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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS’S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
ing calf. He was of somewhat shorter stature than flood, with hammers in their hands, just like the ginTHE PHILOSOPHER'S STONE.
his companion, it is true ; but what he wanted in tlemen that was up the mountain the other day with “Well, that bates the pyeramids, Mister Colooney!" height was more than made up in the dignity of his the tin case, sarchin' over and under, and up and exclaimed Patrick Gallagher, turning the object of his bearing, the manner in which his elbows were thrown down, for the filloshofer's stone ?" esamination this way and that in his hand ; “ resolve back, and the determined rigidity of his knee-joint, “ An' what was it to do for them if they found it ?" me this book, and Father M-Teigue may go to school which formed the key-stone of a backward arch at asked Pat, his face writhing with curiosity. to you !"
every step. Mr Colooney was no less a personage “ Oh, by dad, every thing. It 'id make them young The reader must imagine two grotesque-looking fel- than the village schoolmaster.
(Pat twitched up the right leg with a half audible lows, on an unfrequented by-road in the west of Ire “ Well, by dad, Mister Colooney, but this bit of a whoop), and comely (Pat leered modestly), and wise land, towards the fall of an autumn evening, busily shtoane's mighty like a book—the Lord save us !" (Pat strove to render his face intellectual), and engaged in scrutinising something they had just picked And like a book the thing certainly was that he had rich”up. Mr Patrick Gallagher was one of about twenty that instant picked up in the middle of the road, for “ Och, by japers,” cried Pat, “ that's the shtoane partners who held a piece of land under one lease from it had a back with four projecting ribs marked across for me! Rich! was it rich you said ?”—here he exethe rich absentee Lord TV, and endeavoured to it, some show of tooling, as it is called, flat sides, and cuted a screech, such as Power alone could imitate, wring his share of the rent out of the wet side of a the place where leaves generally appear in books sunk evidently showing that he considered all other qualihill, with the comfortable reflection, that if any whim the usual distance between the covers. Stone it cer ties merged in this great one. “But mind,” says he, should induce him to become rich, he was to be visited tainly was, and polished stone, too—a very pretty bit laying his finger on his nose—“ remimber, Mr Cofor his presumptuous prosperity with demands from of marble, with some “ organic remains” visible at looney, it was me that picked it up.” So saying, he his landlord for the full proportion due by the less each side of it. In short, it was a very stony-looking offered to relieve the pedagogue of his burden. thrifty and more Irish of his copartners. Thus he felt book, and a very bookish-looking stone.
“Oh no, paudheen !" said the other, smiling, but that he performed the whole law by having a sufficient “ But where's the use of a book that wont open ?" holding the precious relic tight. “So you want to number of dirty bank-notes in his pocket at certain continued Pat, musingly, as he attempted to force make out that it's you found out the saycret, do you? seasons to give the agent one half year's rent of his share asunder the covers. “ Shure, there's only one book Didn't I resolve you the maning of it all ? Didn't I within the other, so as to leave something always due; that's any good, and it shut; and Father M-Teigue hit on the grand ar-cane’um, as I was like to do, being and accordingly, without a farthing on the face of the can open that same, an' sorra a more strinth in his bit the one that puts the larnint into your four brats, if earth, and liable any day of the year to have his cattle iv an arm nor would rise a tum'ler to his mouth ; but, they'd resave it; and bad luck to them, the spalpeens, driven or his crops seized, he was considered a respec- by dad, this would defate him, or Father M'Hale it's the hardest-earned sack of cups, the taching of table tenant by his landlord, and an independent if not himself, and small blame to them, when there's no them four, erer I ate." a wealthy man by the neighbourhood and also by him- inside to it at all at all !"
“ You may go back to your boys, Misther Colooney," self. He was, however, a Connaught man; and those “ Whisht, Pat,” said Mr Colooney, with a sagacious says Pat," and hit upon what you plaise ; but if you alone who have crossed the Shannon are aware of all wink, “ how do you know that ?”
were the Kildare Sthreet man himself, you wouldn't that is implied in that term. He was fidgetty, re “ Arra, sir, who'd open a pair of flent covers ?-ye make them pick up as much knowledge in a day as I sentful, and grandiloquent-on wires, on thorns, and might as lieve go look for writin' betune Thady did just now;" and he winked, by way of giving sauce on stilts, all at the same time. His appearance was M'Gusty's millstones. It's a shtoane book, and you to his joke. characteristic. The eyes of an observer, beginning can't resolve me it, with all your guagin', and sur “ Well, Pat, there's somethin' due to you for finding their survey from above, first lighted upon a piece of veyin', and alphabets ! Well, what'll the poor child what you couldn't miss ; and so, Pat, I'll toss you for felt, of the shape of a thimble, with a bit of whip-cord her do, I wondher, that's set at letthers as long as my the stone. Will that do, Pat ?" tied round the middle of it, as if to prevent it going shtick, when the masther can't read a book no bigger “Oh, be aisy, Misther Colooney, if you plaise ; there's farther down on the wearer's head than the point of than the palm of my hand ? Set Pat at it himself, two sides to a halfpenny. What sarvice 'id a small bis nose. In this office, indeed, it was assisted by his an' he'll make somethin' of it, I'll go bail.” With lump of a flent do to the likes of you? No-see here, ears, which rose gracefully outside the brim, where this, Pat sought to recover the mysterious stone, now. If I make my forthin' out of the shtoane, d'ye the ordinary hat itself is wont to curl. His face was which Mr Colooney had taken from his hand in the mind, you'll be the betther by another sack of cups sharp, meagre, and cunning, with a chasm below, course of the conversation.
next Candlemas, and not a word about the keg of potarmed so as to resemble Fingal's Cave, and beset on But the man of the ferule was not inclined to part teen undher the school-room flure. Is that a bargain ? either side with an irregular thicket of wiry red hair. with it. He turned it on this side and on that, and Wet your fist, my honey, and done !' says I. Give A blue coat, interspersed with a few brass buttons, from one hand to the other, and racked his brains us the shtoane.” and built without much attention to the usual orders for some solution of the riddle.
All was arranged. Pat went home with the “ treaof architecture, served to connect the attic storey of “ It's a lump of a stone, that's sartain,” he muttered, sure-trove" in the crown of his hat, or rather on the this human edifice with a pair of leather small-clothes, musingly, “and, by the same token, mighty like what's top of his head, for crown his caubeen had none. Not that contracted like a backgammon-box half way in Father M'Teigue's chimley-piece, with the little a word could he say to his astonished wife and hungry down each thigh, but spread roomy for the knee-joint egg-shells and saws and rulers broke out on it like the brood, but “Wait, wait, darlints—you forthin's made. to play, disdaining buckle, button, or strap, and flap-small-pox. So a stone you are, says I, if St Patrick I'll set my li'l'houldin', and rise a male-shop in Ballyping against the top of a blue worsted stocking. This himself pithrified you. But then, again, you're a makeskin.” But he kept the stone out of sight, as specimen of Connemara manufacture, which was gar- book, or I never seen the inside of a school-room. The he had not quite made up his mind as to how he would tered just above the swell of the calf, was erased, as bigness to a T of my own ·Univarsal,' and the place proceed so as to realise his wealth in the shortest heralds would term it, below, leaving the primitive at the back where the name ought to be, and was possible time. He thought the best thing to do at Jeg again to “
crop out” to the surface, till it once wanst, maybe. It's a book, and it's a stone. Well, first would be to sleep on it. He had often dreamt of more dipped into the unfathomable brogue. Imagine that's beyant me. Maybe the larned men in the bags of shillings under a wall, and nearly undermined a creature thus clad, with flat back and shoulders, ould ancient time 'id be spellin' out of stone books, his hovel with digging for them; but “Bad luck to knees bent and knotted, and heels extending back afore readin' and printin’ was found out-the ould them,” he used to say, “I never hit upon the right like a reserve of foot, ready to be put forwards when filloshofers. By the blessed Vargint, I have it, Pat!" spot yit.” Still it was in his dream he expected the the other end was worn out-carrying a stick with shouted Colooney at last, flourishing his arm round stone to discover to him all its virtues ; and he had no the smaller end, polished with the “frequent palm,” his head.
doubt but that the way it would do so would be by in his horny fist-and you have some faint idea of Pat Pat jumped round, and opened his mouth.
telling him the right side of the wall to dig for the bag. Gallagher.
