Imatges de pÓgina


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curd-milk.' 63@ol from 2 818 and @o?, 'rice cooked with milk.'

d. Words in the sense of the Dative case. Baucar from @solo&coge and cod, 'alms given to Brahamins.' egou E & from ego19:53038 @ and E8 clothes set apart for sacerdotal robes.'

Words in the sense of the Ablative case. Glow from GUIO Loosiand @, 'fear resulting from thieves.' 56.37 from Sino siand 22, 'that which escapes from the sheath.' orges from 39000 si and 20, 'that which escapes from Rahu.'

f. Words in the sense of the Genitive case. 6888 from o good and 85ed, ‘king's attendants.' @sectos from sof God and a ben, ‘Budha’s virtues.' 8w283 from 8 w5ð and 83, 'the lord of love.' go tocou from ego 8.0 and nonov, enemy of God.' g.

Words in the sense of the Locative case. eos from COo8 and , borne in the bosom.' çoooow@from çoo88 and a 'great delight in the scriptures. One E900* from 200 and cond.cocoanut oil.' Elenos from ga

$ one Bad and 90.c, ‘king's-cocoanut oil.' winę from mos od 8 and wç, 'moon in autumn.'

Note, that certain words, as in oon: (locative)and modd, which produce color sub-ject, or scholar, retain the terminations peculiar to their cases, in being compounded with other words.

Third class of compounds. 37. Called Vesesun Samas are formed of nouns (with adjectives) attributive of some peculiarity, or expressive of a distinguishing characteristic of the object, e. g. • It is to be remarked, that in some

the words are and 0.890nd are respectively written 68.00 God and on akone. Vide note [*] to $ 36 Appendix A.

| “Compounds of (this class) Karmmadharaya division of Tatpurusha not require that the members of which they consist should exercise any government the one over the other; they are connected together by im.

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sord from ac blue, and ecc Lotus. Omered from 000€ E fair, and a wife. Oni & from oso manly, and Lion, which means 'lion-like.' Ew90.1e from my creeperlike, and on tenderness. wo Socsos from mors feet, and .61 lotus, the very-feet-a-lotus.' 00156from an one, and 86 u valiant, the only-valiant-(person).'* are from two, and a @ world, two-worlds.' Ona Osm from a three, and wo Sohelp, 'three-fold-help.' eswegou from 25 four, and wou ocean, 'fourfold-ocean. odoo from get five, and Smo great-river, 'five-fold river.' wow from a sir, and on taste, “six-fold taste.' wodou from woi seven, and rocks, 'seven-fold rock. Congee from opĉ eight, and .5.900 caste of elephants, ‘eight-castes of elephants. Jos so from ono nine, and go door, ‘a nine-fold door. Çocot, from cu ten, and o¢@royal virtues, 'ten-fold royal virtues.'

Fourth class of compounds. 36. When by the combination of many words of various eignifications, a meaning is produced different from that which the words (themselves) convey, the compound is called gotocol; and it is to be taken in the sense of one of the seven cases (already referred to). f

EXAMPLES. JOU Ey coed — Swan-stuck place' i. e. osetank, which is in the sense of the Accusative. Sou—one by whom the

plied, though not expressed concordance, or by copulatives understood. The most numerous series of Karmmadharaya compounds is that in which the attribute is combined with the object; as sociologo "a blue lotus.” &c.-Wilson, p. 313.

The ten last examples illustrate the Dwigu Tatpurusha compounds of Sanscrit grammarians; and they are compounds of aggregates of any given number of things formed with numerals to sigoify attributes of weight, measure, or number,

+ The above species called in the Sanscrit, Bahurehi compounds is thus defined by Professor Wilson, p. 348. “Two or inore words, or two or more compound terms, may be put together to form the attribu or epithet of an object...... When the principal term retains the sigo of the case it may be put first."

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senses are subjugated,'i. e. gs, Budha, in the sense of the Instrumental. godDol—that by reason whereof a meal or rice is prevented,'i. e. eo, quarrel, in the sense of the Auxiliary case. godqouthat by whose means a-tree-is-cut,' i. e. Oon, axe, also in the sense of the Auxiliary case. Soool “a person to whom a thing is given,' i. e. 220, Brahamin, in the sense of the Dative case. Og daginn 26-'that from which a-monkey-fell’i. e. Oro, a tree, in the sense of the Ablative case. eçə ol—'a-face-of-moon,' or BC 'a thinness-of-waist,' i. e. woman; come one of tenpowers,' oronued one of five-eyes,' i. e. Budha, in the sense of the Genitive case. Odnotou-that-which-has-in-it many-rutting-elephants,' i. e. 6 son, forest, in the sense of the Locative case.

Ossipo 63r@e—that which has in it many-heroic-powerful-troops,' i. e. 6.690085, battle-field, also in the sense of the Locative case. Woodvele—that which is associated with strung-stars,' i. e. q@, sky. Ownego 'he who was associated in the same womb,'i. e. brother.

