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administration in regulating the mode in which some of the most important branches of industry should be carried on, seems also to have been exceedingly injurious. Every proceeding with respect to the herring fishery, for example, was regulated by the orders of government, carried into effect under the inspection of officers appointed for that purpose.

Some of these regulations were exceedingly vexatious. The period when the fishery might begin was fixed at five minutes past twelve o'clock of the night of the 24th of June ! and the master and pilot of every vessel leaving Holland for the fishery were obliged to make oath that they would respect the regulation. The species of salt to be made use of in curing different sorts of herrings was also fixed by law; and there were endless regulations with respect to the size of the barrels, the number and thickness of the staves of which they were to be made ; tre gutting and packing of the herrings; the branding of the barrels, &c. &c. --( Histoire des Pêches, ge. dans les Mers du Nord, tom. i. chap. 24.) These regulations were intended to secure to the Hollanders that superiority which they had early attained in the fishery, and to prevent the reputation of their herrings from being injured by the bad faith of individuals. But their real effect was precisely the reverse of this. By tying up the fishers to a system of routine, they prevented them from making any improvements; while the facility of counterfeiting the public marks opened a much wider door to fraud, than would have been opened had government wisely declined interfering in the matter.

In despite, however, of the East India monopoly, and thie regulations now described, the commercial policy of Holland has been more liberal than that of any other nation, And in consequence, a country not more extensive than Wales, and naturally not more fertile, conquered, indeed, in a great measure from the sea, has accumulated a population of upwards of two millions; has maintained wars of unexampled duration with the most powerful monarchies; and, besides laying out immense suins in works of utility and ornament at home, has been enabled to lend hundreds of millions to foreigners.

During the occupation of Holland by the French, first as a dependent state, and subsequently as an integral part of the French empire, her foreign trade was almost entirely destroyed. Her colonies were successively conquered by England ; and, in addition to the loss of her trade, she was burdened with fresh taxes. But such was the vast accumulated wealth of the Dutch, their prudence, and energy, that the influence of these adverse circumstances was far less injurious than could have been imagined ; and, notwithstanding all the losses she had sustained, and the long interruption of her commercial pursuits, Holland continued, at her emancipation from the yoke of the Frenco in 1814, to be the richest country in Europe! Java, the Moluccas, and most of her other colonies were then restored, and she is now in the enjoyment of a large foreign trade. Her connection with Belgium was an unfortunate one for both countries. The union was not agreeable to either party, and was injurious to Holland. Belgium was an agricultural and manufacturing country; and was inclined, in imitation of the French, to lay restrictions on the importation of most sorts of raw and manufactured produce, A policy of this sort was directly opposed to the interests and the ancient practice of the Dutch. But though their deputies prevented the restrictive system from being carried to the extent proposed by the Belgians, they were unable to prevent it from being carried to an extent that materially affected the trade of Holland. Whatever, therefore, may be the consequences as to Belgium, there can be little doubt that the separation of the two divisions of the kingdom of the Netherlands will redound to the advantage of Holland. It must ever be for the interest of England, America, and all trading nations, to maintain the independence of a state by whose means their productions find a ready access to the great continental markets. It is to be hoped that the Dutch, profiting by past experience, will adopt such a liberal and conciliatory system towards the natives of Java, as may enable them to avail themselves to the full of the various resources of that noble island. And if they do this, and freely oper their ports, with as few restrictions as possible, to the ships and commodities of all countries, Holland may still be the centre of a very extensive commerce, and may continue to preserve a respectable place among mercantile nations. Even at this moment, after all the vicissitudes they have undergone, the Dutch are, beyond all question, the most opulent and industrious of European nations. And their present, no less than their former state, shows that a free system of government, security, and the absence of restrictions on industry, can overcome almost every obstacle ; " can convert the standing pool and lake into fat meadows, cover the barren rock with verdure, and make the desert smile with flowers,"

