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1977

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Scorborough.

At a distance Sonth

Dalton Hall, Lord Ho 46/ Beswick.

than. Watton Abbey.

Watton. 1864 Kilnwick Hall, C.

Grimston, Esq.
Hutton Cranswick. 1881 3 m. distant Neswick

Hall, 2 m. dist. Pockthorpe. 391 GREAT DRIFFIELD, 1913

Sunderlandwick Hall. a pleasant town at the foot of

the Wolds, carries on a con To York, 284 miles, TO Bridlington by siderable trade in corn. Pop. Nafferton and Burton of township 1851, 3792. Agues, 114 miles.

Kendal House.

Ata distance Sledmere

Pa., Sir Tatton Sykes 11 m. distant is Brid

Langtoft.

Bart.

To York by Sledmere, lington, a neat town, which derived its origin

30 miles. from an Augustine Prior

Foxholes. founded in the reign of

Gauton Hall, Sir T. D. Henry I. 1 mile S. E. of

Legard, Bart. the town is Bridlington

Staxton.

To New Malton, 14) Quay, much frequented

miles. for sea bathing. Pop. of township 1851, 2432.

Seamer.

At a distance High (See p. 427.)*

Hall, Sir D. Cayley, Bart. Hunmanby, 44 miles. 191 Falsegrave.

W skeham Abbey, and

Hutton Bushel Hall. To Bridlington, 18 m. SCARBOROUGR (p. 423.) 213"

To New Malton, 90 m. Burniston.

2161
Cloughton. 2171

Staintondale.
Peak Alum-works.
An examination of the exten-

The country adjacent sive alum-works at this place

to Whitby, throughout will amply repay the tourist's

an extent of 30 mile trouble.

along the coast, and from

8 miles to 12 miles in Mill-Beck. 2247 breadth inland, is an Thorpe Town, Robin 226 alum rock.

almost uninterrupted Hood's Bay.

Hawsker.

Stainsacre Lane. 2289 1 mile distant, High

WHITBY (p. 424.) Stakesby and Low Sta

Mulgrare Castle, Mar kesby.

I quis of Normanby, 3 m. 1 PETERBOROUGH.—This city was anciently called Medeshamstede, and owes its origin to a celebrated Benedictine abbey, founded soon after the revival of Christi

* Three and a half miles from Bridlington is the fishing village of Flamborough, formerly a town of considerable importance. Here are the remains of a Danish tower. The church con tains a curious monumental inscription. Two miles distant is the celebrated promontasy called Flamborough Head. (See p. 427.)

228

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anity among the Saxons. This abbey was destroyed by the Danes about 807, and was, in 966, restored after remaining desolate for upwards of a century and a half. The ancient name of the city was then superseded by the present, derived from the saint to whom it was dedicated. At the dissolution of the religious houses, the Abbey of Peterborough was one of the most magnificent, and was selected as the seat of one of the new bishoprics erected by Henry VIII. During the great civil wars, the conventual buildings were utterly demolished, and the cathedral itself was much injured, and its monuments defaced. The cathedral is a noble structure, measuring on the outside 471 feet in length, and 180 in breadth, chiefly in the Norman style, and erected at various periods. Here were interred Queen Katherine of Arragon and Mary Queen of Scots; but the remains of the latter were afterwards removed to Westminster Abbey. At the west end of the cathedral is a large court, on the south side of which is a range of the ancient monastic buildings. The remains of the cloisters are in good preservation. In the church of St John the Baptist is a tablet with some exquisite figures by Flaxman. The city contains also a theatre, several schools, banks, and meeting-houses, jail, &c. The trade carried on is chiefly in corn, coal, timber, lime, bricks, and stone. The Nen is navigable for boats, and the city is connected by railway with all parts of the kingdom. Dr Paley was a native of Peterborough. Two M.P. Pop. 1851, 8672.

About two miles from Peterborough is Milton Park, the seat of Earl Fitzwilliam. Several pieces of stained glass were removed hither from the windows of Fotheringhay Castle, when that building was demolished. Here is also a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots, and another of James I. when a boy, said to have been given by Mary to Sir W. Fitzwilliam on the morning of her execution.

