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be the wives and friends and home-helpers of our youth and manhood. There is thus room for ten girls engaged at work during the day. We How much must depend on their knowing what a true home is, and began with four boarders, or a household of eight in all. Two or three how it can be made bright and pure and helpful to all that is best in simple rules were laid down. The boarders, it was agreed, should pay ls. 61. human life! Families that keep servants are constantly brought in con- a week, that sum including what we call the minimum washing-what tact with families that keep none, for the one class get their servants from is absolutely necessary for the common comfort. Extras they arrange for the other; and the constant jars and vexations of mistresses and maids as they please. All the inmates take what we call the minimum board, prove how much our home life, at various levels, is in need of reformation. what is absolutely necessary for health.

what is absolutely necessary for health. Extras they arrange for as they Those who know anything of the habits of our working girls in manu- please. This makes our book-keeping simple. We stock our store-rooni factories, warehouses, and shops, know at what extremes of practical with tea, sugar, butter, &c., at wholesale prices. Whatever goes out of view they try to live: the industry, economy, earnestness and beauty of the store-room daily is noted in the dietary, and whatever else is needed womanly life with which many are distinguished; and the vanity, impru- —such as bread, milk, and meat. Nothing is charged by way of profit. dence, recklessness, and sin, in which so many sink out of sight. Some- At the end of the week these sums are added up, and the total divided by thing is needful to help girls in various ways to a happy, helpful home the number of inmates. Great care is bestowed on the dinner, which is life.

plain, wholesome, and varied. No restriction is laid on the food. There The present paper is intended to describe an experiment made in this is no want, but there is no waste, At the end of the first few weeks, the direction, and to give such details of what has already proved successful, board came to 3s. 11d., then to 3s. 6d., and then to 3s. a week, or less than that others interested may not only attempt but easily achieve similar 544. a day. It has been even at 2s. 10d., but we wish to keep it at 3s. work.

The work-room has been made an advanced department of the industrial Two years ago, after much meditation and preliminary experiment, a school. A sewing-machine, a forewoman, and four apprentices completed large kitchen was built in connection with an enlargement of the Wynd the first experiment; and, after paying all expenses, the first month lelt School. It was furnished very simply and plainly, so that if the attempt for the house 17s. should not succeed, the fittings and furnishings would not be a great loss, The probable income of the house may thus be stated :and the kitchen could be turned into another class-room. The kitchen

Ten boarders at 1s. 60. a week,...... £39 0 0 was built there because, in a school of more than four hundred children, Work-room at 15s. a month, girls were at hand for training, and they could not only have cooking les- Previously paid for cleaning school, 2000 sons, but ordinary work in the daily cleaning of the class-rooms. About a

-£68 0 0 or ucarly 9} per cent. hundred girls, from 10 to 15 years of age, were told off for weekly lessons

on original cost.

Less housekeeper and servant, ... £30 0 0 in sets of from 15 to 25, so that each set might liave a series of lessons in

Board, ........ domestic work during the winter. Then about another hundred of young women, at work during the day, were induced, at first with some difficulty, to take lessons on the Saturday afternoons. A working woman, for a

£22 8 0 or 3 per cent. small sum weekly, undertook to superintend the little girls for an hour which will go far to pay taxes, coal, gas, and soap-leaving the expense of the each morning before school-time at sweeping, dusting, and scrubbing; and two girls in training for service to be met by subscription. In other words, two members of the Church undertook gratuitously to teach cooking two half the salary of a Bible-woman would amply cover the whole annual surdays a week. The cooking lessons embraced almost everything neeilful plus expense of such an institution, and do a far greater amount of domestic for a plain family table, and for the sick-room, with pastry, cakes, and mission work. The direct work is not to be measured by the number of shortbread, and such other things as might make the tea-table attractive. inmates. Hundreds of homes come into contact with these reforms. The

expense of material for the two classes during the winter was only £7. Young women will not be satisfical with their ordinary style of home lise; The more expensive materials were brought by the girls, and taken home especially when it can be improved at less expense than it is now conducted. when prepared. As the lesson proceeded, the various quantities necessary A dozen girls, who have no mother's house and may never have a husband's, were explained, and the expense noted, to the fraction of a farthing. The might arrange to keep house together under a good matron, who would be girls were not allowed to attend unless they were perfectly tidy in person, glad of a home without much salary; and they might do without a servantand they were furnished with the use of aprons to keep their dresses clean. apportioning the house-work among them. At all events, a model liome, When the lesson was over, the table was neatly spread with white cloth, in the present low average of domestic comfort and attainment among the spoons, knives and forks, and a simple repast taught the girls how to sit

masses, is a desideratum among our mission agencies, and may be easily and wait at table. The lessons were extremely popular, and the influence established. radiating upon many homes quite wonderful. It was now resolved to proceed with the building of a house, in which