ANCHOR (Fr. Ancre ; Lat. Anchora ; Gr. Aykupa), a well-known maritime instrument used in the mooring or fastening of ships. It consists of a shank having two hevoked arms at one end, and at the other end a bar, or stock, at right angles to the arms, with a ring to which the cable is fastened. The arms, shank, and ring should be made of the very best and touguest iron ; the stock is for the inost part of oak, but it

is frequently also, especially in the smaller anchors, made of iron. On being let go, or cast into the water, the anchor sinks rapidly to the bottom, and is thrown by the stock into such a position that the fluke, or point of one of the arms, is sure to strike the ground perpendicularly, and being kept in that direction, unless the bottom be particularly hard or rocky, sinks into it, and cannot be dislodged, where the ground is not soft or oozy, without a violent effort. When the anchor is dislodged, it is said, by the sailors, to come home.

Seeing that the safety and preservation of ships and crews are very frequently dependent on their anchors and cables, it is needless to say that it is of the utmost importance that these should be of the most approved quality and construction.

Every ship has, or ought to have, three principal anchors; viz. Ist, the sheet anchor, the largest of all, and only let down in cases of danger, or when the vessel is riding in a gale of wind; 2d, the best bower anchor; and, 3d, the small bower anchor. There are, besides, smaller anchors for mooring in rivers, ports, &c. The largest class of men-ofwar have six or seven anchors. The weight of an anchor is determined principally by the tonnage; it being usual to allow, for every 20 tons of a ship's burden, 1 cwt. for the weight of her best bower anchor; so that this anchor in a ship of 400 tons should weigh about 20 cwt., or a ton.

To cast, or let go, the anchor, is to let the anchor fall from the ship's bows into the water, so that it may take hold of the ground.

To drag the anchor, is to make it come home ; that is, to dislodge it from its bed, and to drag it over or through the ground. This may be occasioned by the anchor being too light, by the violeni straining of the cable in a storm or a current, by the too great hardness or softness of the ground, &c.

To weigh the anchor, is to dislodge it from its hold, and heave it up by means of the capstan, &c.

Law as to Anchors left, parted from, $0.- By the 1 & 2 Geo. 4. c. 75. pilots and other persons taking possession of anchors, cables, and other ship materials parted with, cut from, or left by any vessel, wheiher in distress or otherwise, shall give notice of the same to a deputy vice-admiral, or his agent, within forty-eight hours, on pain of being considered as receivers of stolen goods; and if any person shall knowingly and wilfully purchase any such anchor, &c. that shall have been so obtained, without its being 80 reported, he shall be held to be a receiver of stolen goods, and suffer the like punishment as for a misdemeanour at common law, or be liable to be transported for seven years, at the discretion of the court. Any master of a ship or vessel outward-bound finding or taking on board any anchor, &c. shall make a true entry of the circumstance in the log book of such ship or vessel, reporting the same by the first p.ssible opportunity to the Trinity House, and on his return shall deliver the article to the deputy viceadmiral, or his agent, nearest to the port where he shall arrive, under a penalty of not more than 100%. por less than 3.11., on conviction before a magistrate on the oath of one witness, one half to go to the informer, the other half to the Merchant Seamen's Society, established by 20 Geo. 3. c. 38.; he shall also forfeit double the value of the article to the owner. And every pilot, hoveller, boatman, &c. who shall convey any anchor, &c. to any foreign harbour, port, creek, or bay, and sell and dispose of the same, shall be guilty of felony, and be transported for any term not exceeding seven years.-- (See Salvage.)

Inrention of the Anchor. — This instrument, admirable alike for its simplicity and effect, is of very considerable antiquity. It was not, however, known in the earliest ages. The President de Goguet has shown that it was not used by the Greeks till after the Trojan war; and that they were then accustomed to moor their ships by means of large stones cast into the sea, a practice which still subsists in some rude nations. -( Origin of Laws, vol. ii. p. 330. Eng. trans.) Pliny ascribes the invention of the anchor to the Tyrrhenians. — (Hist. Nat. lib. vii. cap. 56.) At first it had only one arm, the other being added at a subsequent period; some authors say, by Anacharsis the Scythian. - ( Origin of Laws, vol. i. p. 293.) Since this remote epoch, the form and construction of the instrument seem to have undergone very little change.

