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491 confirm their aversion to the elegant Mr. URBAN,
May 15. mythology of antient and modern Rome, and they still continue a mo
HAVE read with very great inteI
rest, as doubtless many others nument in illustration of some of the have also done, in p. 352, the luminous most remarkable passages of Scrip- account of Mr. Buckland of the dark ture prophecy. These predictions were “ Antediluvian Cave" lately “ disconot usually of a nature calculated to vered at Kirkdale, near Kirby Moorprocure for their authors the favour of side in Yorkshire, about twenty-five iheir countrymen : the voice of admo- miles North-east of York.” In the bition and reproach was rendered still above very curious account, commu. more harsh, by the denunciation of a nicated by Mr. Buckland, and pubsignal correction that awaited their lished in the “Annals of Philosophy," apostasy: Moses has foretold almost many particulars occur which are sinin detail the miseries of the siege gularly worthy of attention; and which which Josephus has related ; and the will be highly honoured by insertion honours conferred on Titus for com- in the pages of your Magazine, where pleting their ruin, took place at the you have several times admitted the distance of less than half a century lucubrations of him who has now the from the time that our Saviour_fore- pleasure of addressing you. warned them of its approach. These The great Deluge, by which all the prophecies are in our hands, and the inhabitants of the old world, except captive nation itself has been dispersed Noah and his family, and two of every . among us to attest their accomplish- species of animals preserved in the ment.
Ark, were drowned, happened in the If the present condition of the Jews year 2349 before Christ, since which be a fact for which we have the evi- 1821 years have elapsed, making in dence of our senses, so the memory of all 4170 years since the Aood. If, those events which led to it have been therefore, the ideas of Mr. Buckland, guarded by every circumstance that can as related in his memoir, be correct, give authenticity to history.
and it is very far from my intention to Two Roman Emperors of eminent set up my little spark of knowledge renown were employed in the work of against the blazing splendour of his, destruction, and the notice taken of it the bones found in the Kirkdale Cave by their contemporaries proves it to belonged to animals that lived at, and have been regarded as the most promi- sometime previous to the Flood; and nent achievement of their reign. Nor consequently they are four thousand did this event happen at a period when and nearly two hundred years old, or ignorance received as history the fables that period of years has elapsed since of tradition. Literature and Taste were they formed parts of the living bodies then in full maturity, and the exploits of the several animals to which they of Roman power were recorded and are said to have belonged. To acspeedily published to the utmost limits count for this, we are told that “Diof an empire, that extended from the LUVIAN MUD," or the “ sediment of Thames to the Euphrates. Surviving mud deposited by the DILUVIAN WAthe convulsions by which that mighty TERS, entirely covered the bottom of the empire was torn in pieces, the Jews cavern to the depth of about a foot;remain a distinct people, preserving that “at the bottom of this mud the with religious care the history of their foor of the cave was covered from one crimes and sentences of condemnation, end to the other with the teeth and and though in avowed enmity to Chris- bones of several animals” there enutianity, supporting by their obstinacy merated; and that “they owe their the evidence of its truth. Such reflec- high state of preservation to the mud tions, though not strictly those of the in which they are imbedded." Antiquary, naturally belong to an ob- All this, to be sure, is extremely ject of such peculiar interest, and curious, but it is natural for those might easily be extended in a City who are not Antiquaries, to inquire abounding in historical monuments what are the tokens by which "Mr. and living evidence of whatever has Buckland can certainly distinguish been related or foretold of the ambi. this “ Diluvian mud” from all other tion, fraud, and superstition, of man- kinds of the same article—whether he kind.
ever saw any specimen of it, which was such beyond the power of contra
The Wonders of the Antediluviun Cave! (June, diction to deny-and how this large antediluvian “BEARS addicted rather to quantity of “Diluvian mud" could vegetable than to animal food," and have got access to the internal parts of for that reason “not devouring the the cave, when the waters of the dead individuals of their own species." Deluge, by Mr.Buckland's hypothesis, The postdiluvian bears of these degeare absolutely excluded ; since, if they nerate days, are certainly rather addicthad gained access into it, he says, ed to animal than to vegetable food: " the angles of the bones would have and it might puzzle any but an Antibeen worn off by attrition, but they quary to know why these gentle are not."
antediluvians dragged the bodies of the Be this fact, however, as it may, animals, the bones of which are aswe are informed “ some of the bones serted to be found there at this day, if and teeth appear to have undergone it were not for the purpose of devourvarious stages of decay, by lying at ing them. Again, it might be said, if the bottom of the Den while it was in- they did devour them, how could there habited, but little or none since the be such an accumulation of “the introduction of the Diluvian sediment” black earth derived from the decay of -which sediment or mud, it is assert- animal flesh,” as is asserted to be ed, got there by some hocus pocus found“ in the German Caves." Here means or other, when the Diluvian the Antiquary seems "to be put waters themselves were totally ex- into a cleft-stick," and one way or cluded" in which they have been the other he must be mistaken. imbedded."
