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CXXXVII. LONDON TO SEDBERGH, BY BOROUGHBRIDGE, LEYBURN, AND
ASKRIGG, 2661 Miles.
OX RIGHT FROM LOND.
ON LEFT YRON LOXD.
From Hicks's Hall, to Newby Park.
531 York Gate Inn (p. 371.) 213 Norton Conyers, Sir
Nosterfield. 220 B. R. Gralamn, Bart.
Swinton Park. 3 m. distant Thürp Perrow Park, M. Mil. 404! Nether Ellington.
226 hanke, Esq.; 2 m. dis
Jerveaux Abbey. 2284 Jerveaux Abbey, a very tant, Clifton Castle; and
fine ruin, is the properts hevond it, Thornton Hall,
of the Marquis of Aiessir C. Lodsworth, Bart.
bury. Hur a description of the road from Jedburgh to Edinburgh, gee Black's Picturesque louri
AND BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2581 Miles.
ON RIGHT FROM LOND.
ON LEFT FROY LOND.
From Hicks's Hall to To Darlington,8 miles. 26 Scotch Corner, (p. 371.) 2324 To Barnard Castle, 15
miles, Middleton Lodge, and
Aske Hall (Earl of beyond, Halnaby Hall. Across river Tees, and Zetland) 1 m. Sir J. R. Milbanke, Bart.
Stanwick Park, D. op Northumberland, 3 m. Carlton Hall and Forcett
Park. To Darlington, 6 miles. 191 Pierse Bridge.
239 To Barnard Castle, 10 2m.dist. W#lworth Castle.
miles. Redworth House, R.
Cliffe Hall. Surtees, Esq.
West Auckland. 2454 To Wolsingham, u Brusselton Tower, a
m.; to Jedburgh by Witpleasure - house, com
ton-le-Wear, 761 miles. manding delightfulviews. 10 BISHOP AUCKLAND. 2481) Auckland Castle, Bishop
of Durham, and, in the Howlish Hall, and at
distance, Witton Castle, Westerton a circular
Sir W. R. C. Chapter, tower, erected as an ob
7 miles farther join the road
Sunderland Bridge. Croxdale Hall, G. Sal
2 miles distant. Whitvin, Esq.
worth Pa., R. D. Suaita, Windlestone Hall, Sir
Esq., and near it BranceWilliam Eden, Bart.
peth Castle, Viscount cr. the river Wear. Boyne.
church there is a very 27 miles farther join the road
extensive and beautifu. to Durbain through Bishop Auckland.
prospect. 31 Sunderland Bridge. 255
1 cross river Wear.
DURHAM, (see p. 399). 2585 Ten miles from Pierse Bridge is BARNARD CASTLE on the Rirer Tees. The name of this town was derived from a castle which was erected here shortly after the Norman Conquest by Barnard, son of Guy Balliol, who came into England with the Conqueror. The extensive ruins of this fortress are situated on the summit of a rocky eminence, and include within their area a circumference of upwards of six acres. Balliol's Tower, at the western extremity of the building, is a round tower of great size and antiquity, and remarkable for the curious constructies
of its vaulted roof. The prospect from the top of the tower commands a rich and magnificent view of the wooded valley of the Tees. Upon the forfeiture of John Balliol, the first King of Scotland of that family, this fortress was seized by Edward I. It subsequently passed into the possession of the Beauchamps, Earls of Warwick, the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham, and ultimately of the Nevills, Earls of Westmorland. During the insurrection, in which the last representative of the last-mentioned family engaged with the Earl of Northumberland, against Queen Elizabeth, for the purpose of restoring the Roman Catholic faith, Barnard Castle was seized by Sir George Bowes, and held out for ten days against all the forces of the insurgents. (See Wordsworth's White Doe of Rylstone.) On the forfeiture of the Earl of Westmoreland, Barnard Castle reverted to the Crown, and was sold or leased to Car, Earl of Somerset, the guilty favourite of James I. It was afterwards granted to Sir Harry Vane the elder, and is now the property of his descendant, the Duke of Cleveland.* Barnard Castle is the scene of part of Sir Walter Scott's poem of Rokeby. The town of Barnard Castle bas one of the largest com-markets in the north of England. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in tanning, and in the manufacture of carpets, plaids, and stockings. Pop. 1851, 4357. Two miles from the town is a chaly beate spring.
Between two and three miles from Barnard Castle is Streatlam Castle (John Bowes, Esq.), situated in a secluded but romantic vale encircled by lofty and irregular hills. The park displays some rich natural scenery.
