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A. J. B. Hope, Esq, M.P., a son of the author of "Anastasius," who not only saved it from further desecration, but has restored the gateway and built within the Abbey walls a Protestant missionary college.
Mercery Lane, one of the ancient avenues leading from the High Street to the Cathedral, is interesting to the visitor from its having been, according to tradition, the usual resort of the numerous pilgrims who in former times flocked to Canterbury to pay their devotions at the shrine of Thomas a Becket, where, as Chaucer expresses it
" And specially from every shire's ende
Of Engle loud to Canterbury they wendo.* * A pilgrimage to Canterbury will well repay the tourist, especially if he chance to be an ecclesiologist.
Of the walls by which Canterbury was anciently surrounded, some remains still exist; but all the gates have been taken down excepting one, Westgate, which forms the entrance by the London road. At the south-west extremity of the city are the remains of an ancient castle, a little to the east of which, and adjaceat to the city wall, is a high artificial mound, called the Da Joh (from Donjon), the sides of which are cut into serpentine walks, and tastefully adorned with trees and shrubs. The summit commands a fine prospect of the surrounding country, and the whole forms a favourite place of public resort.
Canterbury has no manufacture of any importance, and, since the formation, of the railway to Dover, has lost much of the traffic which it formerly possessed. Many of the lower class of inhabitants are engaged in the hop grounds by which it is surrounded. Canterbury has some trade in corn, and good markets for provisions of all kinds. It returns two members to Parliament. Population in 1851, 18,398.
Six miles distant from Canterbury is Whitstable, a fishing village on the north coast of Kent, and near the mouth of the Swale, the estuary which separates the island of Sheppey from the mainland. It is connected with Canterbury by a railway. Population (1851), 2746. Four and a half miles further to the eastward is Herne Bay, which has of late years been partially frequented by the people of the metropolis as a summer bathing-place, for which its situstion is well suited. But the extensive scale upon which it was laid out gives it an unfinished appearance, and the greater gaiety of Margate and Ramsgate attracts by far the larger number of visitors. The pier, or rather jetty, which is built on wooden piles, extends three-quarters of a mile into the sea, and forms a fine promenade. Herne Bay contains several charitable institutions, for which the inhabitants are chiefly indebted to the munificence of Mrs. Thwaits.
Nearly three miles to the east of Herne Bay is the ancient village of Rem the site of the Roman station Regulbium, and afterwards the seat or
• Canterbury Tales, vol. ii. p. 1. Pickering's Edition of Chaucer.
under the Saxons. The encroachments of the sea on this part of the coast have swept away many of the houses and part of the churchyard, which is situated on the edge of a cliff; but this has been preserved by artificial means from further devastation, and the two lofty towers of the ruined church, which form a well-known landmark to sailors, are kept in repair under the direction of the Trinity House. Immediately beyond the Reculvers is the Isle of Thanet, on which are situated Margate and Ramsgate.
Margate (11 miles to the eastward of Herne Bay, and 16 miles, by the turnpike road, from Canterbury), originally an inconsiderable fishing village, has become of late years one of the most favourite and frequented watering-places in the kingdom. It contains numerous hotels, bazaars, assembly-rooms, a theatre, and other means of amusement for visitors during the bathing season. A stone pier, 903 feet long, and 60 feet wide in the broadest part, with a light. house at the extremity, forms a much-frequented promenade. During the summer and autumn, steamboats pass every day between Margate and Lon. don, performing the voyage in from six to seven hours. Population (1851) 9107. Three miles west of Margate is Birchington Park, in which are two handsome towers, one of which has a peal of 12 bells. Two and a half miles east of Margate is Kingsgate, situated in a bay formed by an indentation in the chalk cliffs which line all this part of the Kentish coast. Kingsgate was formerly called Bartholomew's Gate, but received its present appela lation in consequence of Charles II. landing here on his way to Dover in 1683. A mansion was erected here by Henry, third Lord Holland, on a plan reseinbling Tully's villa on the coast of Baiæ : it is now partly in ruins, which have a fantastic and not un picturesque appearance. Adjacent to Kingsgate is the North Foreland, a bold promontory with a lighthouse on its summit.
