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1922.] Account of the Apothecaries' Garden, Chelsea.
499 Latin Lindæan Names.
Native Country. Amomum Zingiber. Ginger.
East Indies. Aristolochia Serpentaria. Virginian Snake Root.
South of Europe.
South of Europe.
Ditto. Strelitzia regina.
Plant named after QueenCharlotte. Cape of Good Hope.
Ditto. Zanthoxylom Clava-Herculis. Tooth-ache Tree.
Ditto. Having thus endeavoured to give a skilful management, and unremitting brief sketch of the rise and progress of attention, those exertions have been this important and beneficial'Establish- followed up and carried into effect. ment, it only remains to perform the Yours, &c. Thomas FAULKNER. pleasing task of noticing its present state and condition. After the many Mr. URBAN,
Queen-sq. Bloonsstruggles and difficulties it has had to
bury, May 28.
THE proud eminence upon
which Wells and Fountains at Tottenham the Botanical Garden is placed. This High-Cross, Middlesex, with the mehas been principally caused by the thod of obtaining a never failing supply steady patronage and laudable exer- of water, by boring the earth to the main tions of the Society of Apothecaries; spring. The facility by which a constant but it must at the same time be ad- supply of spring-water may be obtainmitted, that great merit attaches to ed at comparatively little expence by their present Gardener, Mr. William boring, may, through the medium of Anderson, by whose fostering care, your Miscellany, be made public. It is
(June, desirable to be known that in almost is sunk, the depth of the water in those all situations water may be obtained surrounding it is diminished for a short by this method at the expence of a time; proving incontestibly, that there few pounds; whereas the expence of exists some communication amongst sinking a well to the main-spring too them. It is certain, that no such often deters the party from aitempting communication could exist, except at it. Should you consider this commu- the bottom of these wells; and it is nication sufficiently interesting, I hope therefore evident that they all derive you will give it publicity, that persons their supply from one common and in all situations of life may have the immense reservoir. In some instances, opportunity of procuring one of the however, the water has been found to greatest luxuries in Nature, good, diminish gradually and very consipure, and wholesome water,” in a derably in depth; and wherever it has short space of time, with little trouble, been found requisite to seek into the and at a trifling expence.
cause of this, it has always been found “Within the memory of several in- to be an accumulation of sand, which habitants of Tottenham High-Cross, had been raised by the water, and deMiddlesex, it was almost an universal posited at the bottom of the well. complaint that no good water was to “ Hence it is reasonable to conclude, be had in the village.—The wells that all the wells are supplied from one were at that time only a few feet deep, common reservoir, and that the source the supply of water was uncertain, of the water is in a stratum of sand and it was not pure enough for domes- lying, beneath the blue clay, through tic purposes. The fact is, that the which the wells are sunk. wells reached only to the blue clay, “ It becoines of considerable interest, and therefore their depth depended on whence could have been derived so that of the superstratum, namely, of immense a body of clay, what its nathe gravel or loam lying upon it. In ture is, and what also is the nature of the loam there are soine salts, which, the stratum of sand lying beneath it; being taken up by the water during and above all does it concern us, as percolation, rendered it what is termed regards the common purposes of life, hard.
to ascertain how so large a body of “ Within the last forty years, the water should have found its way becomplaint of the badness of the water neath a stratum of clay, which is imat Tottenham has been effectually re- pervious to water, and whence so conmoved in most places in the parish, stant a supply arises. These are quesand might be in all. The clay, from tions of a geological nature. It is nethe surface of which the water was cessary to answer them briefly, but it formerly obtained, and to which it is will be requisite in so doing, to take a nearly, if not absolutely impervious, survey considerably beyond the bounhas been pierced through in many dary of the parish. parts, affording, a never-failing supply
« A few miles on the West, or a of remarkably clear and brilliant water, little to the South of the West of Totwhich is particularly soft, and is con- tenham, we arrive at a country, the sursequently adapted to every domestic face of which consists of sand. Houn. purpose.