ANCIIORAGE, OR ANCHORING GROUND. Good anchoring ground should neither be too hard nor too soft ; for, in the first case the anchor is apt not to take a sufficient hold, and in the other to drag. The best bottom is a stiff clay, and next to it a firm sand. In a rocky bottom the flukes of the anchor are sometimes torn away, and hempen cables are liable to chafe and be cut through. It is also essential to a good anchorage that the water be neither too deep nor too shallow. When too deep, the pull of the cable, being nearly perpendicular, is apt to jerk the anchor out of the ground; and when too shallow, the ship is exposed to the danger, when riding in a storm, of striking the bottom. Where a ship is in water that is land-locked, and out of the tide, the nature of the ground is of comparatively little importance.

The anchorage of ships, especially ships of war, being a subject of great importance to the naval and commercial interests of the kingdom, several statutes have been enacted with respect to it. The first which it is necessary to notice here is 19 Geo. 2. c. 22. It prohibits masters of ships from casting out bal. last, or rubbish of any kind, into any harbour or channel, except on the land where the tide never comes, on pain of forfeiting not more than $1. nor less than 508. on conviction before a justice on view, or on the oath of one witness, or of being committed to prison for two months; which penalty is increased to 16., over and above the expense of removing the same, by 51 Geo. 3. c. 159. In pursuance of the same object, 54 Geo. 3. c. 159. enables the Lords of the Admiralty to establish regulations for the preservation of the king's moorings or anchorage, as well as for those of merchant ships, in all the ports, harbours, channeis, &c. &c. of the United Kingdom, as far as the tide fows, where or near to which his Majesty nas, or may hereafter bave, any docks, dock yards, arsenals, wharfs, or moorings. It prohibits all descriptions of private ships from being moored or anchored, or placed in any of his Majesty's moorings, &c. without special licence obtained from the Admiralty, or other persons appointed to grant such licences, on pain of ior. feiting not exceedling 101., one moiety to his Majesty, the other to the informer, on conviction before any justice of the peace or commissioner of the navy.

It further prohibits the breaming of private vessels in such placrs otherwise than appointed by the said puthority of the Admiralty; and the receiving or having gunpowder, beyond a certain limited quantity,

under a penalty of 51. for every five pounds' weight of such powder beyond the quantity allowed. It pro. hibits likewise all such private vessels in any such places having any guns on hoard shotted or loaded with hall, as well as firing and discharging any such before sun-rising and after sun-setting, under a penaity of 51. for every gun so shotied, and 104. for every gun so fired. It further gives to every officer of vessels of war, to harbour-masters, and others in their aid, a right of search in all private vessels so moored in such places, and inficts a penalty of 101. on resistance.

ANCHORAGE also means a duty laid on ships for the use of the port or harbour.

ANCHOVY (Fr. Anchois ; It. Acciughe ; Lat. Enerasicolus), a small fish ( Clupea encrasicolus Lin.), common in the Mediterranean, resembling the sprat. Those brought from Gorgona in the Tuscan Sea are esteemed the best. They should be chosen small, fresh pickled, white outside and red within. Their backs should be round. The sardine, a fish which is flatter and larger than the anchovy, is frequently substituted for it. About 120,000 lbs. are annually entered for home consumption.

ANGELICA, a large umbelliferous plant, with hollow jointed stalks, of which there are several varieties. It grows wild, and is cultivated in moist places near London, and in most European countries from Lapland to Spain. Its roots are thick, fleshy, and resinous; have a fragrant agreeable smell, and a bitterish pungent taste, mixed with a pleasant sweetness glowing on the lips and palate for a long time after they have been chewed. To preserve them, they must be thoroughly dried, and kept in a wellaired place. The other parts of the plant have the saine taste and flavour as the roots, but in an inferior degree. The leaves and seeds do not retain their virtues when kept.

