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make it as honest a word as trustworthy, - as well as from the study of all available masculize, which is at least intelligible,- magazines and journals. No one could and fust, used as college boys use it in their handle the subject in a more pleasant and loose talk, but not with the meaning which lucid style ; flashes of wit, and even of husober scholars are wont to give it. With mor, are sparkling through every chapter, these slight exceptions, the translation but they never divert the mind of the readappears to us singularly felicitous, not- er from the main purpose of elucidating withstanding the task must have been the subject of deep drainage. The titlevery difficult, which Dr. Palmer has per- page does not promise so much as the book formed with such rare success.
performs; and we feel confident that its reputation will increase, as our farmers
begin to understand the true effects of Farm-Drainage. The Principles, Processes, deep drainage on upland, and seek for
and Effects of Draining Land, with Wood, a guide in the improvement of their Stones, Ploughs, and Open Ditches, and farms. especially with Tiles ; including Tables The rain-tables, furnished by Dr. E. of Rainfall, Evaporation, Filtration, Ex- Hobbs, of Waltham, afford some very incavation, Capacity of Pipes ; Cost, and teresting statistics, by which our climate Number to the Acre, of Tiles, etc., etc.; may be definitely compared with that of and more than One Hundred Ilustra- our mother country. In England, they tions. By HENRY E. French. New have about 156 rainy days per annum, York: A. (). Moore & Co. 1859. 8vo. and we but 56. In England, one inch in
24 hours is considered a great rain; but
in New England six inches and sevenWe remember standing, thirty years eighths (6.88) has been known to fall in ago, upon the cupola of a court-house in 24 hours. In England, the annual fall is New Jersey, and, while enjoying the about 21,- in New England, 42 inches. whole panorama, being particularly im- The experiments on the retention of water pressed with the superior fertility and by the soil are also interesting ; showing luxuriance of one farm on the outskirts that ordinary arable soil is capable of of the town. We recollect further, that, holding nearly six inches of water in on inquiry, we found this farm to belong every foot of soil. to a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, Not the least valuable portion of the who also exercised the trade of a potter, book is a brief discussion of some of the and underdrained his land with tile-drains. legal questions connected with drainage ; His neighbors attributed the improvement the rights of land-owners in running wain his farm to manure and tillage, and ters, and in reference to the water in the thought his attempts to introduce tile- soil ; the rights of mill-owners and waterdrains into use arose chiefly from his power companies; and the subject of flow. desire to make a market for his tiles. age, by which so many thousand acres of Thirty years have made a great change ; valuable arable land are ruined to supand a New Hampshire Judge of the Court port unprofitable manufacturing compaof Common Pleas gives us a book on nies. The rights of agriculturists, and Farm-Drainage which tells us that in the interests of agriculture, demand the England twenty millions of dollars have care of our governments, and the hearty been loaned by the government to be used aid of our scientific men; and we are glad in underdraining with tile !
to find a judge who, at least when off the We believe that Judge French has bench, speaks sound words in their begiven the first practical guide in drain- half. ing to the American farmer,– indeed, the Agriculture in the Atlantic States is first book professing to be a complete prac- beginning to attract the attention which tical guide to the farmers of any country. its great importance demands. Thorough His right to speak is derived from suc- draining is, as yet, little used among us, cessful experiments of his own, from a visit but a beginning has been made; and Judge to European agriculturists, and from a per- French’s book will, doubtless, be of value sonal correspondence with the best drain- in extension of the practice. If any readage-engineers of England and America, er has not yet heard what thorough drain
ing is, we would say, in brief, that it con- Sharpe and Major Pendennis. One has sists in laying tile-pipes, from one and a only to listen to a group of Irish laborers half to three inches in diameter, four feet in their unrestrained talk to find that the under ground, at from twenty to sixty feet delicious non sequitur, which is the charm of apart, so inclined as to drain out of your the grave-diggers' conversation in “Hamground all the water that may be within let,” is by no means obsolete. But who three feet of the surface. This costs from can write such a colloquy? It would be $30 to $60 per acre, and is in almost all easier, we fancy, for a clever man to give kinds of arable land an excellent invest. a sketch of Lord Bacon, with all his rapid ment of capital, making the spring ear- and profound generalization, than to follier, the land warmer, rain less injurious, low the slow and tortuous mental prodrought less severe, the crops better in cesses of a clodhopper. quality and greater in quantity. In short, To secure the attention of his readers, thorough draining is, as our author says, the novelist must construct a plot and crefollowing Cromwell's advice, “trusting ate the characters whose movements shall in Providence, but keeping the powder produce the designed catastrophe, and, by dry.”
