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YORK is a very ancient city, and is said to have been founded 983 years B.C. Little is known of its history till A.D. 150, when it was one of the greatest Roman stations in the province, having an imperial palace, a tribunal, and s regular government within its walls. The Emperor Severus lived in the palace three years, and died there. He was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, the former of whom murdered the latter in York, and returned to Rome. About a century after, Carausius landed in Britain, and was proclaimed emperor at York. Constantine the Great was born in this city in 272, and his father Constantius died there in 307. York has had a conspicuous share in all the national troubles, especially in the civil wars of the Roses and temp. Charles I. The walls, gates, and posterns, are to a considerable extent still perfect. The portions of walls which remain are surmounted by a delightful promenade commanding a beautiful prospect of the surrounding country. The c&

. See ravendish's Narrative, app. to Galt's Life of Wolsey, 3d ed. p. 228.

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is the finest building of the kind in the empire, displaying the most ing features of the various styles of Gothic. It is by internal measurement

et long, 222 feet from north to south in transepts, and 99 feet high. It was founded in 626, by Edwin, the Saxon King of Northumberland, and through

han reding ages has been enlarged, repaired, and improved with great taste. It 1 red severely from fire in 1829, and again in 1840. From the time of Pau

* 3, the first archbishop, who was appointed in 625, down to the present moment, in e have been no fewer than 92 archbishops of York. Besides the cathedral,

tre are twenty-one parish churches within the walls, and three in the suburbs. * '; city is thus peculiarly attractive to the ecclesiologist. The other objects of

plic interest are the city walls; the castle originally built by William I., since tored, and now used as a gaol (including within its walls Clifford's Tower, said have been raised by the Romans); the ruins of St Mary's Abbey; the Yorkire Museum and gardens ; the Assembly Rooms; the public cemetery, &c.

he charitable institutions of the city are very numerous. It contains upwards * Itwelve dissenting chapels. York carries on a considerable river trade, and has

ome traffic in gloves, linens, glass, and drugs, as well as in printing and bookcelling, and it derives great advantage from the influx of visitors to the assizes

and the races. The learned Alcuin was a native of York, as were also Flaxman and Etty the Academicians. York usually gives the title of Duke to the second son of the sovereign. Two M.P. Pop. 1851, 40,359.

The Great Northern Railway forms, however, the most direct line of communication between the Metropolis and the north of England. From the London terminus at King's Cross, this line proceeds northward by Barnet, Hatfield, Ste

venage, Hitchin, Biggleswade, St Neot's, and Huntingdon, to Peterborough ; - thence by Grantham, Newark, East Retford, Bawtry, Doncaster, and Womersley, s joining the York and North Midland at Burton-Salmon. A loop line leaves the

main trunk at Peterborough, and passes to the eastward through Spalding, Bos ton, Lincoln, and Gainsborough to Retford.

The distance from London to Peterborough, by this route, is 767 miles ;-the total distance from London to York, 191 miles, and from London to Hull, 1737 miles. (See description of Great Northern lines.)

CLVIII. YORK TO DURHAM, NEWCASTLE, AND BERWICK, BY RAILWAY,

1537 Miles.

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Branch to Richmond,

9 miles.

The ruins of Richmond Castle are situated on the south side of the town, overlooking the Swale, which runs in a deep valley beneath. The keep is about 100 feet high, and the shell almost entire. The walls are 11 feet thick. This castle was founded by Alain Rufus, Earl of Bretagne, who came over with William the Conqueror. Near the castle, on the opposite bank of the Swale, are the ruins of the Priory of St. Martin; and north of the town are the ruins and fine tower of a Greyfriary. Here are also the ruins of St. Nicholas's Hospital.

Richmond is delightfully situated on a lofty eminence rising from the Swale. It has two old churches, St. Mary's and Trinity, several dissenting chapéls, a towa. hall, free grammar and other schools. Itis noted for its extensive corn market, and has a considerable traffic in lead. The surrounding country is remarkably pic turesque. 2 M.P. Pop. 1851. 4969. Near the town is Aske Hall, the seat of the Earl of Zetland.

cr. river Tees, and enter Durham.

Croft Hall, Sir W. R. C. Chantor, Bart,

Neasham Hall, 21 m. 112

Clarvaux Castle.

Croft St.

Blackwell Grange.

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