The London confectioners inake a sweetmeat of the tender stems. The faculty used to direct that none but the roots of Spanish angelica should be kept by the druggists. In Norway the roots are sometimes used as bread, and in Iceland the stalks are eaten with butter. Here the plant is used only in confectionary and the materia medica. (Lewis's Mut. Med.; Rees's Cyclopædia, &'c.)

The duty of 43. per cwt. on Angelica produced, in 1840, 881. 45. 6d., showing that 441 cwt. had been entered for home consumption.

ANISEED (Fr. Anis ; It. Anise ; Lat. Anisum), a small seed of an oblong shape. It is cultivated in Germany, but the best comes from Alicant in Spain. It is also a product of China, whence it is exported. It should be chosen fresh, large, plump, newly dried, of a good smell, and a sweetish aromatic taste.

The duty of 5s. a cwt. on aniseed produced, in 1840, 781.5s. 10d., showing that 315 cwt. had been entered for consutaption.

ANKER, a liquid measure at Amsterdam. It contains about 104 gallons English wine measure.

ANNOTTO, OR ARNOTTO (Fr. Rocou ; Ger. Orlean ; It. Oriana), a species of red dye formed of the pulp enveloping the seeds of the Bixa Orellana, a plant common in South America, and the East and West Indies; but dye is made, at least to any extent, only in the first. It is prepared by macerating the pods in boiling water, extracting the seeds, and leaving the pulp to subside; the fluid being subsequently drawn off, the residuum, with which oil is sometimes mixed up, is placed in shallow vessels and gradually dried in the shade. It is of two sorts, viz. flag or cake, and roll annotto. The first, which is by far the most important article in a commercial point of view, is furnished almost wholly by Cayenne. It is imported in square cakes, weighing 2 or 3 lbs. each, wrapped in banana leaves. When well made, it should be of a bright yellow colour, soft to the touch, and of a good consistence. It imparts a deep but not durable orange colour to silk and cotton, and is used for that purpose by the dyers. Roll annotto is principally brought from Brazil. The rolls are small, not exceeding 2 or 3 oz. in weight; it is hard, dry, and compact, brownish on the outside, and of a beautiful red colour within. The latter is the best of all ingredients for the colouring of cheese and butter; and is now exclusively used for that purpose in all the British and in some of the continental dairies. In Gloucestershire it is the practice to allow an ounce of annotto to a cwt. of cheese; in Cheshire, 8 dwts, are reckoned sufficient for a cheese of 60 lbs. When genuine, it neither affects the taste nor the smell of cheese or butter. The Spanish Americans mix annotto with their chocolate, to which it gives a beautiful tint. (Gray's Supplement to the Pharmacopæias; Loudon's Encyc. of Agriculture, and private information.)

At an average of the years 1840 and 1841, 296,821 lbs. annotto were entered for home consumption. Previously to 1832 the duty on flag annotto was 18s. 8d. a cut, and on other sorts 51. 125.; but the duty was then reduced to Is, a cwt. on the former, and to 48, on the latter, and is now 1s. acwt, on both sorts. The price of flag annotto varies in the market from 5d. to 7d. per Ib., and of roll from 1s. to Is. 6d.

ANNUITIES. See INTEREST AND ANNUITIES.