slow Heath, and a large proportion of • The depth of the wells varies from Windsor Forest, are of this nature, and about 110 to 140 feet; and when the so is the country until we arrive at water was arrived at in sinking some Hungerford, in Berkshire; in the neighof them, it rose with so great rapidity, bourhood of which chalk hills make as to overtake the well-digger several their appearance. Chalk is also found times before his escape was elected. at Reading; at High Wycomb, in So great and invariable is the supply Bucks; near Rickmansworth ; and of water, that it overflows a well in Hertford, in Hertfordshire. New. the premises of Mr. Wilkinson, near market Heath, in Cambridgshire, is the High-Cross, with a stream which, of chalk, which continues thence to during several years, appeared to be the sea coast, near Cromer, in Norneither diminished by the drought of folk. These places are all North-east the driest summer, nor increased by of Hungerford, and are on a continuons the floods of the most rainy winter. range of chalk hills. If again we start
“It is an extremely curious but well. from Hungerford, eastward, another ascertained fact, that when a new well range of chalk hills traverses the country
501 by Guildford and Rochester, to Dover sive evidence :-sea shells are found in on the coast of Kent.
both. The clay lies in nearly hori“Now it is worthy of remark, that if zontal layers, which is proved by the we travel from the East of Hungerford thin stratum of sand occasionally disto the East of Cromer, it is over a wide covered in the sinking of the wells'; and tract of sand; and if we travel from alsofrom its containing nodules of argillaHungerford to Margate, on the North ceous limestone in regular strata. These of the chalk hills, we also travel on · nodules are termed septarii, from their sand; and it is equally worthy of no- being divided across by partitions, or tice, that all the wells sunk through veins of calcareous spar; and furnish these sands prove that they rest upon the material of which Parker's cement the chalk; in other words, that 'the is made. chalk of the ranges of hills, partially “Although some of the inhabitants * surrounding us, dips beneath the sand, of Tottenham have obtained a good lying every where on the surface not supply of excellent water from deep many miles from Tottenham, and every sunk wells to the main spring, there where for some miles surrounding Tot- are a great proportion who are obliged tenham, beneath both the chalk and to buy water of the carriers, who prosand.
cure it from the well on Tottenham “It is therefore reasonably concluded, Green, which was dug, and a pump that the range of hills from Hunger- erected, at the expence of the late ford to Cromer dips gently beneath Thomas Smith, Esg. Lord of the Mathe sand to the South-east, while the nor of Tottenham in 1791 t." range from Hungerford to Dover dips Mr. Mathew, in the summer of gently towards the North; that the last year, adopted the method of chalk of the two ranges is connected, boring through the earth to the passing beneath Middlesex, Essex, main-spring, at his farm in BroadSuffolk, and Norfolk, and even beyond lane, Page Green, Tottenham, when them, beneath the sea, bordering the he obtained a copious and constant coasts of the three latter counties; we supply of water from a depth of 120 are therefore to conceive the whole of feet, which rises 8 feet above the this tract to be situated in a vast hol- surface, and flowing over, forms an low in the chalk, which is geologically elegant little cascade. It has neither termed the chalk basin of London. increased nor diminished since the
“ It is confidently believed by geolo- spring was tapped. Having succeeded gists, that the sands already mentioned on his own premises, he thought a pass together with the chalk beneath similar experiment might be tried with ihe surface, forming the very sand, equal success on the waste ground on from which rises the water supplying the West side of the high road, oppo. the wells at Tottenham. Upon the as- site the gateway leading to the worksumption of this being the fact, of house, and which would be of most which there exists the utmost proba- essential benefit, not only to the inhability, we shall be no longer at a loss bitants residing in that part of the to account for the origin of the great parish, but to the public at large. reservoir of water existing beneath the This suggestion being made to the blue clay, through which the wells Vestry, it was acceded to on behalf are sunk. The fact appears to be this of the parish, and the work com- the water which falls on the sand, menced. It was completed under the together with that which passeth into direction of Mr. Mathew by John it from off the chalk, percolates the Goode. The ground was bored to the stratum of sand underlying the clay; depth of 105 feet, when a fine spring hence, when an opening is made of water issued forth, which rises six through the clay, the water rises nearly feet above the surface of the ground, or quite to the surface, on the princí- through a tube within a cast iron ple of its seeking its level :- the level pedestal, and Howing over the lip or of the sand at the foot of the chalk edge of a vase, forms a bell-shaped hills, and of the clay at Tottenham, is nearly the same.
* William Rowe, Esq. and Mr. James “ The sand lies in a hollow in the
Row, Page Green. chalk, and the clay in a hollow in the
+ The preceding account is gleaned from sand. That both have been deposited Mr. Robinson's - History and Antiquities by the sea, there is the most conclu. of Tottenham."
[June, continual sheet of water, inclosing the the convenience of placing a pail or vase, as in a glass case; it is collected and pitcher under. The pedestal was exeagain conducted downward through cuted by Mr. Turner, of Dorset-street, the pedestal to the place of its dis- Fleet-street, under the direction of charge, out of the mouth of a dolphin, Messrs. Mathew and Chaplin. about 18 inches from the ground, for
The quantity of water thrown up perforating the ground to the mainand discharged, is at the rate of 14 spring. gallons a minute.