“My fortune's made, Pat !—I'm the boy, afther When night came on, he placed the piece of marble Mr Colooney was of a higher stamp. The first all!" and the pedagogue performed a pirouette, finish- immediately under his right ear, and anxiously did glance showed that his hat was or had been white, ing with a sprawling gambol high in air. “ The fillo- he wait for the necessary preliminary to his dream to notwithstanding the discoloration of the weather side shofer's stone, Pat !—the filloshofer's stone! Eh, Pat, come ; but whether it was the cold of the application
pened that morning found Mr Patrick Gallagher still beard black. He had not only buttons at his knees, “ The filloshofer's stone, you fool! Usen't all the awake, and, moreover, groaning and moaning most but long tape strings, tightening his hose over a burst- l world to be going about in the ould times after the piteously with toothache, and pain in his right jaw.
The next day the half acre was left to plough itself holes with having been so long looked at, a dresser of « Pat, my honey,” said he, "give us thee fist-there' if it chose, and the little mountain nags evinced much crockery, apparently the relics of an earthquake, an your ha’pence, an’ I'd give a naggin into the bargain satisfaction that their shoulders were not made ac odd flitch blackening in the chimney, and a coloured to get a sight o'the blessed Sia Fail that I'm tould quainted with the wisp of straw that generally served print of some anonymous saint, skewered into the you've got back from St Pether.” to attach them to the plough. Pat would answer no mud wall, constitute the refinements of the establish Gallagher burst into a hideous yell, which in the poquestions, but was observed to go up the side of the ment. For inhabitants, these consist of the father lite world would have been termed melting into tears. hill with Mr Colooney, whose school was over unu and mother, and their innumerable offspring, which “ I wronged you !" he sobbed—“I wronged you ! sually early that day. At this the red-headed rabble seem to descend by insensible grades into the pig, cur- But, by my sowl, no man shall say that Pat Gallagher which burst from his door displayed tokens of delight dog, and chickens, with which they habitually con was bate at that game. In with you, Larry, and mille as clearly as the nags, and much more audibly. That sort-so that it is difficult to say where humanity failte ; and for the matter of your pinny, there's small night Påt repeated the experiment, with this differ- ends, and pig begins ; while an old crone for ever Terry with the shkull-cap 'll be blessin' you for ever ence, however, that, having been made disagreeably cowers in the chimney, by the few sods of lighted for the half of it. Terry, you blackguard, what's acquainted with the properties of a stone poultice, he turf, like the genius of poverty incubating over her keepin' you?” and he bestowed a hortatory box on put some of the bedelothes (that is, a wisp of straw) heterogeneous brood.
the bandaged ears of the urchin. between him and the making of his fortune.
Now, readers all, gentle and simple, that we have Hereupon Terry's face silently writhed out of every Patrick Gallagher slept. As soon as he awoke, he introduced you to an Irish “ cabin,” you will perceive resemblance to humanity, becoming gradually black shook himself, turned about his head, thrust his eye that when we placed you at the side of Pat Gallagher's through every shade of red and purple, till at last, into the floor, screwed his forehead into a most saga- door, we allotted you a more disagreeable position than after a lapse of time sufficient to have suffocated a cious disposition of wrinkles, and began to think. you were aware of.
diver, a roar burst forth, which was only moderated “ What did I dhrame of?” Thinking with Pat On the day in question, as hath been already re- by being too vast for the dimensions of the imp's was a serious job. “What the dickens did I dhrame lated, this door was beset with people of all ages, throat. of ?” he repeated, putting his hand mechanically to sizes, and sexes, who seemed determined to take the “ Here, my jewel,” said Larry, apparently melted feel whether the book was “to the fore.” “ There castle by storin, so eagerly did they press towards its by this affecting demonstration, “away with you to you are, sure enough,” said he, as he turned it in his gate ; but here they met with an obstacle in the shape your mother, and tell her who was helpin' you." hand; “ but by this and that you might have made of the commander of the garrison, our hero himself, The urchin, as soon as he felt the money in his hand, me remimber what it was you tould me while you were who stood in the door-way with the alpeen already and without ever looking up, at once trotted off bareabout it, or what good's in your saycret at all at all." described in his fist, and opposed without scruple foot over the stones with a light step, but maintaining
But it wouldn't do. The knowledge which had knocking-down arguments to their farther advance. at its height the stentorian roar which had helped him been afforded him in his sleep (for that it had he did No one was to enter—no, not the priest of the parish, to this bit of good fortune, as if afraid that any internot think of doubting for a moment) had disappeared Father M-Teigue himself, without “paying his foot- mission might deprive him of it again. Larry entered like the stars with the light of the day, and Mr Gal. ing.” A penny a-piece for a sight of the rale fillosho- the hut, and Pat once more resumed his position. lagher was still as ill able to meet his landlord on the fer's stone, the book that dropped out of the skies one Three or four friends dropped up, and he showed the approaching gale-day as ever, nay, less so by the day that the blessed St Patrick was reading it, and let same magnanimous scorn of gain which had influenced amount of what a fine day's farm work was worth at it fall out of his hand ; " and sorry he was,” said Pat, him in the cases we have selected for special mention ; that season of the year.
in his notice to the neighbourhood, “that he couldn't a bright eye or a tight ankle his gallantry forbade to For three days and three nights did this go on, and demane himself to come down and pick it up; but pay toll, and the consequence was that his house was Gallagher was still completely swallowed up in his since he daren't do that, shure he pointed to it with | filled considerably before his pockets. Now, however, speculations. Towards the evening of the third his crook and I passin' by, and · Pat,' says he, “it 11 the crowd outside began to thicken, and to become day, he smote the leather which clothed his thigh. be the makin' of you ; but, mind you, don't let it out of urgent. Persons, known to have no pence, affected to as the nod of the sapient Lord Treasurer, we will comin' yourself
, you know; and if it isn't this way the tightness with which the “admitted few” were To explain this action, as fraught with meaning your hands, but bring it up safe to me when you're be pushed from behind by those who said they had,
while the hubbub from within sufficiently evidenced transport our readers a week forward in the his- you'll be comin', jist hand it over to Misther Colooney packed, and the difficulty those nearest the door had tory of Mr Patrick Gallagher, and beg of them to
there beyant at the school-house forenenst you, and of gaining a sight of the wonderful object of attracpost themselves at the side of the door of his cabin he'll take charge of it;' and with that the blessed tion. Pat was now forced to exert himself. The about two o'clock in the day-that is, if they can Saint took off his specs, and · Good mornin' to you, shillala was brandished in a menacing manner, and, find room, for they will meet a “mortial recoorse” Pat,' says he, quite genteel, and up into the skies with after two or three “ demonstrations,” finally brought
to bear with effect. Whop went the tough oak on of people flocking from all parts of the “ mountain,” | him again, to the tune of Patrick's day in the mornin?” many a tougher head, Pat exclaiming all the time, far and near, and converging to the entrance of the
All this spread like wildfire, of course, and not on that he was determined not to let in more than "the aforesaid cabin. Do the magnates who may con these | Tribute-Sunday were pence in greater requisition than full of the house" for any man. While he was thus pages in the drawing-rooms of the metropolis know on that day of wonder and excitement.