ANTIMONY (Ger. and Du. Spiesglas; Fr. Antimoine; It. Antimonio ; Rus. Antimonia; Lat. Antimonium), a metal which, when pure, is of a greyish white colour, and has a good deal of brilliancy, showing a radiated fracture when broken ; it is converted by exposure to heat and air into a white oxide, which sublimes in vapours. It is found in Saxony and the Hartz, also in Cornwall, Spain, France, Mexico, Siberia, the Eastern

Islands, and Martaban in Pegu. We are at present wholly supplied with this metal from Singapore, which receives it from Borneo ; it is imported in the shape of ore, and commonly as ballast. It is about as hard as gold; its specific gravity is about 67; it is easily reduced to a very fine powder; its tenacity is such that a rod of oth of an inch diameter is capable of supporting 10 lbs. weight. Antimony is used in medicine, and in the composition of metal types for printing. The ores of antimony are soft, and vary in colour from light lead to dark lead grey; their specific gravity varies from 4:4 to 6-8; they possess a metallic lustre, are brittle, and occur in the crystallised massive forms. ( Thomson's Chemistry, and private information.)

ANTWERP, the principal sea-port of Belgium, lat. 51° 13' 16" N., long. 4° 24' 10" E. A large, well-built, and strongly fortified city, on the Scheldt. Pop. in 1836, 75,863. Previously to its capture by the Spaniards, under Farnese, in 1585, Antwerp was one of the greatest cominercial cities of Europe; but it suffered much by that event. In 1648, at the treaty of Westphalia, it was stipulated by Spain and Holland, that the navigation of the Scheldt should be shut up; a stipulation which was observed till the occupation of Belgium by the French, when it was abolished. In 1809, the improvement of the harbour was begun, and extensive new docks and warchouses have since been constructed. Ships of the largest burden come up to the town, and goods destined for the interior are forwarded with the greatest facility by metris of canals and railways. Almost all the foreign trade of Belgium is at present centred in Antwerp, which has again become a place of much commercial importance.

Goods may be warehoused in Antwerp en entrepôt, at the rates of charge specified in a fixed tariff. The exports chiefly consist of fax, cotton and linen manufactured goods, refined sugar, glass, zinc, oakbark, grain and seeds, lace, &c. The imports consist principally of coffee, sugar, and other colonial proe ducts, cotton stuffs, and other manufactured goods, corn, raw cotton, leather, timber, tobacco, wool, rice, dye-stufis, salt, wines, fruits, &c. A large proportion of the imports not being intended for home consumption, but for transit to other countries, their amount is always much greater than the amount of the exports. Of the total value of the articles imported into Antwerp in 1839, amounting to 97,960,200 fr. (3,918,418!. sterling), those supplied by England were worth very near 30,000,000 fr. ; ditto by Russia, 14,364,900 fr.; ditto by the United States, 8,217,800 fr. ; ditto by France, 7,630,200 fr., &c. The principal 'articles were coffee, worth 14,745,500 fr. ; grain and seeds, 13,936,800 fr. ; sugar, 11,430,800 fr. ; woven fabrics, 11,339,100 fr. ; raw cotton, 5,225,200 fr.; metals, 4,872,31 fr., &c. The total value of the articles exported durmg the same year was 35,630,000 fr. (1,425,440.), whereof those sent to England were worth 14,319,100 fr.; ditto to Holland, 5,777,500 fr.; the Hanse Towns, 4,320,200 fr.

Money, Weights, and Measures, -- The French system of monies, weights, and measures has been adopted in Belgium. Formerly accounts were kept in florins worth Is. Nid. sterling. The quintal formerly in use, and still sometimes referred to, = 103] Ibs. avoirdupois. In 1R37 the commercial Bank, a joint-stock association, was founded in Antwerp. It has a capital of 25,000,000 fr. (1,000,001. sterling), divided into 25,000 shares of 1,000 fr. each, and transacts all sorts of banking business. Here also are two considerable insurance companies. The railway from Antwerp to Brussels, 24 miles in length, has been signally successful, and has been of great advantage to both cities, but especially to Antwerp.

Custom-house Regularions. - Captains of ships arriving at Antwerp, or any of the Belgian ports, must make, within 24 hours, a declaration in writing of the goods of which their cargo consists, specifying the marks and numbers of the bales, parcels, &c., their value, according to the current price at the time when the declaration is made, the name of the ship or vessel, as well as that of the captain, and of the country to which she belongs, &c.