These things, however, are mere Hitherto our weak intellects have trifles in comparison with that most been taught to consider the “Diluvian wonderful of all wonders, as mentionwaters” as being sent by God to " de- ed in Mr. Buckland's paper, of his stroy;" but this hypothesis tends to discovering amongst a large heap of prove that they, or the “ mud,” or other bones, those which formerly, the “sediment” they left behind that is to say, above 4000 years ago, them, possess a preserving power, belonged to a species of cat, &c. which has already exceeded four thou- Fine, indeed, must have been the dissand years, and which probably might cerning faculties of our profound Antiextend to ten or twelve thousand years quary, who amidst this miscellaneous more, if the globe itself, which we in- heap of bones, could discriminate those habit, should so long endure. Incre. which formerly appertained to this dulous persons might here be tempted particular animal, and was able to to inquire, how this profound Anti- point out with precision and exactness quary knows what changes took how this animal “resembled the juguplace in these bones before the flood, lar or spotted Panther of South Amethat is," while the den was inhabit- rica." "Perhaps Mr. Buckland, like ed,” being upwards of 4000 years ago; many of our brethren of the isles of and what since that period, unless he North Britain, may have possessed the had lived just before the flood, in gift of second sight, in a remarkably order to know the exact state they acute manner; and possibly, ere long, were in when that event took place. the world may be favoured with some But the real Antiquary, perhaps, will more of his speculations; or as we tell us, that this spirit of scepticism is may say, “visions, having his eyes altogether“ repugnant to the rules of open," wherein he may give us an their Society."
exact description of this spotted animal, Nor is the investigation of the co its size,“ habits," beauties, &c. &c. ponent parts of the Album Græcum of for the instruction and amusement of these antediluvian animals a whit less posterity. Indeed this expectation is curious, and must doubtless afford a both só reasonable and so desirable, high treat, and perhaps relish, to the that it is greatly to be hoped Mr. real lover of antiquity. The Keeper of Buckland will attend to this hint, and the Wild-beasts at Exeter 'Change without loss of time present us with ought certainly, for his deep know. a correct picture of this curious spotted ledge of this feculent matter of Hyenas, animal, as the same presented itself to asserted to be more than 4000 years his “inind's eye," when he wrote this old, to be immediately created an elegant illustration of these antediA.S.S.
luvian and diluvian transactions for the Singular also is the account of the pages of the " Annals of Philosophy;"
493 and which would doubtless greatly There is, however, one curiosity ornament the pages of your valuable that the present writer possesses, Miscellany, as ihe account of the which at least may vie with Mr. Buckó Kirkdale Cave has already done. land's “ Diluvian mud," or with his
No longer ago than yesterday, the “ Diluvian gravel,” as it clearly surwriter of this article was told, by a passes them both in its antiquity. gentleman resident in the immediate This is a Pedigree written on some neighbourhood of the above-mention- Antediluvian matter or other, which ed Cave, that a ball of the Album more nearly resembles the parchment Græcum has been already transmitted of our days, than any thing else used to the Cognoscenti of London, and by us for writing on. It commences that more may be expected to be sent, with Adam, and is regularly continued if the demand should rise in propor. to the present time: and though your tion to the extreme curiosity which is Correspondent would not venture to at present excited about it. And as a make an affidavit before a magistrate, ship-load of these antediluvian bones that any part of it is written by the have been already sent to the metro- hand of Adam himself, yet there is polis, the expence of sending them by an undoubted and clear family tradiland being too great to be thought of tion, that it was deposited in the Ark for a moment: and as the area of this by Noah, and that a part of it which cave is said to be 300 feet in length, is somewhat defaced and nearly illegible, by 3 feet in breadth, and the whole got some of the Diluvian waters upon has been described by our accurate it, from the carelessness of either Noah Antiquary to be covered one foot deep or one of his sons, in placing it under with Antediluvian mud, we have here a part of the roof of the said Ark, at once 900 solid feet of this precious which was more accommodating than article, from only one of the five Caves the Kirkdale Cave. Now, Sir, not already discovered in the Southern part being desirous of monopolizing, so of this island. What treasures then great a curiosity, your Correspondent may be expected from the solid con- has serious thoughts of applying to tents of the whole five. It is there. Parliament for an act to allow of a fore proposed, that a Bazaar should Lottery, and, if obtained, when 100,000 immediately be opened for the sale of subscribers have put down their names such curiosities as Antediluvian bones, at only one guinea each, the Lottery Antediluvian Album Græcum, Diluvian is to be drawn, and to prevent any mud, Diluvian gravel, &c. &c. And gambling or other ruinous speculation, as Mr. Belzoni's curiosities are adver- the first drawn ticket will be entitled tise:] to be very soon sold, your Corre- to the prize. spondent is of opinion, that the owner It is not possible to quit this subject of the Egyptian Hall, opposite Bond- without sincerely congratulating the street, in Piccadilly, could not do any- whole Society of Antiquaries on the thing more profitable to himself, or great acquisition to our knowledge, inore satisfactory to the publick, than which the discovery of the wonders of immediately to open such a Bazaar the Kirkdale Cave is likely to produce. there, and your Correspondent, who Already we have had a secret laid open lives very near the Kirkdale Cave, will to our view in this discovery, which readily become his country, Agent. for above 4000 years past has been