About 14 mile to the south of the North Foreland is the pleasant village and watering-place of Broadstairs, distant 3 miles from Margate and 2 from Ramsgate. Broadstairs is much resorted to during the bathing season, and is preferred by many on account of its quiet and retirement, as compared with the larger watering-places in its vicinity. It has a small pier for the protection of fishing boats, but passengers from London are landed by boats from the Ramsgate steamers, which call here daily during the summer season. Popu lation, 1549.
Near Broadstairs is Piermont, a villa which was the freqnent residence of Her Majesty when a child.
Ramsgate, 16 miles (by road) from Canterbury, and 4 miles from Margate, is situated at the south-east extremity of the Isle of Thanet. Besides being greatly resorted to as a bathing-place by visitors from London and elsewhere, Ramsgate has also considerable coasting trade, and both ship-building and rope-making are carried on. The harbour, which embraces an area of 48 acres, is formed by two stone piers, of which the eastern extends 2000 feet lenth, and is one of the finest works of the kind in the kingdom. The wester"
pier is 1500 feet long, and has a lighthouse at its extremity. The harbour admits vessels of 500 tons burden, and is divided into two parts by a wall, fitted with sluices, and forming an inner and an outer harbour. The voyage between Ramsgate and London by steamboat occupies from seven to eight hours. Population in 1851, 11,838.
On the east side of Ramsgate is East Cliff Lodge, the seat of Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart.; and a short distance to the southwest of the town is Pegwell Bay, famous for its shrimps. Pegwell Bay possesses also an interest of another kind, since it was here that, according to tradition, Hengist and Horsa landed, about the year 446 a. D.
A road also leads from Canterbury to Sandwich and Deal. At the distance of 34 miles it passes Littlebourne, near which, on the right, is Lee Priory, Sir F. S. H. Brydges, Bart. Three miles farther on is Wingham, and near it, on the right, is Dane Court, E. R. Rice, Esq. A little fart her in the same direction is Goodpeston, Sir B. W. Bridges, Bart. Three miles and a quarter from Wingham is Ash; and three miles farther, the town of Sandwich. This was formerly a place of some importance, but its harbour has long been choked up with sand. It is a Cinque Port, and contained in 1851, 2966 inbabitants.
About 54 miles from Sandwich is Deal, also one of the Cinque Ports, and situated near the Downs, which extend about 8 miles in length and 6 in breadth, between this place and the Goodwin Sands. Deal was, before the general rise of steam tugs, the general rendezvous of the East India and other feets. Here was also an establishment of pilots, for the more safe conveyance of shipping into and out of the Downs, and up the rivers Thames and Medway. Deal is defended by a castle, and along the coast are several martello towers. Between this place and Sandwich is Sandown Castle, built by Henry VIII; and about a mile from the town, on the other side, is Walmer Castle, held till his decease by the Duke of Wellington, as Warden of the Cinque Ports. Deal has of late years become frequented as a watering place, and its appearance been in consequence greatly improved. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in boat-building, sailmaking, and other pursuits of a nantical character ; and the Deal boatmen have a deservedly high repute for their skill and intrepidity in affording assistance to vessels in distress. For Parliamentary purposes Deal is included in the borough of Sandwich, which, conjointly with it, returns two members to Parliament. Population, 1851, 7067.
Six miles distant from Deal is the S. Foreland Lighthouse ; and three miles beyond, Dorer.
Margate, Ramsgate, and Deal are all connected with the metropolis by railways, for which see Chapters IV. and v.
cr. river. DOVER.
Just entering Dover, on the right are the new barracks and fortifications,
Dover is situated in a deep valley, formed by an opening in the chalk hills, which surround it in the form of an amphitheatre. On one of these, situated to the eastward of the town, and rising abruptly to a height of 320 feet above the sea, is situated the ancient Castle. The walls of Dover Castle embrace an area of nearly 35 acres of ground, within which space are contained towers and other buildings of various ages, from Roman to recent times. The appearance of the whole, from the commanding elevation which it occupies, is very imposing. Other portions of the heights adjacent to the town are also fortified. The harbour, which is formed artificially by piers and jetties, has recently been deepened and much improved, at vast expense. The town has been greatly extended of late years, and is now a fashionable and much-frcquented wateringplace, with every accommodation for the convenience of visitors. It is situated at the point of our island which makes the nearest approach to the coast of France, which is distant only 21 miles, and which is distinctly visible in clear weather. By means of the submarine electric telegraph, Dover now keeps up a constant communication with France, and through her, with a great portion of the continent. It was formerly the principal place of embarkation for the continent, but has been partially superseded in that respect by Folkstone. Dover is one of the Cinque Ports, and returns two members to Parliament. Population in 1851, 22,244. The hotels and inns are numerous.