Pori Charges. -- These, as will be seen from the subjoined statement, are rather heavy. Account of Port Charges at Antwerp on a national Ship, or on a foreign privileged Ship of 250 Tons, arriving with a Cargo, discharging the same, and clearing out in Ballast.

frs, cats 1. Custom-house officers from Flushing, about

11. For the cooking houses in the dock, four 2. Piletige from sa to Flushing, 15 Ilutch feet Ditto from Flushing to Antwerp, 15 ditto

12. Baliast, 100 tasts, at 2 fr. per last

200 3. Pilot, for moring the vessel into the dock

13. Surveyor's visit of the vessel outwards in bal4. Charges for changin at Flushing 5. Leads pnt to the hatches by the Custom-house,

14. To pilot, for moving the vessel into the river and sealing the ship's provisions, about

15. Water bailiff's certificate, in and out 6. Harbour dues and quas money.

10. Charterparty and stamps (if required) 7. Tonnage duty on 250 fons, at I fr. SO centimes

17. Brok rage on 2 tons, at 20 rent, per ton per ion, and additional duty 13 centimes, and

18. Toth excise, for town dues on ship's provisions, stamps 72 frs. 8. Clearance, passport of the tonnage duty, mea.

19. Pilotage to Flushing on 12 feet .

0 suring, and stamps

20. Ditto from Flushing to sea, and clearing charges 9. Cu tom houx clearance, certificate outwards iv. Duck duty on 250 tons, at 54 centimes for three

21. Cancelling custom-house bonds, postages, and

11

22. Pilotage-otice for hooking the vessel : N. B. All vessels leaving Antwerp must be provided with a surveyor's certificate that they are seaworthy. When in ballast, this certificate costs from 6 fr. to 13 fr. 50 cent. ; when loaded, from 10 fr. to 30 fr., according to the burden of the vessel, besides 11 fr. 40 cent, for certificate of tribunal. The cooking-bouse duties depend on the size of the vessel, avd must be paid whether the house be used or not.

Shipping. – In 1839 there entered the port of Antwerp 1182 ships of the burden of 202,038 tons, whereof 337 ships were from England, 231 from Russia, 109 from France, 11 from the United States, &c. In 1938 there belonged to Antwerp 61 vessels (of wbich 2 were steamers) of the burden of 9,557 tons. From 4,000 to 5,000 passengers arrive annually at the city by the steam-packets from England. We subjoin a Statement of the Imports, &c. (See Table, next page.)

Conditions under which Goods are sold, - On goods generally 2 per cent. is allowed for payment in 20 days, and if per cent. on credit of 6 weeks or 2 months. On cottons, at 20 days' credit, 3 per cent, are allowed, and i, per cent. on a credit of 2 or 3 months. On ashes, hides, and sugar, 3 per cent. for 20 days, and I) per cent. for three months' credit.

For further information as to the trade, &c. of Antwerp, see Heuschling, Statistique Génerale de la Belgique ; Macgregor's Commercial Tariffs, art. BELGIUM ; the Revue Commerciale ct Maritime d'Anvers, &c.

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Statement of the Imports and Sales of some of the principal Articles imported into Antwerp in 1840, 1841,

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1840. 1911. 1842. 1810, 1841. 1812. 1%10. 1941. 1512. baris. | 11,0211 10,026 13,487 . 13,271 9,7h 11,7 1,1) 1,2) 3. casks 1,40 1.16

200 toms 15.10! 13,00 21,70 18,11,100: 18,4 3,CR bales 53,227 40,361 31,17% 44,727 32,142 56,103 17.5) 21,423 22,

DO 253,410641,79 421,11 276, 461557.3.34,551 15,0 142,463 64), chris

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6.478 7,187 19,926 8.778 5,7 11,726 1, si

2,400 100 tierres 9,15 6,70 6,22 9,36 6,20

bas 30),1)31 31,39 22,25 37,531 25,8 26,125 6,000) 11,50 8,000 tons 17.013, 10) 13.3:M) 10,00 11,90) 10,900 4,10

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1.580 3,20 3,110) 750 175 820

5.) 140

EC het.! 27.910 19,0 19,00) 17.340 28,0 18,54 0) 11,00 2,000 2,00 Including tuns

7,0%) 5,500 5,700 received from Holiand by the Interior.