The writer of this article is in pos- concealed from "mortal ken;" and session of a piece of the wrapper of to what further iniportant improve. one of Mr. Belzoni's Mummies, said ment in science, and in the knowledge to be upwards of three thousand years of the “ habits” and manners of anold, which nevertheless is very good- tediluvian animals it may yet lead, is looking and in excellent preservation, for the present concealed in the womb and much resembling the Nankin of time; and conjecture itself is set at worn by some of our modern beaux defiance in the inquiry. In the mean for summer trowsers. This, however, time hope, which “ travels through, will be reckoned quite modern in nor quits us when we die,” will doubtcomparison of these Diluvian curiosities, less keep alive in the minds of Philowhich, beyond all reasonable contro- sophers the expectation of having wonversy, may be traced to the Flood, and ders hercafter revealed, which may with regard to the bones, to times make air-balloons, steam-boats, gasprior to that great event.
lights, and other wonders of this en.
494 View of the Editions and Commentators of Shakspeare. (June, lightened age in which we live, appear alesced with him in publishing a new like mole-hills compared with the edition (1706) which under their joint Grampian-hills, or Farthing-candles names, had by far the greatest circulawhen contrasted with the glorious Sun tion. Johnson seems to have thought himself when shining in the cloudless it perfect, as he declares, that "not a majesty and noon-day splendour of a single passage in the whole work has bright May-day.
appeared to be corrupt, which I have Yours, &c. KIRKDALIENSIS. not attempted to restore; or obscute,
which I have not endeavoured to il
lustrate." View OF THE EDITIONS AND
But two able competitors remained COMMENTATORS OF SHAKSPEARE.
well qualified to contest the Shakspe( Concluded from p. 423.) rian prize, and who refused an impli
WILL now consider the second cit acknowledgment of this high peare, who, generally speaking, found. chronology of Shakspeare's plays by a ed their criticisms upon an enlarged very careful investigation of the books inquiry into what has been called the of the Stationers' Company, in or. Learning of Shakspeare, by quoting der to ascertain the precise date of from contemporary and dramatic au- their publication. He was not less inthors, citing parallel passages, and ex- dustrious and successful in forming his amining how far he inight have pro- annotations upon the result of an albably been conversant with transla- most universal acquaintance with the tions from the Classics, existing and literature of the sixteenth century, no popular in his own time; and lastly, less than with the customs and anecthe precise extent of his acquaintance dotes of that æra; all of which appear with the originals themselves.
to have had an invaried influence This new ray of light was first sent upon the mind of Shakspeare. We forth as early as 1748, when Mr. P. must mention, that the lucubrations Whalley, then a young man, but af- of Steevens were rudely attacked by terwards, very creditably known as the Ritson, whose criticismis display an uneditor of Ben. Jonson's work, pub- common share of shrewdness and illlished his pamphlet, “ An Inquiry nature: into the Learning of Shakspeare. Whilst Mr. Malone at first had stuThe attempt was evanescent, and died Shakspeare as the literary pur. would have been forgotten but for its suit of a private gentleman, without an priority to the “Essay on the learn. avowed intention of publication, he ing of Shakspeare," by Dr. R. Fariner, enjoyed the friendship and high ap1767 ; of which a second edition was probation of the irritable Steevens. printed in the same year. A very ge- No sooner, however, was that intenneral approbation was bestowed upon tion made known, than their friendthis performance, not only on account ship was dissolved, by a quarrel, sought of the success with which he had sug- for by the “ dowager commentator, gested the more plausible text of Shaks- as Steevens quaintly styles himself. peare's writings, but the skill and sa- Malone's edition in 1790) was read gacity with which he had applied it. with great avidity, and has been se
With larger views, and superior op printed in 1821) with the author's portunities, this plan, of which the latest corrections, by, Mr. Boswell, to outlines only had been as yet marked whom he bequeathed them. out, was adopted by G. Steevens, who The steady coadjutor of Steevens was had for some years been making a Isaac Reed,' a most diligent inquirer great collection of “all the reading" into the literature of the two last cenwhich under any circumstances of pro- turies, and who had furnished himself bability, could have been supposed to with the largest collections then made. have been read by Shakspeare himself. He gave a singular and satisfactory
During this period Dr. Samuel John- proof of his having read the greater son was induced to employ his great part of his numerous books; as he left philological powers in the service of annotations in them in his own maShakspeare, and his octavo edition" nuscript. In 1785, at the request of made its appearance in 1765. He was Steevens, he published his edition of indeed sensible of the preponderating Shakspeare, with whom he was a joint value of Steevens' information, and co- editor in 1793; and who having left
1922.) View of the Editions and Commentators of Shakspeare. 495 him his own corrected copy, Reed sages by various commentators, so as published his last edition in 1803, and to allow of a comparison with that for the first time his name was for- of Mr. Jackson, leave our judicious mally prefixed.