THE IRISH CHURCH QUESTION. complete domestic training might be carried on all the year round. During the suinmer and autumn this was done, and on last New Year's Day it was We have no wish, nor do we suppose most of our readers have any, to opened. The house has the disadvantage of being built in the Old Wynd, agitate this question needlessly. The Church of Ireland, as working in a but it was necessary to have it in connection with the Wynd School for Popish country, has many claims on our good-will; and it is generally free various economical reasons. It was built so that the first floor should be from the disguised Popery which alarms us in the English Church. Yet raised about sixteen feet from the ground, both to secure better air and not all men see that the question must now be faced. The Irish Church to trench on the area used for the play-ground. The first floor consists of a has, indeed, been frequently before the subject of parliamentary discusspacious kitchen--which becomes the family sitting-room---housekeeper's sion and of legislative enactment. Such concessions as Roman Catholic parlour and bedroom, and light store-room. The second floor has two emancipation, the coinmutation of tithes, the reduction of Irish bishoprics, dormitories, furnished with large wardrobes stained and varnished, and the enlarged and confirmed grant to Maynooth, and the extensive iron beds, single and double; a bath-room, with lavatories, &c.; and the modifications of the national-school system in favour of the Roman garret forms a large work-room, with a bedroom for two. In all, there Catholics, have each in turn been employed in soothing agitation and is sleeping accommodation for fourteen. The work-room is heated from arresting the rising force of hostile opinion. But the tide has now risen the kitchen boiler, and the bath-room is, at the same time, supplieil with so high that it is no longer to be rolled back, or even stayed, by such makehot water. The whole building, with fittings and furnishings, cost about shifts in legislation. The hour of trial has at length come when the Irish £700. The kitchen previously in use now forms the laundry.

Church must stand, not on its connection with the Irish landed interest The house was intended as a model mission-house for girls--a Christian on the one side, or on the English Church interest on the other home, where purity and piety might be combined with womanly work. As political engagements or the place it occupies in the Articles of Unionit was intended for working girls who might be working men's wives, it but solely on its own merits. What are the facts which have impressed had to be carried out on economical principles----be, as far as possible, self- statesmen of all parties with the conviction that some fundamental change sustaining, and in every department encourage a thrifty housekeeping. must be made? Why has it become impossible, in the face of the convicAs all the inmates are free to leave unless they are comfortable and happy, tions which now regulate public opinion, to sustain the Church of Ireland the house must be conducted with such restrictions only as are necessary as an Established Church—at all events, as the only Established Churchto the coinmon comfort, such as a good and careful mother would require in that country? of well-conducteil daughters. The house has a housekeeper and a servant, The case against the Irish Church stands thus: It is the Church of a and two young girls under training for service, whose board is provided. small minority of the people of Ireland. Its adherents amount to only

not on

to seven.

one-eighth of the population. In every part of the country it is in a very different from its original meaning, the saying of our Loril, “ Unto decided minority. In many districts it possesses a mere fraction of the every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance; but people; in some it has not a single adherent. The Church of Ireland from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.” has 2200 clergymen to communicate instruction and consolation to less We are told, however, that the Irish Church must be regarded as a than 700,000 souls; and two archbishops and ten bishops, with a gross missionary Church-a proselytizing Church-a Church established not income of £80,000 a year, and upwards of 320 deans and prebendaries, merely to supply religious instruction to its own adherents, but also to &c., richly endowed, to take the superintendence of a much smaller convert the Roman Catholics to Protestantism. There have been and are population than is intrusted to the charge of many single English men in the Irish Church of devoted missionary spirit, who have laboured prelates. In 199 parishes it has no members, and in two-thirils of the with a measue of success; but neither their labours nor their success parishes of Ireland it has less than 100 adherents. In one-half of its form the historical character of the Irish Church. We can appeal to 1510 benefices the average Episcopal population is 184. In other 615 the experience of three hundred years to decide the point. From the livings there is an average of 77 Episcopalians. In 229 of these benefices year 1560 downward, the Establishment has been in full operation in the average Anglican population is only 23, where religious instruction Ireland. Yet its adherents have dwindled away in successive centuries. costs £15 annually a head. There are 85 benefices in which the average Two centuries ago they were to the Romanist as the proportion of number of Anglicans is 11, and their cost averages £20 a head out of the three to eight, at the present moment they are little more than one ecclesiastical revenues. There are thus at least 600 incumbents in the

Experience, therefore, has demonstrated that as an instruChurch of Ireland holding benefices, but having nothing deserving the ment for the extension of the Protestant faith the Irish Church is not name of a congregation-shepherds without a flock - drawing revenues only cumbrous and costly, but utterly inefficient. It would have been with no duties to perform — "crying aloud in the wilderness," as Sydney strange, indeed, had the result been otherwise. The Irish Church Smith remarks ; "preaching to a congregation of hassocks and stools.” avowedly and even boastfully claims to represent the alien and conquering There are benefices made up of from three to nine parishes, and yet powers in the country. It is Irish only for the Hibernian reason that it embracing an aggregate Anglican population of only about thirty souls. is intensely English, that it was originally established in marked antagonThere are non-resident incumbents in whose parishes no divine service is ism to Irish opinion and feeling, and that it has been since upheld against ever performed. There are pluralists of so monstrous and grotesque a the all but universal dissent of the Irish people. Twenty years ago, Mr. character that their existence can scarcely be credited by those who are Disraeli branded the Established Church of Ireland as an alien Church, not conversant with the facts of the case. One has held for forty years dependant for its very existence on English support; and this witness is two livings, embracing fifteen parishes in two different dioceses. His true. It is regarded by four-fifths of the Irish people as a badge of concurate, who receives from him £75 a year, discharges the pastoral duties quest, a mark of degradation. Its revenues, as they believe, were once in nine of these parishes; and, along with that cure, holds other two the property of their own Church, were forcibly and unjustly taken from livings with the entire breadth of the county of Tipperary—from Slieve them, and are still unjustly withheld from them. It is associated in their naman to the Galtees— intervening between them. Another reverend minds with two centuries and a half of penal legislation, which, for its pluralist is the sole pastor of four widely-separated benefices, situated in mingled barbarity and meanness, and its appeals to all the baser passions two distinct dioceses ; while a third is the incumbent of seven benefices, of human nature, is scarcely paralleled in the history of civilized nations, comprehending ten parishes. We are frequently told, in euphemistic and with successive generations of indolent and grasping, and not unfrephraseology, that these monstrous abuses are simply anomalies, from quently immoral, sinccurists, pluralists, and absentees. It has never aimeil which no Church is wholly exempt. But the truth is, the whole system at becoming a National Church, though at one time it might have done so is made up of such “anomalies ;” its very existence is an anomaly. The with great probability of success; and has never regarded the instruction of late Dr. Whately, though himself an archbishop of this Church, did not the whole people in the truths of the gospel as any part of its duty. The hesitate to say that its position in large districts of Ireland is such as, sacred Scriptures were not printed in the Irish language till this Church by the help of a map, you might establish in Turkey or in China. No had existed more than one hundred and twenty years. And when the such “anomalous" institution does exist, or ever did exist, in the civi- publication at last took place, the expense was defrayed by a layman, the Jized world. “ There is no abuse like it," said the late witty Canon of illustrious Robert Boyle. Until of late, it has not only neglected, but even St. Paul's, “in all Europe, in all Asia, in all the discovered parts of opposed the education of the people. We readily admit that the present Africa, and in all we have heard of Timbuctoo."