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APPLES, the fruit of the Pyrus Malus, or apple tree. It is very extensively culti. vated in most temperate climates. An immense variety and quantity of excellent apples are raised in England, partly for the table, and partly for manufacturing into cider. Those employed for the latter purpose are comparatively barsh and austere. The principal cider counties are Hereford, Monmouth, Gloucester, Worcester, Somerset, and Devon. Mr. Marshall estimated the produce of the first four at 30,000 bhds, a year, of which Worcester is supposed to supply 10,000; but it is now probably much greater. Half a hogshead of cider may be expected, in ordinarily favourable seasons, from each tree in an orchard in full bearing. The number of trees on an acre varies from 10 to 40, so that the quantity of cider must vary in the same proportion, that is, from 5 to 20 hhds. The produce is, however, very fluctuating; and a good crop seldom occurs above once in three years. ---( Lowon's Encyc. of Agriculture, ge.)

Besides the immense consumption of native apples, we import, for the table, considerable supplies of French and American apples, especially the former. Owing, however, to the duty previously to 1N42 having been an ad valorem one of 5 per cent., we are unable to specify the quantities imported. They must, however, have been very considerable, as their declared value amounted, in 1841, to 41,1971. 45. 10d. In 1*42, the duty was fixed at bid. per bushel on raw, and 28. per do. on dried apples. The apples pro. duced in the vicinity of New York are universally admitted to be the finest of any; but unless selected and packed with care, they are very apt to spoil before reaching England. The exports of apples from the United States, during the year ended the 30th of September, 1811, amounted to 25,216 barrels, valued at 4*.306 dollars. of these, 5,059 barrels were shipped for the United Kingdum. -- (Papers laid before Congress, 21st of July, 1812.)

APPRENTICE, a person of either sex, bound by indenture to serve some particular individual, or company of individuals, for a specified time, in order to be instructed in some art, science, or trade.

According to the common law of England, every one has a right to employ himself at pleasure in every lawful trade. But this sound principle was almost entirely subverted by a statute passed in the fifth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, commonly called the Statute of Apprenticeship. It enacted that no person should, for the future, exercise any trade, craft, or mystery, at that time exercised in England and Wales, unless he had previously served to it an apprenticeship of seven years at least; so that what had before been a bye-law of a few corporations, became the general and statute law of the kingdom. Luckily, however, the courts of law were always singularly disinclined to give effect to the provisions of this statute; and the rules which they established for its interpretation served materially to mitigate its injurious operation. But though its impolicy had been long apparent, it was continued till 1814, when it was repealed by the 54 Geo. 3. c. 96. This act did not interfere with any of the existing rights, privileges, or bye-laws of the different corporations; but wherever these do not interpose, the formation of apprenticeships, and their duration, is left to be adjusted by the parties themselves.

The regulations with respect to the taking of apprentices on board ship, the only part of this subject that properly comes within the scope of this work, are embodied in the 7 & 8 Vict, c. 112. They are as follow:

The master of every ship belonging to any subject of the United Kingdom of the burden of 80 tons and upwards (except pleasure yachts ), shall have on board thereof, on clearing from, and when absent from, the U. K., one apprentice or more, in the following proportion to the number of tons of her a imeasurement, according to the certificate of registry; viz. For every vessel of 80 tons and under 200 tons, I apprentice at least.

400 400

500 500

700 4

700 and upwards all of whom, at the period of being bound, shall be above 12 and under the age of 17 years, and shall ba duly indented for at least four years; and all masters neglecting to have on board such number of apprentices ball forfeit 101. for every apprentice that may be deticient. -8 37.

200

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