engaged, however, a sudden rush and shout from within
turned his attention the other way. So while some the full import of the term “cabin," as it is used to “ Now,” said Mr Gallagher, apostrophising himself boy is busy cramming greasy tarts, a gripe from the designate a human habitation in the west of Ireland ? as he took his post at the door-“ now, Pat dear, show visceral regions recalls his senses from the uneaten If it were only to do our duty towards our neighbour, yourself a man. There's young Hoolaghan and Larry portion outside his mouth to the eaten and halfwe must endeavour to explain. As a certain tourist, O'Dowd ’ill be for breakin' in past me for nothin', I'll digested load within. He pauses—and turns the eyes in writing home a description of Alpine scenery, com be bail. But sorra one of them ’ill do it without the of his soul back upon himself. But Mr Gallagher did menced by assuring his correspondent that a glacier prent of this bit of a shtick on their shkulls first. the door into the presence of the precious stone ; and
IIe quitted his post at once, and plunged from was not a fellow in a paper cap, with a square of glass This is the way I'm to make the forthin', that's plain; here our illustration deserts us, seeing it would be next under his arm, and a bit of putty stuck in his fist-so and by the help of the blessed Vargint, I'll not be to impossible for the self-indulgent school-boy to jump we must begin by making our readers aware that they chated out of a pinny of it. Dhrame indeed! I hot down his own throat to discover what the greasy tarts will not understand our “cabin” by a reference to a upon it broad awake;" and again he smote his thigh. O'Dowd-to his shame be it spoken-no sooner had
were about. It was manifest in a moment. Larry picture by Morland, or a description by Leigh Rich By two o'clock the concourse was great, and Pat squeezed within arm's length of the relic, than he mond.
had some difficulty in regulating the admissions. snatched at it, unmasked a battery in the shape of a A Connemara cabin is a sort of excrescence of mud, “Oh, Misther Reilly, an’ is that you all the way from short thick stick he had concealed about him, in a raised like a bubble out of a tenant's “houlding," and Curnavooleen? The sight of ye’s good for sore eyes twinkling knocked down two women and a man who topped with a layer of straw, spread irregularly on a -walk in, an’ welcome-och, not at all; do ye think which he expected to have “ bolted” in a sense diffe
were next to him, and had nearly reached the door, few rude rafters, over which some huge flat stones are I'd be afther chargin' the likes of you, that I'm proud rent from the usual one, when he was confronted by laid, to prevent the whole concern from flying off into to see at all times, let alone this present ? Keep your the might of Patrick Gallagher himself, the hero of the Atlantic the next equinox. This “ mud edifice” is coppers towards drinking my health—only, plaise God, our tale. As may be imagined, they did not begin, surrounded by a floating mass of putridity, consisting I'll be thratin' you myself, when the forthin's made like Glaucus and Diomed, to recite their pedigrees, of whatever may be gathered or suffered to accumu Blur an' owns, Phelim, but you're the welcome boy! lay sprawling and bleeding on the ground, until the
but at once set about their principal business. Larry late, to be spread over and fertilise the land at the I was thinkin' yon had another month in Monaghan stone was wrenched out of his grasp ; but no sooner proper season, and of which the least offensive mate- yet. You jist got out in time for a sight of the shtoane. was he relieved of this burden than he started up rials are decayed straw and stagnant water. This Are you goin' to make all right wid poor Molly ?” on his feet, and ran straight out of the house and moat environs the house on all sides, except where one “ Och, that's all over,” answered Phelim, “ and assembled crowd shouting after him as if he had been
across the hill, as fast as his legs could carry him, the narrow, broken, and half-submerged causeway con- Molly's as honest a woman as any in Connaught.” ducts to the aperture through which an entrance may
a hare, and Pat bellowing above them all — “ My
“ In with you for nothin', my darlint !” exclaimed blessin' on you, Larry O'Dowd !-- when'll you be be effected. With considerable stooping this may be Pat, in a transport of moral enthusiasm—“ in with back? Come here, man, till you see the inside of it.” done ; and then, if the fire happens to be low, you may you, and Oh, by japers, but here's Larry Then, turning to the grinning bystanders, he conhave a sufficiently clear atmosphere to look about you. O'Dowd sure enough. Well
, Larry” (he said this in shtoane, for he wanted it badly. By japers, if it's back
tinued—“I hope he hasn't taken the vartue out of the You perceive that the domicile is divided into two an altered tone),“ l'm proud to see you.” At the same he'll be comin', I'm thinkin' he'll shtay about as long compartments, the fire being in that which you first time he placed himself in the middle of the door-way, as a drop uv water on a hot smoothin’-iron.” Ile then enter, screened from the door by a great mud buttress. and grasped his bit of oak by the middle, prepared to returned into the house, barred the door, and told the There may be some borings here and there in the guard to the uttermost the approach to the shrine of good woman to produce the keg of poteen ; “for," walls, like so many feeble efforts of the inmates to wonder.
said he, “shoutin' and door-keepin's dhry work.”
Out caine the secret store, accordingly; the earthscratch cut fur light; but the greatest quantity of that Larry lounged slowly up, with his hands in his quaken ware was set upon the table, and soon the commodity is admitted by the hole in the roof, in breeches pockets, turning his head here and there, huzzaing and laughter betokened to those without return for the smoke it lets out. A few three-legged with a look between cunning and nonchalance. As that the illicit spirit was getting as little law now as stools, a D-shaped griddle, a table like a chopping the loiterers who had no pence expected a row, and at its making. block, and some musty straw in the corner of the inner hoped to take some advantage of the confusion, the
At length a tap was heard at the door. In towns
we know a postman's knock from an attorney's, a apartment, are nearly all the necessaries. A piece of causeway was left clear for the belligerent power to footman's from a dun's. Pat's heart smote him, for broken mirror, looking as if it had been worn into advance. He did somand held out his hand. there was something peculiar in the tap; it was a
tap as with authority — like a certain tap on the have passed over thirty-seven English miles in one which drives the large sand particles outwards, finds shoulder. Again - tap-tap; Pat's heart smote in hour; at other times, a person on foot can follow them a bound or check at the circumference, and the only echo against his side ; he groaned, and went to the easily ; and occasionally they remain nearly stationary, direction which they can take under the influence of door.
for a greater or lesser part of their duration. Their the pressure is upwards. This action may be further In every one's experience there are a few faces the course, again, though most commonly in a straight illustrated by emitting smoke into the open air, and, eyes would wish to look upon as seldom as possible. line, is not unfrequently zig-zag, and they often rise at the distance of one or two feet, producing a rapid One of these “ few faces” Pat beheld as he opened the and fall, quitting the ground for a few minutes to re rotation in the air, when the upward extension of the door.
turn to it again. The rate of motion of the pillar on whirlwind is shown by means of the smoke. llere we “Why, Gallagher, what do you mean by all this ? its own axis is also very variable--sometimes extremely have the elevating power of the whirl or vortex in What are these lounging fellows about at this time of rapid, sometimes comparatively slow. Some persons part explained and illustrated. day? I hear you pretend to have found something of speak of having observed ascending and descending All the phenomena indicate a whirlwind which value; if it really be worth any thing, you know whose movements, and spiral windings, in the different parts begins, not on the earth, but in the higher regions it is, I presume?"