race of its clergy differ widely from their predecessors, and that not a few The case against the Irish Church is strengthened by the fact that it of them are pious, learned, and devoted men, willing " to spend and be is not only the Church of a small minority of the people, but of a minority spent" for the cause of Christ. But the zeal of an apostle and the virthat is decreasing in number. It has now nearly 160,000 fewer adhe- tues of a saint would not avail to overcome the difficulties of their posirents than it had thirty years ago. It has decreased both absolutely and tion, or

tion, or to remove the deep alienation which the history and character of relatively in nine of its dioceses ; in four it has just maintained its ground; their Church have produced on the minds of the Irish people. while in six the gain is on the side of the Roman Catholics. During this These are some of the reasons on account of which it is now admitted period the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have spent no less than £110,000 on all sides that it is impossible much longer to maintain the Irish in repairing, re-building, and building churches, and in erecting new

Church in its present position. Is it wonderful that practical statesmen livings; and we are told with exultation that some three hundred new can now-a-days no longer stand against them? The alternative now prechurches have been erected within the last quarter of a century, so that sented to the country is total disendowment or universal endowment. the Establishment is richer and more evenly, as well as better endowed, Not a few of our leading statesmen, both Conservative and Liberal, and has more solid and comfortable edifices than at any time in its pre- have avowed their preference for the latter, and the ministry have vious history. But unfortunately the increase of churches has brought openly declared their willingness to "level up" the other demonstrawith it only a decrease of churchmen; the augmentation of its livings has

tions to the platform occupied by the Established Church, and to been accompanied by a diminution of its adherents, and the country is “make all Churches equal,” by endowing all from the national treaevery year paying more money for the instruction of fewer people. sury. The prompt and bold step taken by Mr. Gladstone in declar

It cannot be alleged that the Irish Church affords religious instruction ing for the total disendowment of the Established Church, and the to the mass of the Irish nation, for its adherents amount to less than withdrawal of all grants of public money to the other religious bodies in twelve per cent. of the population. It does not minister to the wants of Ireland, has fortunately nipped in the bud this unprincipled project, which the poorer classes of the community, for whose sake ecclesiastical endow- is as unpolitic as it is immoral, and which, while it would shock the conments are mainly required. In the management of Irish affairs, the laws science of any true Protestant in the kingdom, would utterly fail to remove both of political and ecclesiastical economy seem to be reversed. The rich the disaffection of the Irish Romanists. But the fact that we have so are filled with the good things of the Church, and the hungry are sent narrowly escaped the danger of the national endowment of Popery ought empty away. The defenders of this Church allege as an argument in its surely to induce every enlightened friend of the Protestant faith and of favour, that though its adherents are comparatively few in number, they the peace and prosperity of Ireland to strive for the speedy overthrow for the most part belong to the wealthy and intelligent class of society. | of a system which, while it affords a plausible pretext for this and other With a true Hibernian felicity, this institution has contrived to combine similar projects, has utterly failed to attain any one of the ends for against it all the arguments which have been adduced in favour of eccle- which an Established Church is founded and supported. It must always siastical Establishments, and all the arguments in favour of the Voluntary

be remembered that it will not do to reason out the case if system. “ All the weights are in one scale.” It has adopted, in a sense Ireland were simply and only a part of the United Kingilom-a piece

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of England, divided from it by the sea. The consciousness of a separate annually per member and upwards, are to receive a share of the balance ;
nationality is a fact which we in Scotland should be able to understand. while those whose rate is at least 10s. are to get double the amount of the
The safety of the United Kingdom must henceforth depend, not on dis- former class—that is, two-thirds of the surplus-none, however, drawing
regarding such feelings, but on deferring to them within reasonable bounds. from it more than the £50 required to make up the stipend of £200.
The general conscience of the united people may be the supreme arbiter, The only exception is, that congregations whose whole contributions are
but the separate feelings of each race must be treated with respect. And less than £60 are not to reap any benefit in addition to the higher and
if the Irish are unfortunately averse to our faith as the Protestant faith, surer equal dividend, and that because of the large sum they derive from
it is a miserable aggravation of the evil that they should find it thrust the general fund for their support.
upon them as the English faith, and in that character made part of their Such, briefly, is the scheme which was adopted by the last Assembly,
domestic constitution.