About half a mile to the south-west of Dover is Shakespere's Cliff, a bold prominence of chalk, now tunnelled through by the railway, and the name of which is derived from the well-known description in the fourth act of “ King Lear,” which it is supposed to have suggested. But portions of the summit have fallen at various times, so that it now retires inland, and no longer "looks fearfully in the confined deep,"—though still affording a magnificent and "dizzy" prospects
CHATHAM, BY RAILWAY, 31 Miles.
ON RIGHT YRON LOND.
ON LEIT FROM LOND.
From London Bridge,
for 2} miles. and Dover branches off.
Deptford, almost a subEnter Kent.
urb of London, has a
royal dockyard, which The Greenwich railway
embraces an area of 31 acres.
The work house was the first constructed The Railnay passes through line which had its com
occupies the site of Saves the centre of Woolwich, which is distant 8 m. from mencement in the metro
Court, the residence of london by road, and about
the celebrated John Evepolis. It is constructed 2 m. by water. Here is a
lyn. Here Peter the Government dockyard, estathroughout upon arches,
Great studied shipbuildblished in the reign of Henry
which form a viaduct 22 VIII., consisting of a narrow feet in height above the
ing. Pop. of Parish strip of land, which extends
(1851) 31,970. for more than half a m. along
ground. This line forms the banks of the river. But the point of departure for
To Greenwich, 1mile. the chief ohject of interest is both the Brighton and Do
Greenwich, the birthplace the R. Arsenal, which covers
of Queen Bess and her father, more than 100 acres, and ver lines.
distant 3 m. from London forms the grand depot of
Bridge by road, is chiefly reartillery for the use of the
markable for its magnificent army and navy. le seldom
hospital, originally designed contains fewer than 24,000
cr. river Ravens- for a royal palace, but appropleees of ordnance, besides
priated since 1094 to the purmaller arms innumerable.
poses of an hospital for deHere are foundries for ean
cayed seamen. Additions non, and every other descrip
were made subsequent to this tion of warlike stores. On the
date by Sir Christopher adjacent common are extea
Wren, &e. There is also a sive barracks, a Royal Mili
Royal Park, enclosing 200 tary Academy for the educa
acres, on an eminence of tion of young gentlemen
which stands the Observedesigned for the military pro
tory. The Park is greatly fession, and a Military Repos 27 Lewisham Station.
resorted to by the people of
4 London for the purpose of destruetion of almost every 26 Blackheath St. 5 recreation.
The Ranger's age and nation. There is a
bouse is occupied by the Earl Large convict establishment 24 Charlton St. 7 of Aberdeen, who holds that here employed in the Govern
Close to the Station is the fine office at present. ment Dockyard and the Arseold manor house of Charlton,
Greenwich, Deptford, and nal. On the opposite side of Sir T. M. Wilson, Bart.
Woolwich, form together the the Themes a new town. 1823 Woolwich Dockyd. St. 8
borough of Greenwich, which
returns two members to Par.. Woolwich. Pop. of Parish 22; Woolwich Arsenal St. 81 liament. Pop. (1851) 105,784.
20 Abbey Wood St. 11 Plumstead and Eriti Belvidere Park, Sir C.
Marshes ; beyond, the E. Eardley, Bart. 18
few monuments and brasses, but Lesness Park.
much defaced. May place. Crayford.
cr. river Cray. 15 DARTFORD, 16 Dartford, a small town
situated on the river Darent, is noted for its gun.
powder and paper mills. cr. river Darent.
The first paper mill in
nere. Pop. 1851, 5763 12 Greenhithe St. | 19 Greenhitle. Swarasuonibe
Ingress Abbey-The Hive. Northfleet.
At Northflert some ship building is carried on. Linal