the incidents and dialogue, exhibit the passions, the virtues, the aspirations, the weak
nesses, and the villany of human nature. The Novels of James Fenimore Cooper. Il- It is needless to say that most characters
lustrated with Steel Engravings from in fiction are as shadowy as Ossian's Drawings by Darley. New York: W. ghosts; the proof is, that, when the inciA. Townsend & Co.
dents of the story have passed out of mem
ory, the persons are likewise forgotten. The British Museum, it is said, has ac- Of all the popular novelists, not more than cumulated over twenty-seven thousand half a dozen have ever created characters novels written since the publication of that survive, - characters that are felt to “Waverley.” With the general diffusion be “representative men.” After Shakof education the ambition of authorship has speare and Scott, Dickens comes first, unhad a corresponding increase; and people questionably; although, in analysis, philoswho were not inspired to make rhymes, ophy, force, and purity of style, he is far nor learned enough to undertake history, inferior to Thackeray. Parson Adams will philosophy, or science, as well as those not be forgotten, nor that gentle monogawho despaired of success in essays, trav- mist, the good Vicar of Wakefield. But els, or sermons, have all thought them- as for Bulwer, notwithstanding his wonselves capable of representing human life derful art in construction and the brilin the form of fiction. Very few of the liancy of his style, who remembers a char. twenty-seven thousand, probably, are whol- acter out of his novels, unless it be Doctor ly destitute of merit. Each author has Riccabocca ? drawn what he saw, or knew, or did, or After this rather long preamble, let us imagined ; and so has preserved something basten to say, that Cooper, in spite of many worthy, for those who live upon his plane and the most obvious faults, has succeeded and see the world with his eyes. The dif- in portraying a few characters which stand ficulty is, that the vision of most men is out in bold relief,- and that his works, after limited; they observe human nature only years of criticism and competition, still hold in a few of its many aspects; they cannot so their place, on both continents, among the far lift themselves above the trivial affairs most delightful novels in the language. around them as to take in the whole of Other writers have appeared, with more humanity at a glance. Even when rare culture, with more imagination, with more types of character are presented to view, spiritual insight, with more attractiveness it is only a genius who can for the time of style ; but Leatherstocking, in the vir. assimilate himself to them, and so make gin forest, with the crafty, painted savage their portraits life-like upon his canvas. retreating before him, and the far-distant In every old-fashioned town there are hum of civilization following his trail, is models for new Dogberrys and Edie a creation which no reader ever can or Ochiltrees; our seaports have plenty of would forget, - a creation for which the Bunsbys; every great city has its Becky merely accomplished writer would gladly exchange all the fine sentences and word- little town of Barletta, on the Adriatic pictures that he had ever put on paper. It coast, in the present kingdom of Naples. is also due to Cooper to say, that “The The action turns upon the fortunes of the Pilot" was the first, and still is the best, day in a contest à l'outrance, wherein a of nautical novels; we say this in full rec- dozen French knights, the flower of the ollection of its brace of stupid heroines. invading army, were met and vanquished The very air of the book is salt. As you by an equal number of Italians, of whom read, you hear the wind in the rigging, -a the hero, Ettore Fieramosca, was the chief. sound that one never forgets. The form The English reader will not expect to find and motion of waves, the passing of dis- in this book any of the traits with which tant ships, the outlines of spars and cord- he is familiar in the novels of our own age against the sky, the blue above and authors. There is little scenery-painting, the blue below, all the scenery of the few wayside reflections, and no attempt at sea, here for the first time found an ap- portraying the comic side of human napreciative artist.