with the greatest unanimity and cordiality. It evidently possesses the Can any candid person doubt that this Establishment, if maintained, highest recommendations. It is fitted to reconcile the conflicting views will render Ireland year by year a source of more dangerous temptation which have prevailed in the Church on the subject of the Sustentation to the State ? Its maintenance has brought upon us the sin and folly Fund, for it embraces the advantages of an equal dividend with those of of the Maynooth Grant. Now it threatens us with the endowment of one proportioned in some measure to the liberality of congregations. It the Romish priesthood, the establishment of a Popish university, the furnishes security to the ministers, for it does not touch that provision destruction of the national system of education, and other equally arrogant which has hitherto been enjoyed by them irrespective of the contributions schemes of Papal aggression. If we value the principle of national reli- of their own people. It preserves it, increases it, raises it to a higher gious obligation, shall we burden it with such an anomaly as this? point, and imparts to it a new stability. For, manifestly, as the surplus

With the Irish Church, as a Church, we have no quarrel; we have no can come into existence only after the amount required for the equal diviwish to look grudgingly on any of the advantages which she derives from dend of £150 has been obtained, whatever is fitted to produce the surplus the State. We sympathize, in a measure, with those who pause before must operate in favour of the full equal dividend. On the other hand, it the uncertainties of so great a change as the disestablishment may prove applies a stimulus to the people. All former attempts have failed, because, to be. But they ought to be fully aware of the alternative before us. while a large number of congregations responded to almost every appeal, If the opposition which will no doubt be made to the disestablish- so many either remained stationary or declined, thus neutralizing the ment of the Irish Church should prove to be too strong to be over

efforts of the more willing and liberal. The effect of this has been discome, the next step that will follow is beyond doubt. Three-fourths heartening in the extreme. Things had indeed reached such a point, that probably of the members who constituted Mr. Gladstone's majority are any new movement or decided improvement seemed well nigh hopeless. prepared to endow the Church of Rome, if they cannot remedy the ecclesi- It was felt to be utterly vain to strive for the accomplishment of an object astical confusion in Ireland in the other way. The policy of the present which had been defeated and might still be defeated by want of co-operaGovernment, hardly concealed, is the same; it is disguised merely until

tion. But now there is an inducement held out that cannot fail to stimuthe party can be educated. It is for the Protestants of England and Scot- late congregations to aim at a high standard of liberality, seeing an obvious land to choose. If they connive at the maintenance of the Irish Establish- benefit is to be derived by them, and that in some proportion to the ment, they support the Establishment of Popery as truly, and almost as

amount of their contributions. directly, as if they voted for it.

It was scarcely to be expected that in the course of the first year the scheme would be fully successful. Started at last Assembly, it was neces

sarily for a time but partially known and understood. It had to be brought SUSTENTATION FUND MOVEMENT.

by deputies before the whole Presbyteries of the Church-a task which We are not about to enter into any discussion with reference to the took not only weeks, but months, for its performance. Then it had to be Sustentation Funil in its general principles and features. Its merits stand explained by Presbyteries to the office-bearers and congregations within in little need of explanation or defence. But one opinion prevails in the their bounds. And this had to be followed up by the more direct and Church as to the wisdom with which it was devised, the high ends it is detailed work of deacons and collectors. The consequence was, that a confitted to serve, and the immense amount of good it has been the means of siderable portion of the year was gone before the scheme came into any sort effecting. We wish for the present to fasten attention on that important of practical operation. It is gratifying to find that, notwithstanding, very movement in connection with it which was resolved on, with rare unani- considerable progress has been made. The increase at the 15th April is mity, at last General Assembly.

£7079, 10s. ld. And this does not convey any adequate idea of the From the time of the Disruption, £150 had been named as the mini- improvement. The number of advancing congregations is also far greater mum equal dividend—that is, as the lowest sum at which the Church than it ever has been in any former year. If the increase is maintained should unitedly aim and with which she should be satisfied as an income for the last month of the year, and raised proportionably, then, at from this source for all her ministers. Again and again has she pledged the very least, the equal dividend of £150 will be realized. That will herself to its realization. Lately, however, it began to be strongly felt that be something for which to be thankful. That will be no insignificant such a stipend, always small, had become wholly inadequate. In the course result. But we cannot express too strongly the importance of having a of the twenty-five years of our history, the expense of living in almost every considerable surplus to divide. We need have little fear for the scheme, department has greatly increased, so that the same amount of money will were this attained, were its provisions but seen in their practical application. not go nearly so far now as it did at the commencement of that period. The most strenuous efforts should be put forth for this purpose, not only The remuneration of the various trades and professions has risen in pro- to hold the ground already gained, but to go considerably in advance. portion, the advance reaching from 20 per cent. on the lower, to 150 on This would give new heart and hope to the real friends of the Church, the higher kinds of employment. This being indisputably the case, £200 and draw forth a liberality greater far than any yet witnessed. This would not be relatively more at present than £150 was a quarter of a would be the best answer to the insinuations and misrepresentations which century ago; and it was accordingly agreed by last Assembly to fix on some parties have been recently scattering on this subject, we shall not that larger sum as the dividend to be aimed at in future. But what say with the design of damaging the whole movement, but certainly at wisdom or propriety was there in such a resolution, seeing the lower the risk of bringing about such a result. Then we might start on another amount had never been reached? If the Church had failed after many year's effort with the prospect of seeing a large number of our ministers atiempts to come up to the £150, did it not seem chimerical to propose receiving at its close the full £200 from the General Fund. Surely, when £200? It certainly would have been so had no modification of the former

we think of the interests involved, we may well exert ourselves to the very system been introduced, no new method designed and fitted to secure the utmost. We are living in eventful times. A part altogether from the necessary increase. But the Assembly approved of a plan suggested for political movements which are taking place, it is more and more evident this purpose, and which appears to be admirably adapted to its accomplish that faithful servants of Christ must look not to State support, but to the ment. According to it, the old established principle of an equal dividend up liberality of the Christian people. How great the honour conferred on the to the highest sum ever previously proposed to or sanctioned by the Free Church, should she be enabled to solve the problem how the gospel Church is to be faithfully maintained. All the money contributed to the may be maintained over the length and breadth of a land, in the most Central Fund, by congregations and otherwise, is to be applied, in the first thinly inhabited as well as the most populous districts, among the poor instance, to that object, and it alone. Whatever surplus remains after that equally with the rich, without endowments—which can no longer be end is secured, is to be divided among the ministers whose people show regarded as given for the support of truth—and solely by the free-will the greatest spirit of liberality. Those whose rate of giving is 7s. 6d. offerings of the Christian community itself!