About five miles and a quarter from Barnard Castle is Staindrop, about a mile from which is RABY CASTLE, the fine old baronial mansion of the Duke of Cleveland. Raby Castle was the ancient seat of the Nevills, formerly one of the most powerful families in the kingdom. Camden states, that from this house sprung six Earls of Westmorland, two Earls of Salisbury and Warwick, an Earl of Kent, a Marquis of Montagut a Baron Ferrers of Oversley, Barons Latimer, Barons (now Earls of) Abergavenny, one Queen, five Duchesses, besides Countesses and Baronesses, an Archbishop of York, and a great number of inferior gentlemen. The famous Earl of Warwick, the “King-maker," was of this house. The origin of the family of the Nevills is to be found in Saxon times. Canute gave Staindropshire to the church of Durham, and the prior and convent granted the same district to Dolphin, son of Uchtred, and Raby soon became the seat of the honour. The grandson of Dolphin married Isabel, sister and heiress of Henry de Nevill, and heiress of the castles and lordships of Sheriff Hutton and Brancepeth, and a whole train of estates and manors dependent on those two great fees. The family adopted thenceforth the surname of Nevill. Raby is said to have been built by John Lord Nevill, son of Ralph Lord Nevill, who was one of the leaders at the
See Appendix to Rokeby, Note A. + Camden might have added a Duke of Bedford to the list. The son of the Marquis oli Montagu was created a Duke by this title, bat was deprived by Edward IV. of his dukedoa en account of his poverty and inability to maintain the dignity.
* Tlowitz's Vist c Remarkable Places, 20 Series, p. 231-26i.
battle of Nevill's Cross. His successor was created Earl of Westmorland bş Richard II., and became brother-in-law to Henry IV. This mighty line was de stroyed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in consequence of the part which the sixth and last Earl took in the disastrous "Rising of the North." Their immense estates were confiscated, and the Earl was forced to flee into Scotland, where he found a safe retreat with Kerr of Ferniherst. He afterwards escaped inte Flanders, where he entered as a colonel into the Spanish service, and protractel a life of unavailing regret to extreme old age. Brancepeth was sold by the Crown in the reign of Charles I., and, after passing through several hands, is now the property of Viscount Boyne. Raby Castle and estates were sold to Sir Harry Vane, and have descended from him in a direct line to their present possessor, the Duke of Cleveland. The first view of this fine old mansion impresses the spectator with a strong feeling of the old feudal grandeur. Pennant says of it, “ It is a noble massy building of its kind, uninjured by any modern strokes inconsistent with the general taste of the edifice, but simply magnificent it strikes by its magnitude and that idea of strength and command naturally annexed to the view of vast walls, lofty towers, battlements, and the surrounding outworks of an old baron's residence. The building itself, besides the courts, covers an acre of land." The interior is fitted up with all the conveniences and elegancies of modern refinement. The old baronial hall, which forms one side of the square of the inner area, is of the grandest proportions, 90 feet in length, 36 in breadth, and 34 in height. The roof is flat and made of woodi : the joints ornamented with escutcheons of the family of the Nevills. Here, it is said, assembled in their time 700 knights who held of that family. The kitchen, which forms a lofty square of 30 feet, is a singular relic of the ancient baronial time. The old tower of Bertram Bulmer and Clifford tower command extensive and splendid prospects. The park is noble.
BISHOP AUCKLAND is a small but neat town on an eminence, bounded on the south-east by the river Gaunless, and on the north by the Wear. Auckland Castle, the palace of the Bishop of Durham, stands on a hill above the towa, and is a splendid but irregular pile, erected at different periods. Its situation, amidst hills and green sloping lawns, rocks, woods, and water, is very beautiful, and was selected by the celebrated Bishop Anthony Beck, who built here a fine castellated manor house, which, at the time of the Commonwealth, fell into the hands of Sir Arthur Haselrigge. He destroyed the old buildings, and erected a splendid house here, which, however, on the Restoration, was again pulle! down by Bishop Cosin. The present edifice has been raised by his successors to its present condition and greatness. It contains some noble rooins, adorned with several fine paintings; and in the chapel is a monument by Nollekens, in memory of Bishop Trevor, and a picture of the resurrection by Sir Joshua Reynolds. The town has several mines in its neighbourhood, and is connected by railways with all parts of the kinguom. It has also severa! chapels, free schools, &c. Post 1871. 4400,