ture, or even the ordinary gayety of doWe have not space to mention these mestic life. The times did not suggest novels separately. We are glad to see such topics; and if they did, we suspect an edition which is worthy of the author's that the Italian novelists would turn from genius, - each volume graced with the such commonplace affairs to the more designs of Darley. The style in which stirring events with which History has the work has been issued is creditable to been heretofore concerned. But the story the publishers, and cannot fail to be re- before us has no lack of incident. When munerative.
the persons of the drama are fairly brought upon the stage, the action begins at once;
surprise follows surprise, plot is matched Ettore Fieramosca ; or, the Challenge of Bar- by plot, until the fortunes of the actors are
letta. The Struggles of an Italian against entwined inextricably. The portraits of Foreign Invaders and Foreign Protec- the famous Colonna and of the infamous tors. By MASSIMO D'AZEGLIO. Bos. Cæsar Borgia (the latter being the arch ton : Phillips, Sampson, & Co. 16mo. "villain " of the story) are drawn in sharp
and decisive lines. The tournament which The recent war led to the publication forms the scene of the catastrophe is a of a great number of books upon the state brilliant picture, though not a pleasing one of Italy and the relative positions of the for a Friend or a member of the Peace Socontending powers; now that the wave ciety. has receded, all these are left high and Of course the element of Love is not dry. This novel, however, does not de wanting ; two golden threads run through pend upon any transient interest in the af- the crimsoned web; but whether they fairs of Italy for its success. As the pro- meet before Atropos comes with the fatal duction of an eminent author, who is also shears, it is not best to say. When the one of the first of Italian statesmen, it modern novel-reader can answer the modemands a respectful consideration. The mentous question, “ Did they marry ?" condition of the country in the sixteenth the charm of the most exciting story, for century presents a striking counterpart to him, is gone. that of the present year : two foreign mon- Aside from the interest which one feele archs were at war in the Peninsula ; and in the changing fortunes of the hero, the then, as now, it was a question whether book is especially valuable for the light it unhappy Italy had not as much to fear throws upon that period of Italian history, from her allies as from her invaders. and upon the subtilties of Italian charac
The scene of the story is laid in the ter.
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A MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE, ART, AND POLITICS.
VOL. IV.-OCTOBER, 1859.- NO. XXIV.
TOWARD the end of a city morning, various members of Mr. Grey's household that is, about four o'clock in the after- designated this room by different names. noon, Stanford Grey, and his guest, Dan- The servants called it the library; Mrs. iel Tomes, paused in an argument which Grey and two small people, the delight had engaged them earnestly for more than and torment of her life, papa's study ; half an hour. What they had talked and Grey himself spoke of it as his workabout it concerns us not to know. We shop, or his den. Against every stretch take them as we find them, each leaning of wall a bookcase rose from floor to ceilback in his chair, confirmed in the opin- ing, upon the shelves of which the books ion that he had maintained, convinced stood closely packed in double ranks, the only of his opponent's ability and recti- varied colors of the rows in sight wootude of purpose, and enjoying the gradual ing the eye by their harmonious arrangesubsidence of the excitement that accom- ment. A pedestal in one corner suppanies the friendliest intellectual strife as ported a half-size copy of the Venus of surely as it does the gloved set-tos be Milo, that masterpiece of sculpture; in tween those two “talented professors of its faultless amplitude of form, its large the noble science of self-defence” who life-giving loveliness, and its sweet dignibeat each other with stuffed buck-skin, ty, the embodiment of the highest type at notably brief intervals, for the benefit of womanhood. In another corner stood of the widow and children of the late a similar reduction of the Flying Merlamented Slippery Jim, or some other cury. Between the bookcases and over equally mysterious and eminent person. the mantel-piece hung prints;- most no
The room in which they sat was one of ticeable among them, Steinla’s engravthose third rooms on the first floor, bying of Raphael's Sixtine Madonna, and which city house-builders, self-styled archi- Toschi's reproduction, in lines, of the tects, have made the second room useless luminous majesty of Correggio's St. Peexcept at night, in their endeavor to rec- ter and St. Paul; and these were but oncile a desire for a multitude of apart- specimens of the treasures inclosed in a ments with the fancied necessity that huge portfolio that stood where the light compels some men to live where land fell favorably upon it. Opposite Grey's costs five dollars the square foot. The chair, when in its place, (it was then VOL. IV.