Correspondence.

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Boolis.

TO TIIE EDITOR OF THE PRESBYTERIAN.

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Should this scheme commend itself to such of your new languages and new literatures have been evoked ; readers as take an interest in the Highlands, some steps the geometric knowledge of the Alexandrines and the might be taken during the Assembly to have it organized. natural science Aristotle have branched off into -Yours very truly,

J. CALDER MACPHAIL. numerous channels. Why should any single one chanCorrespondents will be good enough to send their names and

nel remain unexplored ? . . . The question becomes, addresses, not necessarily for publication, but for the pur

What is the meaning of the terms • classics' and pose of guaranteeing the bona fide character of the corre.

'mathematics ?' The former word meant originally spondence. The Editor reserves the right to give the substance of letters briefly.

ordinary,' 'regular,' 'ranked;' and the latter, 'sub

jects of learning. Into the former category have crept PRELIMINARY EDUCATION FOR HIGHLAND Wayside Thoughts : being a Series of Desultory Essays on the works of Dante, Ariosto, Tasso, Altieri, Montaigne, STUDENTS.

Education. By D'Arcy W. Thompson, author of Pascal, Corneille, Racine, Molière, Des Cartes, Bution, Day-Dreams of a Schoolmaster," " Sales Attici,'' Sc. Montesquieu, Voltaire, Richter, Kant, Schiller, Goetlie, Edinburgh: Nimmo, 1868.

Shakspeare, Milton, Gibbon, Cervantes, Lopez di FOUNTAINHALL, ABERDEEN, 6th April 1868.

Essays on a Liberal Education. Edited by Rev. F. W. Vega, Calderon. If these are not classics, who are MY DEAR SIR,—The strong attachment of so very

Farrar, M.A., F.R.S., Assistant Master at Harrow, more deserving of the title, if the nomenclature be a many of the Gaelic-speaking population to the Freo

late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Honor- title of honour ?"'* Church is felt to lay upon her peculiar responsibilities

Macmillan

ary Fellow of King's College, London. in connection with the social and spiritual condition of

All this may seem to our readers simply axiomatic and Co. 1807.

and elementary. Everywhere, indeed, save within the the Highlands and Islands. And those responsibilities

charmed precincts of English school and college life, it are all the weightier, that nowhere perhaps can the THESE works may be taken as exponents of a movoministers of the gospel wield a more powerful influence ment which has of late been making itself more and

really is so. The wonder is not that some of our Ang

lican nciglibours should be awaking at last to the among their people than in those comparatively remote

more apparent among the higher class of English regions. If the Church would discharge the duty that scholars in favour of a more liberal and catholic, as

recognition of these things, but that they should have

been so long of awaking. Perhaps the most amazing she owes to her Gaelic-speaking adherents, it is of the opposed to a more narrow and scholastic, style of intel

phenomenon in all literary history is the intellectual utmost consequence that she should supply them with a lectual culture. They are the pioneers and leaders of

conservatism which, in the most enlightened kingdom ministry the best instructed that it is possible for her an exodus from the Egyptian bondage of a conventional,

of modern Europe, and into the highest noon of modern to provide. Varions excellent means are already in traditional system, to a land flowing with the milk and

civilization, has preserved essentially unchanged a curoperation with a view to this end; but I would take the honey of fresh nature and broad human sympathies.

riculum of study originated some hundred years before liberty of suggesting with great deference whether Of this movement Mr. Farrar and his fellow-essayists

our era, when the very language of Shakspeare and of something more might not be done. may be taken as the calm, scientific expositors, and

Bacon was unknown, and when whole realms of human Perhaps the most serious disadvantage under which Mr. Thompson as the brilliant, witty, and somewhat

knowledge, full of wonder, beauty, and quickening all men labour who are brought up in Gaelic-speaking eccentric popular advocate ; but the essential drift and

power, were yet unexplored. districts is, the great difficulty of obtaining a thorough purport of both volumes is the same. Their authors

Mr. Thompson testifies against the old system, not preliminary education. There are many things one are well entitled to speak on such a question. Them

with the coldness of a neutral critic, but with the energy should learn when he is a boy, that, if he be not selves scholars of distinguished rank, they cannot be

of a victim just escaped from the prison-houso :thoroughly grounded in them at school, he is not likely accused of disparaging a system under which they thiemever to learn afterwards, and the want of which must be

* Naked came I into St. Edward'st-literally naked, selves have failed of success. Mr. Sidgwick appears in

for I even stripped to the skin, and re-clad in my new a source of weakness to him through life. It is difficult the honour-lists at Cambridge as the first classic of his

regimentals. Naked came I in; and what am I carryfor a lad labouring under this disadvantage, when he year; Mr. Seely bracketed first ; Mr. Bowen, fourth ;

ing out in my carpet-bag? Let us examine: One very enters college, to hold his ground against the more Mr. Farrar bracketed fourth ; Mr. Hales, fourth ; Mr.