of the pillar. When the onward and revolving motions of the air, and becomes expanded as it descends, It was Lord T—'s English agent.
are both violent, the power of these storm-whirls is till contact with earth or sea develop its influence. The men inside looked as if they were before the very great. They have moved heavy cannons, and Whence originates this vortex? It is known that high altar, while the women fell on their knees and torn up large trees, carrying the latter to a distance two currents of air, following parallel but opposite began to bless him.
of several hundred (in one case 600) feet. Roofs of courses, can produce a slight species of whirlwind * You're humbly welcome, your worthy honour," houses have been wrenched off by them, and large on the surface of the earth. There is nothing to prebleated Pat, in his most reverential tone, while he beams cast to a distance of 1400 feet.. A log of wood, vent us from assuming the existence of such curwished him in his secret heart-any where but where with other matters, the whole weighing 500 pounds, rents in the higher regions of the atmosphere. We he was. “But sure it wouldn't be for the likes of was lifted on one occasion from the ground, and thrown know that currents, running in various directions, and your honour to be intherin' the bit of a kitchen, an' it over a house forty feet high, to a total distance of also whirling clouds, have been found in the upper full of bits of common boys an’ girls—(for Pat quaked 140 feet. A small object, such as a letter, has been strata of the air by aeronauts ; and we also know that for his stone). It's only a bit o' good luck that's bcfell carried twenty English miles. A fish-pond has been these often exist and contend with one another when me, your honour ; an’'it'll be helpin' to make up the emptied in an instant; and the harbour of Chris- all is tranquil below. That the vortices of whirlwinds li'l taste of a rint agin next November, plaise God.” tiansöe was once swept out so fully, that much of its and watersponts have such a source, is partly con
“Come, come, sir,” said the agent, entering, “I bottom lay bare. Beyond all question, the showers of firmed by their frequently oblique character, showing must judge for myself. I will not have such assem- frogs, fishes, seeds, and other small bodies, which occur that the contending winds above may not be precisely blies of idlers on the estate without taking measures not unfrequently, are to be ascribed to the elevating in the same courses at all times when they produce to Why, what have we here?" and he stopped and transporting powers of the storm-pillar.
the phenomenon. Great wood fires in the open air short, as he came within sight of the stone. “Is THIS As these atmospheric movements occur most fre- have been found to produce vortical columns of smoke what you've found ?- The specimen of Armagh marlle quently at sea, may reach a great height, and gene- and fame, having all the characters and powers of the I dropped the other day out oj my gig!" So saying, the rally pursue one direction with violence, we need not whirlwind. Trees of considerable size were raised by inhuman man actually laughed aloud.
be surprised that light bodies should be transported them to the height of forty or fifty feet. These vorAt these words Pat jingled the money in his pocket, to considerable distances, without the elevating cause tices were formed in calm evenings, and they appear to discover how much he had realised. It amounted being noticed. The storm-pillar is accompanied by to have resulted from the collision, under peculiar to thirteenpence.
noise in most cases, and at sea, a roar has been sent circumstances, of currents formed by the fires. The Mr Colooney, we are informed, did not ask for the forth like that of a waterfall, attended also with piping phenomenon tends to explain the liability of calm or additional sack of cups at Candlemas, inasmuch as or whistling sounds. A sulphurous smell has also been tropical latitudes to become the scene of storm-pillars. he did not get one at all. In fact, there were no cups felt at times. The sea, the sea-coasts, and tropical Storm-pillars, as already stated, are always attended to get.
climes, are the localities most frequented by the storm with electrical action. Light, and noise, and smells, acWe fear, brothers of the pen, that some of us are pillar, and almost always electrical phenomena are company them, as in the case of lightning and thunder. very much in the position of our friend Patrick Gal. found occurring simultaneously with it. Storm-clouds The rapid condensation of moisture, which develops lagher. While we fancy, in striking out an article
, are frequently seen before it, and great storms usu- electricity, is doubtless the chief cause of its appearor hitting off a stanza, that we have found the Philo- ally follow its appearance.
ance in the case of storm-pillars. Some people have sopher's Stone, we let the fields of utility lie fallow, It has been mentioned that the upper portion of the explained their whole phenomena by supposing in and encourage idleness and irregularity. The con pillar is connected with a cloud. In that cloud the them the existence of a strong electrical current, which sequence is, that whether our rent be due to a land- pillar has to appearance its origin. One philosopher, received its vortical movement through the magnetism lady in a by-street, or at the exchequer of our indeed, M. Michaud, who had an opportunity of of the earth. One argument is sufficient to overturn country, we are equally unable to meet the November watching several in the harbour of Nice, declared this opinion. Such an electrical current could not demand-and as we cannot be just, so we cannot be himself able to observe their gradual origin in the but affect violently the magnetic needle. Now, stormgenerous, and Colooney never gets bis cups.
surface of the sea ; but he had been deceived by the pillars have passed close to and even over vessels at sea, Chafe not, knights of the inky plume, at this bit of fact, that the whirl of air which forms the pillar is not without any atfection of the needle being noticed. application. You will perhaps be ready, with the old visible till impregnated with vapour or drops of water, image, and complain that, in an attack from a brother which it raises, slowly at first, into its lower extre
ANECDOTES RESPECTING A TRAIT OF scribbler, you are wounded by a shaft winged with a mity, from the surface of the ocean. At the comfeather from your own breast. Recollect, however, ere mencement of this process, a small circular portion of
AMERICAN CHARACTER. you make the case your own, what that weapon is that surface is seen to be uneven, and somewhat dark. There are few traits more strongly marked in the a goose-quill.
ened. Soon after, a pillar of water rises, in which is every-day American character than that of distrust seen a violent internal movement, the height being or suspicion, which particularly displays itself where
several fathoms. It foams and produces drops of parties happen to be interested in pecuniary matters. POPULAR INFORMATION ON SCIENCE.
water above, which it scatters on all sides, so that it It is observable in the merest trities; and even chil
distinctly exhibits an ascending and descending course, dren are instructed to be on their guard lest they The most common appearance of a waterspout is as which moves in parabolic curves, like jets of water should suffer themselves to be duped or imposed upon. a circular pillar extending between the sea and a cloud ascending in a slanting direction. In the highest re It is a melancholy reflection, that, among a people of above, and composed of water which seems to have gion, the mass of cloudy vapour assumes the form of intelligence, it shonld be considered necessary to imbue been sucked or spouted up from below. Sailors are an inverted cone, and the part joining this to the the infant mind with a generally entertained suspicior accustomed to see them stalking along over the surface actual water below is transparent at sea. There can of the whole human family : other nations have conof the sea, and sometimes have been involved in the be little doubt, however, of the continuous agitation sidered it better for the interests of virtue and hapmidst of them. Professor Oersted of Copenhagen has and revolution of the air from cloud to sea ; but the piness, that the tender and susceptible mind should recently given the phenomenon a studious attention, moving air is seldom visible, having no vapour carried not thus early be taught to think ill of mankind, and announced some new views on the subject in á so high as to betray its motion. Sometimes the mid though at the risk of occasional loss from want of due scientific journal. part resembles a thin cloudy streak.