readers to decide the conipetition and An ambition of contributing a fe- award the prize. licitous note to the mass already accu
TEMPEST. malated during this course of time, 1. “I'll get thee Sca-mells' from the had seized many of our literati, espe- rock.”—Johnson and Steevens. cially those better versed in our na
All the old Copies.-_“Sca-mells." tional antiquities. They were indeed so numerous, as to remind us of the Sea-mells,' the letter 'e' changed into “mob of gentlemen who wrote with a'c' by careless printers.”—Theolaid. ease." Some indeed are worthy of
Heath confirms Theobald, by saymore honourable mention, such as ing, that the word is either “Sea-mells, Heath, Tyrwhitt, T. Warton, Monk Sea-malls, or Sea-news.” Mason, and a few others, eminent for “Shamois."-Pope and Warburton. their extensive and various erudition. Jackson observes, that “ the Sea
Nor did these continued efforts of mews make their nests in rocks close the mind when applied to the single to the sea. The manner in which the and specific point of presenting our error took place is obvious. The tranadmirable author to the world in a scriber formed the “w”in mews larger clear and comprehensible state, so that than the other letters connected with the unlearned, no less than the critical the word, and which was taken by the reader, might become capable of en- compositor for “ 11.” joying his transcendent beauties, fully
2. Twelfth Night. obtain their object.
“ She pin'd in thought, All candid persons will acknowledge And with a green and yellow melancholy that there is still a grand desideratum! She sat, like patience on a monument Monk Mason proposes an edition of Smiling at grief.”. Shakspeare of the most approved read- All the exertions of criticism, sculpings, omitting all kinds of annotation. ture, and painting, have been displayed Such, he says, might bear for its title to illustrate this admirable passage, but “ A legible edition of Shakspeare;" vain the efforts; neither the powers of but query, who shall decide upon the erudition, nor scientific knowledge, perfect readings with uncontrovertible have been able to reconcile the inconcertainty?
gruity of patience sitting on a monuI have now, in some degree, pre- ment, smiling at grief, and yet the pared your readers for the introduction transposition of a comma, and the adof Mr. Jackson, by previous informa- dition of a parenthesis, give full force tion, intimately connected with the and beauty to the whole figure. I read, subject.
-“She pin'd in thought, Mr. Jackson is the first who has And, with a green and yellow melancholy applied his knowledge of the typogra- She sat, (like patience on a monument) phic art, coupled with the skilful prac- Smiling at grief." tice of it, to the elucidation of Shaks
3. LEAR. peare's text; and we feel no hesitation “ The untented woundings of a father's curse in allowing, that he has given several Pierce every sense about thee !" instances in proof of its positive supe- One of the quartos reads “ untender.'' riority over former tests in the refor- “Wounds in their worst state not having mation of the author's sense.
a tent to digest them."-Sleevens. Aberrations of learning, and mistaken analogies, are not unfrequent
“ Pierce every • fence' about thee."
Warburlon. when the text is obviously deformed by slight literal blunders only. This
That is (says Heath) “Strike through uncertainty is produced by deviating every feeling of which Nature is capa
ble. into a new context, when the substitution of letters, or the recasting a
“ Th' "indented' woundings of a father's single word, would render the pas
curse." sage clear and intelligible.
The only sense which the present It is necessary to offer some instances reading affords, Mr. Steevens has furin proof of this opinion; and by placing nished; but as commentators, like docthe interpretation of the several pas. tors, differ in opinion, mine is, that the