Note, that this class of compounds may be subdivided into two, viz. Os2-50, inherent or possessive attributives, as em Ost one who has a drooping ear;'-and 2012 Gn attributives other than the possessive, as going or 'one who reached the ocean's end.'

Fifth class of compounds. 39. When a term or expression, which, if not compounded, would require the intervention of a conjunction equivalent to and, is considered either severally, i. e. as many as there are words, or as one aggregate term; it is called çqocol wod, a copulative compound.*

* The following definition of this species of compounds in Wilkin's Sanscrit Grammar, will throw further light upon the role in the test “When two or more words come together, each in the same case, and which, in the usual mode of construction, would be separated by a conjunction equivalent to and, they may be formed into a compound of this species. There are two modes of forming compounds of this species. In the first mode, the compound

EXAMPLES. Expressions such as 86ę węç— both the sun and the moon' produce 865€, Sun-moon; wlicgolę wcase

both Seriyoot and Mahamoogelan' produce and goloso @co Cod, Seriyoot-Mahamoogelan; and ozodoed8w8q-elephants, horses, carriages, foot, (soldiers)' is a compound formed of alonge, pedige, 8c9, 044, 'elephants, and horses, and carriages, and foot (soldiers).'

Note, that where the words are to be taken scverally the last word of the compound should take a plural termination; Dogo 0700:) 3.00), Brahama, God, and men worship.

Note also, that where the words are taken collectively, the last word of the compound takes a singular termination; e. g. Bonae, Song-dance.

End of the fifth Chapter.

is considered as many, and the last word is therefore put in the plural number; and in the second mode, the aggregate is considered as one, and the last number is, consequently, put in the singular number.'-p. 569.

• Although not upon the same principle, compounds in the English language frequently have the plural inflexion on the last word. "Two or more pouns in concordance, and forming one complex name, or a name and a title, or two titles, have the plural termination annexed to the Jast only; as the Miss Smiths, the three Doctor Simpsons, the 100 Master Wigginses ; queen-consoris, lord-chancellors, lord-lieutenantı, Analogy,' Dr. Priestly observes, 'would plead in favor of a different construction, and lead us to say, the Misses Smith, &c.; for, if the ellipsis were supplied, we should say, the two young ladies of the name of Smith. The latter form of expression, it is true, occasionally occurs; but general usage, and, I rather iocline to think, analogy likewise, decides in favor of the former: for, with a few exceptions, and those not parallel to the examples just given, we almost unitormly, in complex pames, confioe the inflexion to the last or the latter poud.".

."-Crombie. + Mr. Yates in the Introduction to his Sanscrit Grammar, at p. xvii. says—"All the words in a sentence are frequently run one into another, and the final letters of each word changed to agree with the initial of The fucceeding one. In Engli:h, were words thus joined together without any permutation of the letters, it would be very puzzling to a learner; but if the final letters of each word were changed to agree with the


Of Concord.*

40. The principal part of a sentence (which is governed by its other parts) is the subject called abowed, and all the terms which (agree with or) qualify the subject are called the attribute, Ed.t The subject must agree with its attribute in Gender and Case. Erudite scholars will in composition (generally) place the attribute so that it may agree with the subject in gender and case; or they will obviate its necessity by a different form of expression.

initial of the next, the difficulty would be greatly increased. This is the case in Sanscrit.” Nor is it less so in Singhalese. And it is remarkable that, owing to this peculiarity in Oriental languages, translations into the English labour onder serious objections in respect of clearness and elegance of style ;-desects which have been frequently, but unjustly, attributed to the ignorance of translators. In translating compound terms into English, it is frequently necessary to string up a number of words together in order to keep clear of many difficulties in composition. Of this last, the Mahawanso presents us with an instance.“ Dewananpiyatisso” is translated by Mr. Turnour, "of-the-devos-the-delight Tisso.”

• This, which some may suppose to be the only chapter on Syntar, contains but a brief elucidation of the various rules known to the Singbalese language. Indeed, that which Europeans call Synlar, embraces in the Singhalese a great deal of what is treated under the head of Propriety, in the lith chapter, and the science of GMO, Rhetoric, in the 12th chapter ; on which last, we should not omit to state, there is extant in the Singhalese a separate work called the Swabhas'alankara. As in the Sanscrit, the great bulk of the Elu works are in metre; and therefore the rules regarding the construction of sentences are in general “ subordinate to the necessity of rhythm.” Many tigures of speech are chiefly owing to a poctical license, more than to any laws of language. It will be seen that in this work the syntax of the noun, the verb, the cases, &c., are intersperged, as in Tamil Grammars, with other matters strictly pertaining to other departments of Grammar. - + lo the Singhalese, properly speaking, the Adjectives or Attributes admit of no degrees of comparison. The Adjectives sometimes take certain affises by wbich a superlative, or a degree between the positive and the superlative is expressed ; thus go a very round; t ço 2 partially red, &c.


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