BOURNE is a small town in south Lincolnshire, where was formerly a castle, the seat of a lordship of some note in the Saxon times. Hereward, the Anglo-Saxon chieftain, who opposed the most protracted resistance to William the Conqueror, was the son of the Lord of Bourne. In the centre of the marketplace is the town-hall, in the room of one built by the great Lord Burghley, a native of the town. The church is a large and handsome building. The principal business carried on is tanning and wool-stapling. Here is a medicinal spring, which is much frequented, and there are traces of the site of an Augustinian priory. Pop. 1851, 2789. Between three and four miles from Bourne, is Grims thorpe Castle, the seat of Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, an irregular structure, erected at various periods, from the time of Henry VIII. till 1723. It has a beautiful chapel, and a fine collection of pictures. The grounds are very extensive and beautiful.

LINCOLN, the capital of Lincolnshire, is a place of great antiquity, and was of considerable importance under the Romans. At the time of the Norman Conquest it was one of the most important places in the kingdom. William the Conqueror caused a strong castle to be erected here in 1086. King Stephen was defeated and taken prisoner here in 1141 by Robert Earl of Gloucester, natural brother to the Empress Maud. Lincoln was the scene of important operations during the civil wars in John's reign, and here the party of the Dauphin

was completely overthrown by the Earl of Pembroke during the minority of Henry III. During the great civil war, the royalists obtained possession of the city, but it was stormed by the Parliamentary army under the Earl of Manche ter, May 5, 1644. The most interesting of the public buildings is the Cathedral, which is reckoned one of the finest in the kingdom. It is situated on the summit of a hill, and is visible at a distance of many miles. It was founded under William Rufus, but re-erected by Henry II. and dedicated to the Virgin The west front, two circular windows, the choir, and screen, and the Lady Chapel, are peculiarly beautiful and interesting. The celebrated bell, the Great Tom of Lincoln, cast in 1610, was cracked in 1827, and broken up in 1834 With six others, it was recast into the present large bell and two quarter belly, and placed in the central tower in 1835. It is 6 feet 104 inches in diameter at the mouth, and weighs 5 tons 8 cwt., nearly a ton more than the old bell. The only bells in the kingdom which exceed it in size are the “Mighty Tom" of Oxford, (7 tons 15 cwt.), and Great Tom of Exeter, (6 tons.) On the north side of the cathedral are the cloisters, in which is preserved a Roman pavement. The library contains some curious specimens of Roman antiquities. In the cathedral are numerous monuments; among others, those of Catherine Swinford, wife of John of Gaunt; of Joan, Countess of Westmorland, their daughter; and of several bishops and deans of the cathedral; but many of the older monuments have been removed or were totally destroyed during the civil wars. The other buildings worthy of notice are the Chapter House, the ruins of the Bishops' Palace, the remains of the castle, with the county jail and Court House; the Newport Gate, one of the finest remnants of Roman architecture in England; the remains of John of Gaunt's Palace; the guildhall; city jail, &c. The city abounds in antiquities, and especially in monastic and other architectural remains. The other sburches of Lincoln are fourteen in number; formerly there were upwards of fifty, and most of them standing at the time of the Reformation. There are also several dissenting places of Worship, public libraries, (in one of which is an eli copy of Magna Charta,) a mechanics' institute, a theatre, assembly rooms, and race-course. The chief trade is in flour, and there are some extensive breweries noted for ale. The Wytham and Trent communicate by the Foss Dyke, a work of Roman origin, twelve miles long, and the city is connected by railway with ali parts of the kingdom. It returns two M.P., and affords the title of Earl to the Duke of Newcastle, Pop. 1851, 17,536.