great friendship, and some few lesser ones ; affectionate highly-favoured students who have been trained in the Wilson, senior wrangler; while Mr. Parker stands in

and grateful recollections of three masters and friends ; larger schools of our principal towns. Would it not be the Oxford class-lists as a first in classics and a second

somo mathematics and French stowed away neatly very desirable to help as many as possible of the young in mathematics. Even Mr. Thompson, spite of his ten

and compactly, and a great lot of classics rather conmen from the Highlands and Islands to get thoroughly dency to eccentric lines and methods of study, holds a

fusedly huddled together; and in amongst the classics grounded before they enter college, and thus put them position so high as the sixth place in the classical

has tumbled a deal of alcaic sawdust, hexametrical in a position to compete, on equal terms with others, for tripos. Clearly there is no ground for the suspicion of

cinders, iambic chaff, and other intellectual marine the bursaries and prizes that are open to all. But how sour grapes," when men like these call upon the youth

stores. Well, never mind; if the latter are of no earthly is this to be accomplished ? of the coming age to disdain the meagre clusters that

use in the outer world, they are highly valued at the The following plan has commended itself to some per- grow within the old enclosures, and enter on a wider

university of Camelot, to which I am proceeding; so sons who take an interest in this subject. Let an effort and richer vintage.

we may just as well take care of them for three more be made to institute, if possible, several small bursaries- The tone of these writers is not only liberal, but say twenty-to help Gaelic-speaking lads to spend at occasionally almost revolutionary. They are for break

years, and then we may with safety throw them all

away into the eternal dust-bin." I least one session, if not two, in some of the first-class ing fairly with the traditions of the past, and cordially

At the university the scenes and circumstances were schools in our university cities, before they enter college. joining hands with the present and the future. They

different, but the essential character of the work By a combined effort on the part of the Synods more throw off the old trammels, not only with decision, but

remained unchanged. In the drowsy cloisters of “St. particularly interested, and on the part of generous with an indignant energy. The ancient reign of

Ignavia's”— to wit, Pembroke College, Cambridge—with friends elsewhere, it should not be difficult to raise classics and mathematics, as the exclusive instruments

its twenty-seven listless students, and its two or three twenty bursaries of the value of £15 or £18 each, the of intellectual discipline, is to cease. A smattering of

mediocre and perfunctory tutors, our author finds himSynods contributing one-third of this sum-i.l., £5 or Latin and Greek, with one or two books of Euclid, are

self a little further on in his way, but still on the same £6 to each bursary. On a bursary of this value, to- no longer to be regarded as the all in all of the culture

narrow and barren track. There is no leader of thought gether with what his own friends might be able to give and mental furnishing of an English gentleman. him, a boy could with economy pass a session of ten The venerable idol of Latin verse, the doom of

known there younger than Aristotle and Euclid; no

thing dreamt of in heaven or earth higher or nobler months in a first-class school at any of our university schoolboys and the trivial accomplishment of uni

than the integral calculus and the mysteries of Greek seats. versity classmen, is hurled from its pedestal. Modern

and Latin verse. The two all-commanding triposes fix The right to these bursaries should be determined by languages, modern literature, modern history, modern competition ; and the competitions should be held in philosophy and jurisprudence, modern science and

the attention of all eyes as the utmost goal of human certain places within the bounds of the several Synods, art, are to be largely blended with the ancient learn

ambition and intellectual effort, and cast all other inter

ests and considerations into the shade. To bo senior where the boys could conveniently assemble to be ing in the richer nutriment that is to feed the lifo examined. No boy should be allowed to compete but of the new age. The old titles of the “ classics” and classic, the second. All who are within hope of such

wrangler is the highest aim on earth ; to be senior one recommended by his minister. The minister's re- " mathematics " may indeed be retained, but with an commendation could be tho guarantee for the boy's ampler meaning and a wider scope. The true classic superhuman glory, are drawn irresistibly into the cur

rent; while those who are without the taste or strength character; and any minister whose congregation is con- masters are the classics, not of one age only, but of all tributing to the Synod's bursary fund should have a the ages, and embrace the Shakspeares and the Mil. compensation in as pleasant a life and as easy a pass

for such a contest, drop into the rear, and seek their right to recommend any boy attending any school con- tons of yesterday, and the Tennysons and Carlyles of

as possible.
nected with his congregation.
to-day, equally with the Homers and the Platos of the

The entire result of this course of training, extending
The advantages of such a scheme would be these :- far past; while the true mathematics is the circle of all

over sixteen precious years of school and college life (1.) It would put the possibility of receiving a college | the sciences. To use Mr. Thompson's words :

“ The two favoured branches in Cambridge havo

together, Mr Thompson thus sums up :education within reach of any boy of good character and

" The greater portion of the latter ten of these years superior talents, in even the most remote school. (2.) The hitherto been classics’ and mathematics.'

was, in regard to study, devoted chiefly to perfecting annual competitions would give a strong stimulus to preserve the old names, but generalize their significaeducation all over the Highlands and Islands. (8.) The tions. Languago and science are eternal; their child myself, to the best of my faculties, in Latin and Greek

composition, prose and versc. I do not think that scheme would every year secure to twenty picked lads houd is hidden from us by an impenetrable veil of

Methuselah could with prudence have expended as the benefit of the best preliminary education, and would obscurity; their maturity, we know, is not yet reached;

much time out of his abundance upon so elegant, yet put them in the way of being thoroughly trained for their old age is in a futurity beyond our conception. ...

so superfluous an accomplishment. And, strange to say, the university competitions. (4.) It would help to bring | The word • university' is said by some to mean the

though I had devoted the greater portion of my sixteen the best talent in the North into the Church. And (5.) it place for study of the full curriculum of the world's would place a number of students in the most favourable knowledge. Let us accept the interpretation, and act

*“Wayside Thoughts," pp. 225, 226. circumstances to fight their way through college, and upon its accuracy. Since the days when the silver ago

+ Christ's Hospital, or the “Blue Coat School." would foster in them a spirit of manly self-reliance. of Roman literature shed a dim light upon Europe,

“ Wayside Thoughts," pp. 82, 83.

