W. B., 16.
Coleridge, S. T. 189, 194.
College, or associated education, 23, 31.
Colleges, 31.
COLLINGWOOD, LORD ADMIRAL, 379,

Letters on education of his daughter, 379.
Colored spectacles, reading with, 110.
Commands, should be few, 318.
Commentators, 145, 176.
Common-place book, 78, 90, 224.
Commencing Master of Art, 154.
Common-sense, 393.

Competition, 441.
Composition in ancient tongues, 152, 171, 425.
Composition in vernacular, 158, 173,

Learned by translating from other languages, 165.

Promoted by writing out notes of lectures, 495.
Conciliation, 397.
Condiments and dainties, 321.
Conduct, suggestions respecting points of

Ambition, 124, 523. Industry, 71.
Attention, 126.

Inferiors, 76, 137, 327.
Behavior, '124, 137, 243. Kindred, 76.
Borrowing, 76, 353. Law suits, 76.
Charity, 94

Lending, 237, 266.
Companions, 75. Manners, 243.
Confidence, 76. Marriage, 305.
Conscience, 96.

Modesty, 70,293,322,370.
Conversation, 76, 127, Motives, 67, 96, 128, 370.
Courtesy, 70.

Money, 249.
Diet, 83

Objects in life, 147.
Discretion, 178.

Occupation, 79, 107
Diversions, 80.

Order, 90, 247
Dress, 81.

Profanity, 70.
Drinking, 80.

Profession, 79, 97.
Devotions,

Profligacy, 184.
Expenditures, 75, 86. Quarreling, 236.
Early risiug, 397, 398. Religion, 74, 134, 370.
Endorsing, 76.

Reverence, 67.
Exercise, 37.

Sarcasm, 128.
Familiarity, 182. Self-control, 96.
Filial duty, 75.

Sensuality, 95, 97.
Friends,

Silence, 80, 184, 528.
Gaiety,

Sleep, 81.
Health

Sunday, 84
Honesty, 174, 525. Superiors, 70, 76, 137.
Hospitality, 76.

Travel, 71,
Humility, 321, 456. Truthfulness, 70, 318.

Independant, 95. Wife, 75.
Conference, with others, in reading, 112, 223, 225,
Confession of faults, 317.
Confirmation, 309.
Conscious manner, 179.
Consequences, pondered over, 285.
Contents and analysis of book read, 225, 230.
Conversation, value and method, 177.
Addison, 184.

Steele, 184
Bacon, 177.

Swift, 179.
Burleigh, 76.

Taylor, 88.
Chesterfield, 127. Temple, 184.
DeQuincey, 185. Whately, 178.

Mackintosh, 368.
Conversation, common faults in, 180.
Conversation and reading, 103, 112, 150, 223, 229.
Conversers, examples of good, 187, 190.
Convent life for girls, 293.
Cotta, 168.
Country, education for children in, 363.
Courage, 37, 60.
Course or plan of life, 97, 339, 398.
Course of reading, 22
Course of study, 133, 169, 195.
Courtesy, 70, 136, 185.
Court manners, 246.
Cowardice, 315.
Cowley, A., Value of a library, 208.
Cox, W., scope of Education, 19.
Cramming, 480, 491.
Crates, cited, 100.
Crying and whining, 319.
Curiosity, 14, 112.
Custom, or habit, 16.
Cuvier, Logical advantages of Natural History, 477.

Dacier, Madame, 336.
Dainties, 321.
Dames Hospitalieres, 402.
Dancing, 136.
Dante, cited, 397,

Value of morning hours, 397.
Darkness, fear of,
Day, the ordering of a, 81, 338, 396.
Death, 277, 311.
Debt, 236, 266.
Defoe, 227.
Demosthenes, 144, 163, 528.

1450

DeMaistre, on education of Girls, 381, 398.

Endowments, 430, 528.
Denny, Letter to, 388.

English Bible, 2
DE MORGAN, 446.

English Classical Scholarships, 437.
Thorough mastery of One Subject, 446.

English Language, 208, 423, 429.
DeQuincey, Thomas, 185,

English Literature, 208.
Conversation as an Art, 185.

English and Scotish Universities, 499, 516.
Letter to a person of neglected education, 193. Ennui, 382
Descartes, Method of investigation, 469.

Envy, and covetousness, 313.
Devotional exercises, 73, 82, 83, 292.

Erasmus, 223, 373.
Dialectics, 167,

Esteem of others, 67, 125, 142, 370.
Diary, 395.

Ethics, 511.
Dictionaries, 228.

Euclid, 198, 461,
D'Israeli, 227.

Repugnance to, 490.
Diet, 160, 321.

Eunapius, at Athens, 538.
Diligence, 524.

Evening reading, 365.
Discovery, Pleasures of, 492.

EVERETT, EDWARD, 211.
Discretion, Age of, 87, 93.

Books, Libraries, Reading, 212.
Discretion in speech, 178.

Example, 53.
Disputation, 145, 192.