BEVERLEY, an extensive and pleasant town near the Hull, at the foot of the York Wolds. The houses are good, and the principal street is terminated by an ancient gateway. The market-place, which comprises an area of nearly foar acres, is ornamented with an octangular market-cross. It is supposed that in ancient times, the marshes of Deira, to the north of the Humber, became lakes or meres whenever the river Hull overflowed the country. Beverley probably took its name from one of these lakes,-Beverlac, the lake of beavers, so named from the beavers with which the neighbouring river Hull abounded. In the early part of the eighth century, a church was founded here by John, Archbishop of York who afterwards converted it into a monastery. Athelstan changed it from a monastery into a college. Various important privileges were conferred upon the town by the same monarch. During the great civil wars, Beverley was frequently the scene of agitation; and it was here that Sir John Hotham, who had represented the town in several successive parliaments, was arrested by his nephew, on his flight from Hull, as a traitor to the commonwealth. The present trade of Beverley is chiefly confined to tanned leather, oatmeal, malt, corn, and coal. The town communicates with the river Hull by a canal, called Beverley Beck. The finest object in Beverley is the superb collegiate church of St John, or Minster, adorned with several monuments to the Percys. This edifice has been built at different periods, and exhibits various styles of Gothic architecture. The principal window, at the east end, is said to be copied from that of York. The celebrated Percy-Shrine, which is within the choir, is of most exquisite workmanship. St Mary's Church is also exceedingly handsome and spacious. In ancient times, there was also a monastery of Blackfriars, another of Franciscans or Greyfriars, and an establishment of knights hospitallers. Beverley has a grammar-school of great antiquity, several meeting-houses, two hospitals, several schools, banks, houses of correction, &c. Bishops Alcock, Fisher, and Green, were natives of this place. Beverley returns two M.P., and gives the title of Earl to a branch of the Northumberland family. Pop. 1851, 10,058.

SCARBOROUGH is delightfully situated in the recess of a bay, whence it rises in the form of an amphitheatre to the summit of a cliff or scar. Its name, signifying a fortified rock, is of Saxon derivation; and there is reason to suppose that it was also a Roman settlement. It ranks among the most ancient boroughs which send members to Parliament. The town was in ancient times defended by strong walls, a moat, and earthen mound. The castle, which stands on a promontory, elevated more than 300 feet above the level of the sea, was built in the reign of King Stephen by William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, and has been the scene of many events remarkable in history. Here, Piers de Gavaston sought refuge from his enemies ; but, being taken, was beheaded by them. During the civil wars, the castle underwent two sieges by the Parliamentary forces; the first of which lasted upwards of twelve months, the garrison having at length been compelled, by disease and famine, to surrender on honourable terms. It was afterwards dismantled by order of the Parliament, but underwent a temporary repair on the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1745, and is still occupied by a small garrison, who are accommodated in barracks of modern erection. Scarborough combines the advantages of sea-bathing with mineral-baths, and its neighbourhood presents a beach of the finest sand in the kingdom. The two mineral springs are on the very edge of the sea-water, and are found to contain carbonate and sulphate of lime, magnesia, and oxide of iron. There are also excellent baths, and the most complete accom

modation for the enjoyment of sea-bathing. Scarborough possesses nums rous churches and chapels, a theatre, assembly-rooms, banks, libraries, &c. and a remarkable bridge, erected upon piers 75 feet high, over a chasm 400 feet wide which separates the town from the spa. The scenery in the neighbourhood of the town is of a beautiful and romantic character. About four miles from Scarborough is the picturesque village of Hackness, where also is Hackness Hall (Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, Bart.), a noble mansion near the supposed site of St Hilda's Cell. Scarborough returns two M.P., and is connected by railway with all parts of the kingdom. Pop. 1851, 12,915.

WHITBY was originally the seat of an abbey, founded by Oswy, King of Northumberland, in the seventh century, which, having been destroyed by the Danes, was rebuilt after the conquest in a style of great magnificence. In 1540, Whitby was only a small fishing-town, containing about thirty or forty houses. The erection of the alum-works at Sands End, in the year 1615, contributed greatly to its prosperity. The town is built along the sloping banks of the Esk, which forms the harbour, and divides the town into two parts, connected by a draw-bridge, so constructed as to admit vessels of 500 tons burden. The principal objects worthy of notice are the venerable remains of the Abbey Church, situated on a high cliff commanding a fine view; the docks, extending along both sides of the river; the piers, the town-house, baths, library, museum, &c. St Mary's Church, near the top of a hill, is approached from the bottom of the vale by 190 stone steps. It contains several monuments of the Cholmeley family, and the tomb of General Lascells, a native of Whitby, who was killed at Prestonpans. Whitby carries on an extensive trade in alum and coals, and also in ship-building. The vicinity abounds in beautiful and romantic scenery. Three miles distant is Mulgrave Castle, the seat of the Marquis of Normanby. Whitby has railway communication with all parts of the kingdom. One M.P. Pop. 1851, 10,989

CXLVI. LONDON TO MARKET HARBOROUGH THROUGH NEW PORT PAG

NELL, OLNEY, WELLINGBOROUGH, AND KETTERING, 85] Miles.

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