The peculiar advantages of boring The Fountain represented in the cut the ground for water, instead of digis copied from a drawing made by Mr. ging, particularly at great depths, J. N. Walter, near the Turnpike at renders the former method of great Kingsland, who has lately published a importance to the publick, since walithographic print, illustrative of the ter' is obtained by boring at a small facility by which water may be raised expence, as is exemplified by the folby the method of boring, and the gene- lowing table. ral purposes to which it may be applied, This table shews the prices of boring with explanatory tables which will be and of well-sinking respectively, at found of great use to persons desirous every 10 feet of depth, from 10 feet of obtaining a never-failing supply to 200 feet; viz. boring at 4d. per of good soft water, by boring or foot for the first 10 feet, 8d. per foot
10 20 30 40 50 60
0 0 1 1
0 13 10 10 13
0 10 3 0 0
3 4 6 7 9 11 13 15 17 20 22 25 28
80 90 100 110 120 130
5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5
1 3 5 8 11 15 19 24 29 35 41 48 55 63 71 80 89 99
140 ...... 150 ...... 160 ...... 170 180 .....
10 13 0
1822.] Remarks on the Repairs of Westminster Abbey.
503 for the second 10 feet, and 4d. per the Monuments, I shall, perhaps, subfoot additional and progressive for each ject myself to some ridicule in censurfollowing 10 feet; and of well-sinking ing the operation altogether. It is well at 2s. 6d. per foot for the first 10 feet, known that this ancient and majestic 3s. 6d. per foot for the second 10 feet, Church contains sepulchres and cenoand is. per foot additional and pro- taphs of all ages from the 13th cengressive for each successive 10 feet. tury to the present one, differing in TABLE OP PRICES.
design as well as in the materials of Price of Price of
which they are constructed: it will Depth.
Boring. Well Sinking. therefore almost necessarily follow that feet. £. d.
any attempt to render them uniform in their appearance, must be ridiculons. Do we expect to see “ the tombs of some that died yesterday and some six hundred years ago” display as much freshness as if they were only just
raised? It would have been sufficient 70
for every purpose, if they had been carefully cleaned from the dust which covered them. The present attempt is like dressing a venerable old gentleman in the style of a Bond-street dandy. But to proceed with the consideration of the repairs themselves -- the numerous modern monuments, good, bad, and indifferent, which incumber the Abbey, have had their surfaces
washed clean, but to style this opera190 ...... 31
tion a restoration is a great abuse of 200 ...... 35
the term. The inscriptions in many Since the introduction of this.cheap instances are wholly effaced, and in and simple method of obtaining a others partially so; the enquirer now constant supply of water, many of the pores over them, and receives as little inhabitants of the parish have adopted information as from the guide who it, whose example is followed by shows them. The preservation, howmany in the adjoining parishes, and ever, of the modern monuments would also in the county of Essex, with uni- have been but of little concern, if the versal success.
ancient ones had been left untouched ; The ornamental purposes also to —they have, I am sorry to add, in which it may be applied are innumer- many instances been most disgracefully able, and present themselves to the mutilated. All those in the several man of taste in endless variety of forms, small Chapels at the East end of the such as fountains, waterfalls, or ba- Church have been roughly washed sins for dressed grounds; for baths, or with mops and water, to the great defor ornament, as well as the uses of triment of the ornamental parts, and the garden and the conservatory; but have gained a dull yellow colour by the man of science will hereafier em- the operation, which is no improveploy it as a principle of motion, and ment to their appearance, whilst, on direct it to various mechanical opera- the contrary, the monuments in Henry tions.
the Seventh's and St. Edward's Chapels
are untouched, and not even the dust MR. URBAN,
May 7. brushed off. Of those which have N your last, p. 366, is a brief ac- suffered most severely, I am sorry to have taken place in Westminster Abbey Geoffry Chaucer. This your Readers since the Coronation. I beg the in- will recollect was formed of a red sertion of the following lines, in which stone, and though not an elegant speI hope I shall be able to shew that the cimen of workmanship, was neverthewhole of these renovations and repairs less a very neat altar tomb, venerable do not reflect the greatest credit on the to the poet and the antiquary, on acsuperintendants of them !
count of the man it commeinorated; As far as regards the restoration of yet not this consideration, nor the ap