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detested Life, and most deserved Death. As it hath been lately acted by the Right Honourable the Lord Chamberlaine his servants. Printed by Valentine Sims, for William Wise, 1597." It was again reprinted, in 4to, in 1598, 1602, 1612 or 1613, 1622, and twice in 1629.
This play was probably written in the year 1593 or 1594. One of Shakspeare's Richards, and most probably this, is alluded to in the Epigrams of John Weever,* published in 1599, but which must have been written in 1595.
AD GULIELMUM SHAKESPEARE.
Honie-tong'd Shakespeare, when I saw thine issue,
27th Epig. 4th Weekc.
The character of Richard had been in part developed in the last parts of King Henry VI., where, Schlegel observes, "his first speeches lead us already to form the most unfavorable prognostications respecting him: he lowers obliquely like a thunder-cloud on the horizon, which gradually approaches nearer and nearer, and first pours out the elements of devastation with which it is charged when it hangs over the heads of mortals.” "The other characters of the drama are of too secondary a nature to excite a powerful sympathy; but in the back ground, the widowed queen Margaret appears as the fury of the past, who calls forth the curse on the future; every calamity which her enemies draw down on each other, is a cordial to her revengeful heart. Other female voices join, from time to time, in the lamentations and imprecations. But Richard is the soul, or rather the demon, of the whole tragedy, and fulfils the promise, which he formerly made, to
set the murderous Machiavel to school.'
Besides the uniform aversion with which he inspires us, he occupies us in the greatest variety of ways, by his profound skill in dissimulation, his wit, his prudence, his presence of mind, his quick activity, and his valor. He fights at last against Richmond like a desperado, and dies the
* This very curious little volume, which is supposed to be unique, is in the possession of Mr. Comb, of Henley. The title is as follows:-" Epigrammes in the oldest Cut and newest Fashion. Atwise seven Houres (in so many Weekes) Studie. No longer (like the Fashion, not unlike to continue. The first seven, John Weever. Sit voluisse sit valuisse. At London printed by V. S. for Thomas Bushele; and are to be sold at his shop, at_the_great north doore of Paules. 1599. 12°." There is a portrait of the author, engraved by Cecill, prefixed. According to the date upon this print, Weever was then twenty-three years old; but he tells us, in some introductory stanzas, that, when he wrote the Epigrams which compose the volume, he was not twenty years old; that he was one
"That twenty twelvemonths yet did never know." Consequently, these Epigrams must have been written in 1595.
honorable death of the hero on the field of battle."-But Shakspeare has satisfied our moral feelings :-"He shows us Richard in his last moments already branded with the stamp of reprobation. We see Richard and Richmond, on the night before battle, sleeping in their tents; the spirits of those murdered by the tyrant ascend in succession, and pour out their curses against him, and their blessings on his adversary. These apparitions are, properly, merely the dreams of the two generals made visible. It is no doubt contrary to sensible probability, that their tents should only be separated by so small a space; but Shakspeare could reckon on poetical spectators, who were ready to take the breadth of the stage for the distance between the two camps, if, by such a favor, they were to be recompensed by beauties of so sublime a nature as this series of spectres, and the soliloquy of Richard on his awaking."*
Steevens observed that the favor with which the tragedy has been received on the stage in modern times "must in some measure be imputed to Cibber's reformation of it." The original play was certainly too long for representation, and there were parts which might, with advantage, have been omitted in representation, as "dramatic encumbrances;" but such a piece of clumsy patchwork as the performance of Cibber, was surely any thing but "judicious;" and it is only surprising, that the taste which has led to other reformations in the performance of our great dramatic Poet's works, has not given to the stage a judicious abridgment of this tragedy in his own words, unencumbered with the superfluous transpositions and gratuitous additions which have been so long inflicted upon us.
* Schlegel's Lectures on Dramatic Literature, vol. ii. p. 246.
KING EDWARD THE FOUrth.
EDWARD, Prince of Wales, afterwards
King Edward V.
RICHARD, Duke of York,
GEORGE, Duke of Clarence,
Sons to the King.
RICHARD, Duke of Gloster, afterwards Brothers to the King
King Richard III.
A young Son of Clarence.
HENRY, Earl of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII.
CARDINAL BOUCHIER, Archbishop of Canterbury.
THOMAS ROTHERAM, Archbishop of York.
JOHN MORTON, Bishop of Ely.
Duke of Buckingham.
Duke of Norfolk: Earl of Surrey, his Son.
EARL RIVERS, Brother to King Edward's Queen.
Marquis of Dorset, and LORD GREY, her Sons.
Earl of Oxford. LORD HASTINGS. LORD STANLEY. LORD Lovel. SIR THOMAS VAUGHAN. SIR RICHARD RATCLIFF.
SIR WILLIAM CATESBY. SIR JAMES TYRREL.
SIR JAMES BLOUNT. SIR WALTER HERBERT.
SIR ROBERT BRAKENBURY, Lieutenant of the Tower.
ELIZABETH, Queen of King Edward IV.
Duchess of York, Mother to King Edward IV., Clarence, and
LADY ANNE, Widow of Edward, Prince of Wales, Son to King Henry VI.; afterwards married to the Duke of Gloster.
A young Daughter of Clarence.
Lords, and other Attendants, two Gentlemen, a Pursuivant, Scrivener, Citizens, Murderers, Messengers, Ghosts, Soldiers, &c.
KING RICHARD THE THIRD.
SCENE I. London. A Street.
Gloster. Now is the winter of our discontent
Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths;
Grim-visaged war hath smoothed his wrinkled front;
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute.
But I,—that am not shaped for sportive tricks,
I, that am rudely stamped, and want love's majesty,
I, that am curtailed of this fair proportion,
1 The cognizance of Edward IV. was a sun, in memory of the three suns which are said to have appeared at the battle which he gained over the Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross.
3 i. e. steeds caparisoned or clothed in the trappings of war.
is properly barded, from equus bardatus, Latin of the middle ages.
4 Feature is proportion, or beauty, in general. By dissembling is not meant hypocritical nature, but nature that puts together things of a dissimilar kind, as a brave soul and a deformed body.
Deformed, unfinished, sent before my time
Enter CLARENCE, guarded, and BRAKENBURY. Brother, good day. What means this armed guard, That waits upon your grace?
Tendering my person's safety, hath appointed
Glo. Upon what cause?
Because my name is—George. Glo. Alack, my lord, that fault is none of yours; He should, for that, commit your godfathers. O, belike, his majesty hath some intent, That you shall be new christened in the Tower. But what's the matter, Clarence? may I know? Clar. Yea, Richard, when I know; for, I protest,
1 This is from Holinshed.