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years to the acquisition, for reading and writing purposes, of classics and mathematics in the comprehensive senso was need of the very greatest care in bringing the
of two dead languages, I had never once from the lips for which Mr. Thompson contends, and interpose between divinity of Christ before them. In God's providence,
of teacher heard a hint concerning the science of lan- them another grand department of mental and moral too, it was so arranged that the staple of the first three
guage, or the secrets of history which philology has philosophy, and you have the identical curriculum of Gospels should be Christ's miracles and ethical teaching,
aided to unfold. At the age of twenty-threo, after an liberal study which has been so long familiar to Scottish while the more doctrinal and abstract portion of his in-
academic career of moderate success, I stood, a trembling students, and to which the leaders of reform in Oxford structions was reserved for communication in the later
novice, upon the confines of a strange world. I had a are at last only gradually feeling their way. The success Gospel of John; and this furnishes a presumption in
thousand causes for feeling grateful for kindness shown of so many of our Scottish alumni in the contests of the favour of the writer, “ inasmuch as he is principally
to me by my elders in the old school times and the recent | English universities is a gratifying proof that we are charged with this, that he has not put into his fore-
college years. But I felt in a singular way chagrined, borrowing something of their scholarly precision and ground the full splendour and majesty of the Redeemer
mortified, disheartened. I was possessed of a certain accomplishment: it is pleasant to see on the other side about whom he writes.” The second part of the critique
amount of old-fashioned learning, which I found it diffi- a disposition to emulate our comprehensive breadth and is devoted to an exhibition of " the reserve and limita-
cult to exchange into useful and current coin. I was
freedom.

tion that attends the teaching of our Lord, as reported ignorant of the elements of law, experimental physics,

by the synoptical evangelists, in regard to the central natural history, physiology, psychology, political and Ecce Homo. By the Right IIon. W. E. Gladstone. and fundamental doctrines concerming his own Person." social science. I had left school crammed with scraps of

Strahan and Co., London. 1868. Pp. 201. This is discussed in connection with our Lord's history, quaint old curiosity-shop knowledge, and inordinately

We are very well pleased to meet with Mr. Gladstone his discourses, his injunctions to many who were the conceited of my broken china attainments. The conceit among the crowd of writers who have criticised“ Ecce subjects or witnesses of his miracles, his method of within me had been toned down by the wholesome social Homo;" yet not because that book seems to us of such teaching by parable, his commissions or charges to the influences of college lifo. But in my capacity of student

transcendent value that we rejoice in every new evi- twelve apostles and the seventy disciples, and the disI had worked on and on in the old groove, and I now dence of interest or admiration which it has excited, tribution of doctrinal teaching in the Gospel of Jolin. stood helpless and unpractical in the face of a busy nor yet because there is anything in his criticism which“ It appears then, on the whole, as respects the Person of practical generation. I was equipped, as it were, with will greatly enhance his reputation. But Mr. Gladstone our Lord, that its ordinary exhibition to ordinary hearers battle-axe and breast-plate to cope with rifle and cannon,

occupies so prominent and influential a position in our and spectators was that of a man engaged in the best, I had been educated after a particular fashion; not upon country, and has all along taken such a part in religious and holiest, and tenderest ministries, among all the the ground that the fashion in question was suited to

as well as political discussions, that it was well to know saddest of human miseries and trials ; of One teaching this place or to the epoch, but simply because youth had

something of what he thought about a book which has in word, too, the best, and holiest, and tenderest lessons, been so educated from the days of Augustus Cæsar.”* given rise to so much speculation. And at a time of and claiming, unequivocally and without appeal, a para

Things, indeed, have happily greatly changed for life when broadening sympathies, arising from wide ex- mount authority for what he said and did ; but beyond
the better since the time to which these trenchant criti-perience of the world, are thought to have modified the this, asserting respecting himself nothing, and leaving
cisms refer. Ever since the days of Thomas Arnold, exclusiveness of Anglican High Churchism for which himself to be freely judged by the character of his words
and especially since the recent University Reform, a he was at first distinguished, there might have been and deeds." And this is what he thinks is done in
new life has breathed over the whole surface of English anxiety felt lest this broadening had taken a wrong · Ecce Homo," extracts from which constitute the third
school and college life, and manifests itself everywhere direction; and, especially, lest his political severance part of the volume, with merely a few sentences to
more and more in larger views and more enlightened from Oxford Pharisaism might have had the effect of connect them.
methods of intellectual and moral culture. At Cam- throwing him into the arms of a Sadducean or a sceptical It will be seen that Mr. Gladstone's approbation of
bridge, indeed, notwithstanding all the efforts made by party. It is a source of real gratification to us to find “ Ecce Homo," or perhaps we should rather say his
some of her distinguished sons to give prominence to not a trace of this in the little volume before us. We , plea in defence of it, is connected with what he regards
moral science studies, the old triposes still hold undis- do not take so favourable a view as he does of “ Ecce as its apologetic value, its contribution to the evidences of
puted reign ; but in Oxford, philosophical reading now Homo ;” but we see nothing to permit us to doubt his the Christian faith as against the infidel and the sceptic.
largely mingles with mere technical scholarship in the re- own firma adherence to the whole truth of God which we In this connection we agree with him that the book has
quisites necessary for tho attainment of the highest hon-