caution. I shall here advert to one or two instances of According to Oersted, the object is not rightly The origin of a storm-pillar on land is not other- juvenile distrust which have occurred within my own named, water being only an accidental feature of it. wise visible than as regards the gradual dipping of the observation, in the course of a pretty long residence The phenomenon is fundamentally a whirlwind, or cloudy cone above. But the effects of the storm- in America. One day I had called at the house Fortex in the atmosphere, which only draws up water pillar on land--of the whirlwind, in short-are soon of an intimate acquaintance, to ascertain if I could when it happens to pass over a sea or lake. The inade not less apparent, in well-marked cases, than execute any little commissions for the family in a Danish professor, defining it as “a strongly agitated when the air has raised water into its vortex. The distant city to which I intended setting out in a day mass of air, which moves over the surface of the globe, nature of the motion, the power displayed, the mode or two. After the parents (for there was a family of and resolves on an axis, one extremity of which is in of displaying it, and the connexion with the sky, are children) had explained to me how far they would the earth and the other in a cloud,” thinks that the in both cases so exactly alike, as to prove that the avail themselves of my kind offer, a little boy, of not term "storm-pillar" would be more suitable.
whirlwind and the waterspout are intrinsically one more than seven years of age, expressed a wish that I A waterspout, or, to adopt the improved name, storm- and the same phenomenon-a revolving pillar of air, would purchase for him a small cane fishing-rod. I pillar, usually appears wide at the top and bottom, namely, acting in different fields. For proof of this, then inquired of the father if it was his desire that I and narrow in the middle. The upper portion being indeed, we should require no more than the simple should do so? “Oh, yes!" replied the indulgent paalways dependent from a cloud, the height may be fact, that when a previously dry whirlwind meets a rent, “if he wishes it; but,” continued he, addressing presumed to be more considerable than observers have fish-pond in its way, it licks up the waters with the the child, “ if Mr. is to procure for you the fishcommonly believed. The altitude of 2000 feet has same facility evinced by the water-spout in raising the ing-rod, you had better go to your mamma and ask been that most frequently assigned to them. It seems contents of the sea.
her for a dollar of your money, which, probably, will more likely that the visible portion of them is often The old and yet very general idea that a waterspout be about the price of your rod.” After a moment's from 5000 to 6000 feet in height, though, in this re was an ejection (or spouting) of water from the sea, is reflection, the little fellow, looking his father steadily spect, considerable variations must exist. In point of therefore utterly erroneous. There is no cause con- in the face, said, “Why, I guess, papa, it would be diameter, the lower portion has been found to measure nected with the earth's crust, by land or by sea, that better not to give Mr the dollar until he returns from one hundred to above one thousand feet. The could account for the phenomenon. It takes place with the fishing-rod, for you know he may never marks left on the earth, however, occasionally indi- alike in non-volcanic and in volcanic countries. Nor come back; or he may break it before I get it; or he sate a diameter smaller than a hundred feet. The can the sea itself, by any explicable mode of action, be may lay out the money in something for himself.” colour of storm-pillars also varies much, the majority the cause of such an effect ; and as little can we as The parent listened and smiled, but neither rebuked being grey in appearance, while others are of a dark cribe it to the ordinary winds on the earth's surface, his too cautious son nor attempted to enforce his own blue, a dark brown, or a fire-red tint. They assume, since it most frequently occurs in the midst of an at- previously expressed opinion. in fact, all the hues taken by the clouds in different mosphere at the moment serene. The storm-pillar On one occasion I was on a short tour through the states of illumination ; and the hue of the substances must therefore have its origin in the upper regions. country in company with Judge T-, an elderly which they take up, as dust or water, must always As a necessary consequence of the rotatory motion, Scotchman, who had been settled many years in that greatly modify their appearance. The middle part of all the parts exhibit a centrifugal action towards the district, and whom, in the absence of a fitter person, The pillar, when over water, is transparent'; when over circumference. Any person taking a transparent the gnvernor of the state had appointed to the situaland, it is opaque.
vessel filled with sand and water, and giving it a quick tion of associate judge, with a small salary. On our The larger these vortices or revolving pillars are, rotatory motion on a perpendicular axis, will see the road the judge informed me that there was a farmer the longer they endure. For the most part, they do heavier portions thrown to the outside. They may he wished to see for a few minutes on some business not last above half an hour, and usually travel at an also be observed to pass upwards, exemplifying another of no great importance, who resided, he believed, someuncertain rate during that time. In some cases, they feature of the storm-pillar phenomenon. The agency where near the spot where we then were. By and by
we came to a farm-house where two or three children | scrutinised my person rather closer than I approved trustfulness, of the Americans, must necessarily be a were playing by the roadside, among a parcel of chips of ; and was about commencing cross-questioning me consequence of the
unusual prevalence in that country and pieces of timber split up for fuel. The eldest, a respecting my friend and my own business and con- of a desire to deceive and cheat ; for men, in ordinary boy apparently eight or nine years of age, was asked nexion with that part of the country, when I cut him circumstances, are not disposed to be very cautious, by the judge if Mr R. lived there ?" The young short by telling him, that I could not see what such and the state of mind itself is one productive of pain republican did not make an immediate reply, but questions had to do with the business I had called about, and inconvenience to all parties. The utility of conlooking first at the one and then at the other children, and that, if he did not feel disposed to comply at once fidence in business transactions and every kind of inaddressing my companion, said—“I guess you be the with the note I had delivered to him in the morning, tercourse has already been illustrated in the Journal man as came after father a few days back." While I should instantly take my departure. “I guess," (No. 121): the prevalence of a contrary feeling tends this was being delivered, a little sister sneaked slyly said he, "mister, you ben't a Yankee, you get so con to obstruct and even extinguish business, to an extent off towards the house, as if to give warning to the siderable sharp in talking over business matters & which few are aware of. This is, indeed, one of the inmates. Notwithstanding the boy's unsatisfactory little, which I consider no more than altogether re cases in which moral conditions tell directly and answer to the judge's question, we took it for granted gular. To be sure, I have looked up the money ; but powerfully on the substantial affairs of life, and serve that we had hit upon Mr R.'s abode ; so he again if so be as you object to receive it for Mr W
to show how the adoption of all approvable means of addressed the boy, saying, “Is your father at home, know I cannot help it ; if you will wait a little, I will bettering those conditions is as much the duty of a my child ?” After a little consideration, the cautious just write a line to say so." "I will not wait another government as the immediate protection of life and urchin said—“ Last night father was a-saying that he minute,” replied I, “nor be the bearer of any com- property. The distrustfulness of the Americans must guessed he was a-going to mill to-day ; did you notice, munication to that effect. If you choose to hand the be nearly as fatal to commercial relations between as you came along, whether or no the mill was a money to me, I will take it; if not, I desire you will man and man, as prohibitory duties are to the same grinding !" Without holding any further communi- return my friend's note, which I consider an order for relations between state and state.] cation with this young scion of freedom and inde- its payment.” Having once more examined the order, pendence,” the judge rode up to the door of the he pulled out a drawer from beneath his plain, undwelling, and hollooing pretty loudly, the farmer's polished pine desk, and deliberately counted out the A FEW WEEKS ON THE CONTINENT. good dame made her appearance, when he inquired if one thousand dollars, handed them to me, and" guessed
ZURICH TO LUCERNE. her husband was at home. After a moment's stare | I should find them all right.” at him, she exclaimed, addressing the little girl we Since this little affair occurred, I have often, in my I LEFT the reader at Zurich, the industry of whose inhad noticed sneak off to the house, “.Why, now, my intercourse with persons of a similar class to the cau- habitants led me into a few particulars respecting the gracious ! Parthene, child, where be ye ?-why, this tious and anxious agent above alluded to, got sadly commercial policy of Switzerland. The more we saw man's no more like Sheriff Bates than you be ; run-annoyed and out of humour at their suspicious and of this place and its neighbourhood, the more evident tell your father that it aren't the sheriff, any how;" roundabout way of doing business; and though it did it appear that the general comfort which marks and away toddled the little girl into some corner, may not appear peculiarly amiable to make a boast of the condition of the working-classes is as much ascribwhere the farmer had secreted himself, on the false it, I have ever found that a promptness and decision, able to a peculiar economy in their domestic arrangealarm being given that Sheriff Bates was approaching; and a little extra asperity, have greatly accelerated ments, as it is to the external circumstances by which for it seemed that a second visit from the sheriff of the settling matters of business, cutting short their they are affected. Most travellers speak of Zurich, the county was hourly expected, in consequence of the own ordinary plan of drawling and guessing, and cal- and the canton of which it is the capital, as rather non-payment of the costs incurred in a foolish lawsuit. culating, and scheming, to which many of them are so sour in social character, which they trace to the harsh It ceases to be a matter of wonder, that children, much addicted.