Excursions, 159.
Dissertations, 172.

Exercise, 37.
Distrust, self, 149.

Experimental Sciences, 420, 469, 490,507.
Diversions,

Experience and knowledge, 14, 89.
Docendo discimus, 342, 495.

Extempore speaking, 162, 165,
Dolland and the Telescope, 218.

Perfected into Oratory, 163.
Dolls, for girls, 321.

Eyes or No Eyes, or Seeing, 289, 486.
Domestic life, 399.
DONALDSON, JOHN WILLIAM, 435,

Facts, the basis of scientific induction, 491.
Classical Learning, and Competitive Tests, 435. Faculties, culture, 418, 421.
Education, Information, Knowledge, Science, 456. Limitations, 150.
English and German Scholarships, 437.

Fairness, 318.
Comparative value of Knowledge, 440.

Faith, 275.
Drawing, 358, 391.

Dress, 81.

Fagging, 37.
Drudgery of details, 418.

Familiarity, not accuracy, 501.
Du Bartas, 99, 101.

Family Government, 296.
Dunces, will exist, can diminish, not extirpat, 154, Family Life, 295, 331.
496.

Family Reading, 223.
DUPANLOUP, BISHOP OP ORLEANS, 381, -

Family, School of, 23, 295, 369.
Studious Women, 381.

FARADAY, MICHAEL, 449,
Duty, 280, 284.

Existing education does not train the judgment,

Natural science develops laws, 452.
Earliest moral influence, 148.

Fancies, 94.
Earliest reading, 117, 227.

Fasting, rule, 293.
Early impressions, 291.

Father, 'duty in education, 306, 342.
Early rising, 81, 139, 376, 397.

Fear of the Lord, 67, 101, 135, 283, 290.
Easter festival, 328.

Fear, or Cowardice, 69, 311.
Eating, 83, 321.

Fear, as a Motive, 69, 96, 101.
Eeonomics, 156.

Feltham, 223.
Edgeworth, Maria, 57, 118.

Female Education, 30, 289.
Edinburgh Review, 129.

Belongs to the Family, 307.
Education, defined and described, 11.

Female Employments, 399.
Addison, 16.

Jacobs, 437.

Fencing, 136, 158.
Ascham, 12.

Johnson, 15.

Fenelon, 297, 307, 323, 332, 340, 344.
Austin, 20.

Lalor, 20, 84.

Fiction, Works of, 229,
Bacon, 12, 123.
Locke, 14, 145.

Raumer, 304, 338. Whately, 118.
Barrow, 13, 93.

Lowe, 121.

Field Sports and Excursions, 158.
Brown, 21.

Martineau, 445. Flowers, studied with an artist's eye, 359, 491,
Burke, 17.
Masson, 28.

Botanical or scientific aspect, 491.
Butler, 16.
Mill, 497

Fliedner, Pastor, 399.
Carlyle, 21, 204,525. Milton, 12, 152

Fluency in speaking, 468.
Channing, 22.

Newman, 529.

Food, 85, 316, 321.
Clalow, 16.

Paley, 15.

Foreign languages, important to a knowledge of na-
Cox, 19.

Parr, 17.
Foresight, 277, 286.

[tive, 501.
Doderlin, 436.

Pope, 11, 421.

Forms, ignorance of, 247.
Donaldson, 435.

Raumer, 335.

Foundations, 480, 527.
Faraday, 450.

Ramsden 17, 19. FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, 212, 249,
Froude, 515.
Ruskin, 19.

Poor Richard-or the Way to Wealth, 249.
Gladstone, 433.
Shakspeare, 11.

Indebtedness to Books, 213.
Grote, 18.

Short, 13.

Fraternal feelings, 313.
Hamilton, 15, 18, 21,441. Simpson, 21.

Free services, 209.
Harris, 16.

South, 13, 92.

French Language, 138.
Helps, 18.

Stewart, 21.

Freshmen, at Athens University, 539.
Henfrey, 469.

Wayland, 22.

Friendship, School of, 27.
Herschel, 457.

Whately, 18, 124. Frivolity, and Ignorance, 384.
Hobbs, 14.

Wheweil, 11, 458. FROUDE, JAMES ANTHONY, 515,
Hooker, 13.
Whichote, 13.

Address to Students of St. Andrews, 515.
Huxley, 474.
Wotton, 12

Ancient English and Scotch Universities, 516.
Educare, Educere, 11.

Object of Modern Schools-High and Low, 518.
Education, designed, formal, 498,

Education should prepare for occupations, 519.
Accidental, of life, 497, 514.

Higher education should be less classical and or-
Mutual, 529.

namental, 521.
Eloquence, 164, 168, 544.

Literature as a profession, 523.
Employments, 79, 399.

Fry, Elizabeth, 411.
Emulation, generous ardor, 126, 155.

FULLER, THOMAS, 89,
Encouragement, 78, 290.

Memory--Books-Travel, 90.
Endorsing, surety, 76, 236.

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