suppose him to have hitherto held and confessed. a certain value. The writer of “ Ecce Homo" is, in an ours in the classical school. The old honours examina- The nature of his critique will be manifest from the important sense, no sceptic. He contrasts “ the gradual tion in classics has recently been divided into two- following analysis of the book. It consists of three parts, development of character" and the “ ripening or chango technically called "moderations" and the“ final schools” which appeared as articles in “Good Words.” In the of opinions," which men may trace in other biographies, -of which the one is an examination in scholarship, first part le notices how it has been thē lot of the writer with the absence of all this in the Gospels. “Christ and the other an examination in philosophy; and of the of “ Ecce Homo" to displease in general both believers formed one plan, and executed it: no important change two arenas of distinction, the latter and not the former is

and unbelievers; and he states the substance of the took place in his mode of thinking, speaking, or acting; regarded as the greater. “ Modern languages are en- common objection by thoughtful believing men to be at least the evidence before us does not enable us to couraged by free lectures and by university scholarships. this, that in view of the fact of the double nature of our trace any such change” (p. 18). And he is diametriSeveral names are usually published for honour, together | Lord, he ought not to be exhibited in any Christian cally opposed to that theory on which alone the great with those of the successful candidates. The examiners

work as a man only, but as God and man. Assuming unbelieving students of Scripture in Germany for a for modern history honours also give weight to know- that this mode of procedure is chargeable upon “ Ecce generation past have endeavoured to rest; that mythical ledge of foreign historians in their own tongue. Modern Homo," is it really a fault? Or may it not be a lawful theory which represents the history and character of history is fully recognized, and obtains distinction and

course of procedure, considering how long it was before Christ a production of the Church, in order to avoid tho endowments. No study has done more to bring out the Church arrived at the full statement to which we necessity of believing that the Christ of the Gospels latent ability where classical tutors expected nothing of are accustomed now from our early childhood, that the really lived and produced the Church. He says, “ The the kind. The natural sciences have a good staff of eternal Son of God became man, and so was, and con- present treatise aims to show that the Christ of the professors, a museum and library, and an honour-list of

tinues to be God and man in two distinct natures and Gospels is not mythical, by showing that the character their own, with such crumbs of endowment as may fall

one person for ever ? May there not even be adran- those biographies portray is in all its large features from the richly-furnished tables of the classics.” † Sotages likely to accrue froin this course, when there are strikingly consistent, and at the same time so peculiar far, so good. The encyclopædic knowledge of the

various considerations which give probability to the as to be altogether beyond the reach of invention, both modern world is admitted within the charmed circle of suspicion that the Saviour's manhood is often overlaid by individual genius and still more by what is called university honour and reward, though as yet only as a by his Godhead in popular conceptions? And granting the consciousness of an age'” (p. 43). Renan had preLazarus gathering crumbs from the rich man's table. that there is a want of “ the care and caution of lan- viously taken up the saine position; and though in Dives himself, too, though still wearing the purple and guage which would be observed, and ought to be learning and logical power he was obviously far inferior fine linen, and faring sumptuously every day, is visibly observed, by a sound believer, not to say by a trained to the German advocates of myths, still he liad a better less supercilious and exacting than of yore. It is a sig. theologian,” yet the preface informs us that the author knowledge of human nature when he conceded the nificant fact that proficiency in Greek and Latin verse is of - Ecce Homo" wrote it for the satisfaction of his own reality of the gospel history (so far as there were no no longer necessary for the attainment of the highest mind; so that we may be bound to judge it as a ten- miracles in it), and returned to the old deistical attempt honours in any of the schools ; while, generally, it may tative and not as a didactic work. Nay, allowing that to make out a historical Christ who was not supernatube said that, in the whole spirit and working of the the author approaches the character of our Saviour on ral. The enormous sale of Renau's

Life of Jesus" is university, in the character of the teaching, and in the its human side exclusively (which Mr. Gladstone wishes probably a proof that it fitted into the state of mind contests alike for honours and more substantial rewards,

us carefully to distinguish from exhibiting our Lord of multitudes in Europe who were resolved to have some thought, intelligence, breadth and depth of culture, are only in his human nature), he is not prepared to admit theory on which to justify their unbelief. That bouk, held at a higher and higher price, and mere technical that a just objection can be founded on this.

however, has been clearly shown to be no history, but scholarship at a less. These changes are all in the right work which confines itself to approaching the character a mere historical romance, We do not wish for one direction, and it may well be gratifying to us Scotch- of our Saviour on its human side have its just and moment to put it and “ Ecce Homo" on the same level; men to note that they are all more or less movements of

proper office in the Christian teaching of this or of any yet the extraordinary popularity of these two books on approach towards the spirit and methods of our own uni- period of Christian experience ? Or would it be too the same subject leads us to speak of them together. versity system. If sometimes deficient in thoroughness bold to assert, in direct opposition to such an opinion, and we are willing and disposed to take the most and accuracy of classical scholarship, we have always that, while such a mode of treatment is open to no in- favourable view we can of

Ecce Homo," and to infer aimed at least at something of that catholic breadth of cul

surmountable preliminary objection, it is one eminently from its popularity that it has supplied a certain want, ture the importance of which our English neighbours are suited to the religious exigencies of the present age ?" and spoken to the

rt of multitudes who were thinkonly now discovering. Take the two great departments He proceeds to notice that both Jews and Gentiles had ing about the Gospels, and were in danger of being

notions and expectations of God made man, or in a swept away into vulgar infidelity. On other grounds, “Wayside Thoughts," pp. 109, 110.

human form; but that there was so much of falsehood Mr. Gladstone thinks that an apology in this strain was + Mr. Parker, in “Essays on a Liberal Education," p. 75. and impurity mixed up with these notions, that there needed; and though, if this be so, we must form an

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