forms of religious belief planted at the Reformation, educated, as it were, to be cautious and distrustful, I will mention but one more instance of this pecu- and scrupulously maintained by the penalties of the should grow up with those feelings strengthened and liar degree of caution and mistrust to which I was law. We saw nothing of this nature, the ideas of the matured with their riper years. In the ordinary subjected. It took place at Geneva, in the western people on matters of religion being now considerably business of life, a due caution and circumspection are part of the state of New York, during an excursion I moderated. A gentleman belonging to the town conalways commendable ; but these may be exercised, for made into that part of the country, for the purpose firmed a report I had heard, to the effect that dancing the most part, in a fair and honourable manner, and of purchasing twelve or fifteen hundred sheep. One was not permitted without the license of a magistrate, without necessarily offending the feelings of the rela- of the city banks had, previous to my setting out, but he continued to say that such a regulation is praetive parties. In America it does not seem to be con remitted me 8000 dollars, all in five-dollar bills, struck tically of small importance ; for merry-making parties sidered essential to attempt any little amiable disguise from a new plate, and none of which had previously can easily go across the boundary of the canton into where you have a doubt that all is not correct, and been in circulation. In my own neighbourhood I Argau, and there they may dance to their heart's yet business is commonly done in a round-about way, had no opportunity of getting them exchanged for content. because it either is not in the nature of the people, such notes as I knew would be more acceptable to
The canton of Zurich, like that of Basle, underwent or, at all events, no part of their education, to go the farmers in the district I proposed visiting ; but a revolution in 1830, when its constitution was considirectly into any transaction at issue at once. I have knowing there were two or three banks in that vici- derably popularised. Since that period, the privileges been a witness to very many instances of this pecu- nity, I presumed that I should experience no difficulty of the town and country have been nearly equal, the liarity, some of which applied individually to myself, in getting my city bank-notes exchanged (although proceedings of the legislature and courts of justice others to persons with whom I was intimately ac- belonging to another state) at any of the banks in the open to inspection, financial accounts are published, quainted.
interior of the country. Having, after two or three the press has been made quite free, and education is On one occasion, a friend of mine commissioned me days' travelling, reached Geneva, 1 called at the bank. promoted on a liberal scale. A not less important imto call upon the agent of one of the largest land- ing institution of that place, made its officers ac- provement has been the destruction of the town walls, holders in that part of America, to receive for him quainted with my wishes, and then exhibited my by which means the inhabitants can no longer intrench the sum of one thousand dollars; the said agent hav- bundle of handsome new bank-notes. They evidently themselves behind ramparts, and oppress at pleasure ing previously been advised that he was to pay that were a curiosity, for the whole of the parties I saw the rural districts. The bombardment which the town sum to my friend or his order. My friend addressed upon the premises assembled to inspect my money. endured at the conclusion of the last and beginning of a note to this individual, of which I was the bearer, They were pronounced “very elegant notes”—“no
the present century, when the country around was the requesting that he would pay the said sum to me (at doubt they were perfectly genuine”—but not one of theatre of war to the French and Austrians, not to the same time stating that I was his friend),
as it them remembered to have seen notes of the same speak of the great expense incurred annually for would save him the trouble of riding over himself. 1 pattern. After consulting some time amongst
them keeping up the fortifications, affords also an unanwas then almost a stranger in that part of the country, selves, respecting what was to be done, I was at swerable argument why these walls should have been and had never been in the village where the agent length given to understand that it would not be swept away. Since this highly creditable improveresided, neither had I ever seen him. When
I called convenient for
them to exchange
my money,” which ment was effected, the town, as I formerly mentioned, at his office, I found him disengaged ; so I presented meant, I knew, that they considered my bundle of has assumed an open cheerful aspect, and is pushing my friend's note without any circumlocution. He bank-notes forgeries. Without pressing the matter out into the country in all directions. One of the most perused it, and then inquired, if I had left my friend, upon them further, I returned to the tavern where I elegant of the new public edifices is the Post-office, Mr W -, quite well, and if I had seen him lately. had left my horse, but had not been there many an extensive suite of buildings in the Grecian style, To the latter part of the inquiry I remarked, that the minutes before I recognised two of my bank ac- surrounding a central court-yard devoted to the busidate of the note would probably be a satisfactory ex- quaintances in earnest conversation with the land- ness of the cantonal diligences. In Switzerland, the planation, as it was, I knew, written that morning. lord; and from their side glances directed towards me, government of each canton has a monopoly of the di"I calculate," said he, “ that you are a stranger in not to be misunderstood, I felt assured that I was the ligences as well as of the posts ; but the conveyances those
parts; have you long been acquainted with Mr subject of their deliberations. I afterwards learned provided for passengers are handsome and substantial, W—?I observed, that I was quite a stranger at that the bank people had, as I suspected, considered and the fares are very moderate. As in France and Chinango, but that I had known Mr W inti- my bundle of notes forged ones, and that they had elsewhere on the continent, neither the driver nor mately for some years. Having hemmed once or applied to the landlord of the tavern, who was a ma conducteur ask or take fees. The price of conveying twice, and spat upon the floor as often, he carefully gistrate (a very common case with tavern-keepers in letters is also on a very moderate scale. On applying perused the note a second time, when he said, “Why, the interior of the country in America), to consult several times at the Post-office for letters from Enga thousand dollars is rather a large sum ; I feel some with him what was best to be done in the case. The land, I could not help feeling a little surprise at the what curious to know what Mr W. can want with landlord had recommended the postponement of any confidence which was reposed in me by the keeper of so much cash just now.” I told him it was out of my harsh steps until the following morning, and perhaps the bureau. He always handed me out the whole of power to inform
him ; all I knew of the matter was, he felt a little interested in so doing, as I had made the letters in his possession, to seek for and take that, knowing I was about to visit Chinango, my known to him, on my arrival, that it was my intention whichever belonged to me, and I had an opportunity friend had requested me to receive the money for to remain all night ; whereupon my horse had been of looking them over at my leisure on the window. him; and if he (the agent) did not feel satisfied, and unsaddled, and my valise safely deposited in the bar sill
. This unsuspiciousness says much for the general refused to comply with the order I had brought him, -in his possession ; so that he "guessed he was all honesty of the people. I must wish him a good morning. Looking again at right.” During the evening, I strolled into one of the The town library, consisting of 50,000 volumes, and the note, which lay beside him, he said, “ Now, I de- principal stores ; and mentioning to the store-keeper the arsenal of the canton, are among the few objects clare, that Mr W
iş a quick hand with a pen; my having in my possession some amount of city of general interest shown to strangers. The arsenal this is regularly like nobody's writing but his own bank-notes, which I wished to exchange for western is chiefly remarkable for the many specimens of anyou've often seen him write, mister, I calculate ?” At notes, he unhesitatingly informed me that it would be cient armour and warlike instruments, which it prelast, getting a little out of patience with my inter- a great accommodation to him to make such an ex serves as relics of former struggles for political indelocutor, I told him, that I had other business to attend change, as he was about to set out for the Atlantic pendence. It is amusing to find a late English tourist, to, and could not spend the whole morning in listening cities in a day or two, where he presumed he should who has favoured the world with his “ Recollections, to observations that I considered quite uncalled for; have to allow a discount on his country notes of two sneering at the modest character of this depôt of that if he chose to hand the money to me I was pre- or three per cent. The exchange was immediately arms—" the arsenal, to one who has seen the Tower, pared to receive it, but if not, he was, of course, at effected between us ; the news was soon circulated [is] contemptible.” This reminds one of the pride liberty to do as he pleased. “Why," said he, "a that the stranger's bills were not spurious ; the which some people take in showing what a fine large thousand dollars, I guess, require a little looking up; bankers and the landlord put the best face on the prison their town has got--what an immense number 80, as you seem to be in considerable of a hurry, i mistake” they were able ; and I left that delightfully of felons they try at every jail delivery, what a splenpresume you might as well call again in an hour or situated little town of Geneva on the following morn did regiment of dragoons is always at band, in case two." Suspecting that my taking back the money ing, to pursue my journey and transact my business, of need, in a neighbouring barrack-and that they with me might be a convenience to my friend, I judged instead of being committed to durance vile as an im- have such an excellent executioner, that he is reit better to comply with the terms of the cautious postor and a vender of forged bank-notes.
gularly borrowed by all the principal cities in the agent; so, at the appointed time, I called at his office, [To the above anecdotes we would append the kingdom. Zurich has a small prison, and seldom any and again found the gentleman disengaged. He again remark, that the excessive cautiousness, or rather dis- 1 prisoners; it has no barracks or dragoons, and cannot
find work for an executioner. What an unhappy | is provided with a large array of maps, charts, diction- steamer halts here, there is a water communication condition !
aries, cyclopedias, and 1000 volumes of general litera- farther up the valley by the Linth canal, which Suffering from such deprivations, it is agreeable to ture. The entry-money payable on admission to this reaches the lake of Wallenstädt at several miles' know that Zurich has long held a distinguished place noble establishment is only four francs, and the an- distance. in the learning, literature, and arts of Switzerland. nual contribution is only sixteen francs (a Swiss franc Having landed at this place, I proceeded on an It has been the place of birth or residence of Solomon is worth about ls. 11d. English). It may surprise the excursion up the vale, which is rather beautiful, with Gessner the poet, Jean Gessner the naturalist, Hot- English reader to learn that so extensive a collection heights on each side, and cottages of a more rural class tinguer the orientalist, the learned Professor Bodmer, of journals should exist in a Swiss town possessing of peasantry than I had previously seen. The disand his friend Breitinguer, Lavater the physiogno- little more than 14,000 inhabitants, and the fact is in trict belongs to the canton of St Gall
, and may at mist, Hagenbuch, Klopstock, Wieland, and other men various respects not without its value ; but the cir- once be recognised as Roman Catholic by the figures eminent in the German world of letters. Lavater cumstance most worthy of notice is the diversity of and the gilt crosses in a burying-ground occupying was pastor of one of the churches of the town, and a character of the works. In most public reading the top of a sunny knoll. 'Climbing the ascend. person of amiable manners. Murray mentions his sad rooms in our own country, there are rarely more than ing braes, I had here an opportunity of seeing the fate on the occasion of the town being captured by two or three journals which are non-political. menage of Swiss rustic life, of a class hovering bethe French, September 26, 1799. “He was shot within To all appearance, the Zurichois are engaged in tween that of the alpine regions and the suburban a few steps of his own door by a brutal French sol- pursuits somewhat more solid and profitable than condition. From the higher ground a good view is dier, to whom, but two minutes before, he had given political or ecclesiastical wrangling. The working- obtained of the vale beneath, and of the means which wine and offered money, and while he was in the act classes and traders, who constitute the bulk of the have been adopted to render it salubrious. Previous of assisting another soldier who had been wounded. people generally, contrive to save from their earnings; to 1822, it was subject to constant overflowings of A high reward was offered by Massena, the French and it may be said that all, from high to low, here as the Linth, in consequence of the waters being dammed commander, for the discovery of the murderer ; but elsewhere in Switzerland, are anxious to accumulate up at a part of their course by debris brought down though known to Lavater and his family, he refrained the fruits of their enterprise and industry. There from the glaciers ; but according to the plans of Mr from informing against him. After lingering through being no outlet for ambition in rank, titles, or any Conrad Escher-a new course being given to the Linth, three months of excruciating agony, he expired, Janu- other circumstance independent of personal qualifica- by which the rubbish it brought down could be deary 2, 1800, at the parsonage : his grave is marked by tion, the leading objects of desire are to make money, posited in safety-inundations were in future obviated, a simple stone in the churchyard of St Anne.” buy a piece of ground, and build a house. This fancy, and the valley stretching between the lakes of Zurich
The establishments for instruction at Zurich, re which I presume to be perfectly legitimate, has de- and Wallenstädt has been thus rendered healthy and modelled generally since 1832, present that rational corated the environs of Zurich with villas, and scat- suitable for pasturage. It is also now the seat of gradation from infant and elementary schools to the tered over Switzerland cottages of all shapes and sizes. manufacturing industry, a large factory being planted university, which is peculiar to German education. If the reader accompany me on an excursion up the near the Linth canal—a situation, certainly, in which The institution most worthy of remark is the cantonal lake of Zurich, we may see a variety of these snug I was not a little surprised to find such an establishschool, divided into two sections, and each of these seats of rustication of a wealthy, or at least comfort- ment. The lake of Wallenstädt is much smaller than subdivided into two branches—an inferior and supe-able, set of citizens.
that of Zurich; but though traversed also by a small rior. One of the two sections is called the gymnasium or It was, as usual, a very beautiful morning, when, steamer, I did not think of stopping to inspect it, as college, and has for its object the preparation of young stepping from the quay, I found myself on board the its scenery is of comparatively little interest, and men for the university who wish to study science, Escher-Linth, a neat steam-boat, which plies daily there was nothing else of moment to attract attention. theology, jurisprudence, or medicine. The other sec- from Zurich to Schmerikon, at the farther extremity; As already mentioned, the route in this direction tion is named the school of industry, and is designed and the fares on board of which, by dint of compe- leads towards the Grisons, a secluded portion of Switto instruct those who are to devote themselves to tition with another steamer, are tolerably moderate. zerland, with peculiar manners and language ; and for commerce and general pursuits, including manufac- The excursion, to those who wish to return, occupies the accommodation of travellers, a diligence runs to turing industry. The inferior branches of each are, of an entire day, but includes a stoppage of two hours and from Schmerikon in connexion with the Zurich course, devoted to the preparation of lads for the for dinner. On the present occasion, the vessel shot steamer. higher; and the routine of instruction would shame off from the quay with a goodly number of passengers
, My return to Zurich requires no particular notice ; some of our best academies. As, for instance, in the of different nations, some being tourists bound for the and having finished all necessary observations there, I inferior school of industry. (L'Ecole d'Industrie Infe- Grisons, by way of Coire, and others designing only proceeded with my companions in the direction of Zug rieure), boys are instructed in general religious truth, to see the borders of the lake, or to visit the adjacent and Lucerne, which is by a south-western route over the elements of physical sciences, mathematics, na- districts ; the greater number, howerer, were Ger- the Albis. Passing various hamlets of neat cottages, tural history, descriptive geometry, drawing, the mans, the men distinguishable by their cloth caps, large and crossing the vale of the Sihl, we are conducted by German and French languages, history, geography, watch-keys, and incessant smoking, and the women by a zig-zag cut road to the summit of this mountain arithmetic, writing, and singing. Latin and Greek their plain appearance and diligent knitting of stock tract, a height of nearly 3000 feet, from which a new are added in the superior department. In the whole ings. ' Dull as I was in consequence of having been world of picturesque beauty opens upon the eye. institution there are thirty-six teachers. Entering obliged to undertake this side-journey by myself, the Attaining the brow of the mountain, and emerging the series of schools at twelve years of age, the youth views, as the boat passed along the clear green waters, from some clumps of wood, we are presented with the is handed on from one thing to another, always ex were so pleasing that it was impossible to be out of magnificent prospect of the Bernese Alps, lying like a tending his knowledge, till (if designed for the learned humour with the scene. Leaving the white and irre- great chain of snowy peaks on the distant horizon. professions) he is ready for the university. The gular buildings of Zurich at the northern extremity and among which the Jungfrau rises conspicuous number of students at this the liighest educational of the lake, with a back-ground of villa-clad heights, with its eternal glaciers. A more lovely scene is obestablishment, is seldom less than 200 ; and as the we find ourselves on a stretch of water of from three servable in the lower ground immediately before us— professors are partly paid by the state, the expense of to four miles in breadth, and open at least twelve the lake of Zug, glistening like a clear mirror among attending their classes is very moderate, and therefore miles in front, but extending altogether to nearly rugged woody hills, and bounded on our right, or tosuited to the general condition of the people. The twenty-six miles. The lake possesses no islands within wards the north, by the fertile plain through which half-yearly fee of each student is only twelve Swiss sight, a deficiency which forms a marked distinction rolls the river Reuss. francs, or about thirteen shillings English. I ask any between this as well as other Swiss lakes and the lochs In descending the mountain and entering the cancandid person, if the method of preparing lads for å of Cumberland and Scotland. Great beauty in the ton of Zug, the roads become very bad ; and from university education, such as is here hinted at, is not banks compensates in some manner for the want of numerous emblems, we find we are again in a Roman something very superior to the plan pursued in Eng: green and busliy islets. On each side, gently sloping Catholic territory, The town of Zug, a little oldland, where young men intended for technological hills rise from the shore, and are every where laid out fashioned place, which we reach at the bottom of the professions generally enter college ignorant of almost in vineyards, corn lands, or pastures, plenteously deco- hill, has a melancholy and dull aspect, but is improvevery thing but a little Latin and Greek. A glance rated with trees and enclosures, with a thick scattering ing. We found the walls and gateways in the act of at the gymnasium in the cantonal school of Zurich, of detached cottages and gentlemen's seats, also neat being removed ; and the road by a new cut pusles would open up a new world of thought to the direc- villages, each with its antique church spire, planted boldly into the town, instead of creeping through a tors of most of our academies,
along the shores. Darting from point to point, the narrow and inconvenient portal. Go on, Zug! I In connexion with the cantonal school there is a steamer makes a call at these villages, setting one or give you credit for this instance of common sense. library, containing nearly 20,000 volumes, for the use two persons down here, and taking others up there, and We spent but a short time in our perambulation of of the scholars. Other establishments in the town, affording us a glimpse of the place as we pause for a the town and its environs, inhabited, as we thought, connected with science or literature, also deserve a few minutes in front. Some of the villages are evi- by a decent and industrious set of people ; and in the passing notice, if only to show that in this simple dently hives of industry. At one we see a factory, latter part of the day, after passing through a rich democracy the taste for refined recreation has not with its wheel tumbling round under the impulse of a and beautiful tract of country, reached Lucerne, at been left uncultivated. There is a society of natural- brook dashing hurriedly down a ravine from the hills; which we proposed to remain for a few days to enjoy ists, established by Jean Gessner in 1745, possessing a at another, there appears to be a great deal done in the exquisite scenery on its lake. museum and valuable library ; a society of antiqua- dyeing, and workmen are out in barges on the lake, ries; a society for the cultivation of music; and a so- washing the coloured yarns from their impurities
ORIGINAL STORY OF KING LEAR. ciety of artists and amateurs. This latter association, in short, much work of one sort or other is going which has been founded since 1787, has a regulation forward, all in a primitive kind of way.
The world has long been aware that Shakspeare, by which each member at enrolment shall furnish an The hills which thus form the ornamental fore- transcendent as were his powers both of invention album with a design, pay a fixed sum, or present a ground of the picture, are backed by others of much and execution, contented himself, in the case of nearly gift of an object of art. The album now consists of greater altitude, and of a wild appearance. On the the whole of his plays, with adopting the plots preseveral volumes, and is reckoned a valuable record of right, in passing from Zurich, we observe the Albis, sented to him by the historians, romancers, and drathe taste of Swiss artists during the last half century. the highest mountain range in this quarter; and, as a matists of preceding days. More particularly did he The society also possesses various detached works of grand backing to the southern end of the lake, we adhere to truth in his historical compositions, the art, including a volume of designs in crayons by see the lofty and sublime peaks of the Alps of Glarus very words of the old chroniclers being frequently Füssli
. There is likewise in the town a small theatre, and Uri, basking in the glare of the suinmer's sun, used by him, with only such alterations as were neceswell supported, and which the German stars, Esslair but covered with mantles of the purest snow. About sary to cast them into blank verse. This fact, proand Seydelmann, we are told, do not disdain to honour noon the vessel touches at Rapperschwyl, on the left perly viewed, ought only to add to our estimation of by their visits. The university of Zurich is enriched bank, a town of improving aspect; and here we find a the poet, indicating his consciousness that art could with a zoological and also mineralogical museum; and wooden bridge of great length, crossing from one side never excel nature, nor the human fancy conceive a few years ago a botanical garden was opened. An of the lake to the other, and a part of which is raised imaginary events and language more fit to " purge the establishment more popular and generally useful is to allow us to pass. From various appearances, the soul by pity and by terror," or more provocative of the reading-room of a society of upwards of 400 mem- lake is here seemingly closing up, and by and by a laughter, than the realities disclosed in the authentic bers. This institution will compete with any thing meadow of alluvial soil, thickened with aquatic plants, annals of our kind. of the kind in England. Here are taken in 41 Swiss will cut the lake in two. Near the rigsit shore is a Geoffrey of Monmouth, it is usually supposed, told newspapers, in different languages ; 12 German, 8 low grassy islet, clothed with some wood, which will for the first time the story of King Llyr and his Parisian, and 2 English papers ; 26 literary journals, in all probability be soon joined to the mainland from daughters, on which Shakspeare based the inimitable 14 theology, 19 jurisprudence, 28 medicine, 14 natural the same cause. After passing the bridge, we enter tragedy of Lear. It is related, however, in a Welsh sciences, 9 mathematics, military art, and architec- an upper division of the lake, which bends towards manuscript history of earlier date, entitled the “Chroture, 8 philology, archaiology, and pedagogie (art of the east; the hill-sides become more pastoral, and are nicle of the Kings,” and written by a bishop of Wales teaching); 10 history and geography, 19 political more thinly inhabited as we advance ; and finally we named Tysilio. This work was composed at the close economy, commerce, and industry, and 30 upon belles are bronglit to the limits of the lake navigation at of the seventh century, and several copies of it are in kttres (15 of which are German, 11 French, and 4 Schmerikon, a village consisting of an inn, a church, existence. It thus tells the story of Llyr, or Lear, Italian). Besides these novelties, the establishment and a scattered collection of houses. Although the the eleventh king, according to the account, of Bri