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apon the forest trees here has been repeatedly found of late years in cutting them ap for timber. The extensive demesnes which this forest contained have all been bestowed in grants by different monarchs, and repeated enclosures have reduced the open forest to that part which formerly went by the name of the Hye Fo rest, a tract of land about ten miles long by three or four wide, extending from the Nottingham road near Mansfield on the west, to Clipstone Park on the east. This tract is for the most part bare of trees. " Near Mansfield, there remains a considerable wood, Harlowe Wood, and a fine scattering of old oaks near Berry-hill, in the same neighbourhood, but the greater part is now an open waste, stretching in a succession of low hills and long-winding valleys, dark with heather. A few solitary and battered oaks standing here and there, the last me lancholy remnants of these vast and ancient woods, the beautiful springs, swift and crystalline brooks, and broad sheets of water lying abroad amid the dark heath, and haunted by numbers of wild ducks and the heron, still remain. But at the Clipstone extremity of the forest, a remnant of its ancient woodlands remains, unrifled, except of its deer,-a specimen of what the whole once was, and a specimen of consummate beauty and interest. Birkland and Bilhaghe taken together form a tract of land extending from Ollerton along the side of Thoresby Park, the seat of Earl Manvers, to Clipstone Park, of about five miles in length, and one or two in width. Bilhaghe is a forest of oaks, and is clothed with the most impressive aspect of age that can perhaps be presented to the eye in these kingdoms. * A thousand years, ten thousand tempests, lightnings, winds, and wintry violence have all Aung their utmost force on these trees, and there they stand, trunk after trunk, scathed, hollow, gray, and gnarled, stretching out their bare sturdy arms on their mingled foliage and ruin-a life in death. All is grey and old. The ground is grey,-beneath the trees are grey with clinging lichens,—the very heather and fern that spring beneath them have a character of the past.
“ But Bilhaghe is only half of the forest-remains here ; in a continuous line with it lies Birkland-a tract which bears its character in its name the land of birches. It is a forest perfectly unique. It is equally ancient with Bilhaghe, but it has a less dilapidated air. It is a region of grace and poetry. I have seen many a wood, and many a wood of birches, and some of them amazingly beautiful, too, in one quarter or another of this fair island, but in England nothing that can compare with this. * On all sides, standing in their solemn steadfastness, you see huge, gnarled, strangely-coloured, and mossed oaks, some riven and laid bare from summit to root with the thunderbolts of past tempests. An immense tree is called the Shamble-Oak, being said to be the one in which Robin Hood hung his slaughtered deer, but which was more probably used by the keepers for that purpose. By whomsoever it was so used, however, there still remain the hooks within its vast hollow."
Between Mansfield and Nottingham is Newstead Abbey, the seat of Colonel
• How It's Rural Life in England, p. 380-86
Wildman, formerly the mansion of the Byron family. Here was a priory of Black Canons, founded by Henry II., about a. D. 1170. At the dissolution, it was granted to Sir John Byron, who fitted up part of the edifice as a residence, but allowed the chapel to go to decay. Its front is an exceedingly beautiful specimen of early English architecture, scarcely equalled by any other specimen in elegance of composition and delicacy of execution. An apartment is shown in which Edward III. slept. The place has undergone great alterations and additions since it came into the possession of its present owner. The grounds before the new front have been much improved, but the old gardens have been suffered to retain their ancient character. An oak planted by Lord Byron is shown. In the lake below the Abbey there is an artificial rock, formed at a great expense by the poet's grandfather. It is fortunate that a place, so interesting from its connection with Lord Byron, should have fallen into the bands of a gentleman who affords the utmost facility for the inspection of it by strangers. In the vicinity is a curious hollow rock, called Robin Hood's Stable. Beyond Newstead, and about nine miles froin Nottingham, is Annesley Hall, famous as the birthplace and patrimony of Mary Chaworth, the object of Lord Byron's early attachment. And at a short distance is Hucknall church, where he rests among his ancestors. Hucknall is seven miles from Nottingham.
About 12 miles from Mansfield, and 26 from Nottingham, is the town of Worksop, delightfully situated near the northern extremity of Sherwood Forest, in what is generally called the Dukery, from there having been at one time no less than four ducal seats within a few miles. A priory was founded here in the time of Henry I., but little now remains of it except the abbey gate. The principal ob ject of curiosity is the Abbey Church, which once belonged to the priory, and affords fine specimens of the Norman, pointed, and early English styles. The western door is a beautiful Norman composition; at the east end is the tower which was central, while the whole of the church was standing. The interior is highly ornamented, and contains a number of curious effigies. Pop. 1851, 6058 Near Worksop stood Worksop Manor, a magnificent mansion, surrounded by an extensive and finely wooded park. The ancient manor-house was erected by the celebrated Bess of Hardwick, and was accidentally destroyed by fire in 1761, The modern mansion was formerly a seat of the Dukes of Norfolk, but was purchased by the late Duke of Newcastle. In the neighbourhood are the following interesting mansions: Clumber Park, the splendid residence of the Dukes of Newcastle, containing a fine collection of paintings. The park is about 11 miles in circumference, and includes two ancient woods, from the largest of which Clumber Park derives its name,–Welbeck Abbey, the seat of the Duke of Portland, comprising some remains of the original building, which was founded for the Premonstratensian canons, A. D. 1153. The park is celebrated for the age and the size of its tres Thoresby, the seat of Earl Manvers, the representative of the Dukes of King
The old mansion was consumed by fire in the year 1745. The park, which
includes an area of about thirteen miles, contains several sheets of water, and abounds with sylvan scenery. Thoresby was the birth-place of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Rufford Abbey, a seat of the Earl of Scarborough, formerly the mansion of the patriotic Sir George Savile, an ancestor of the present proprietor. In the year 1148, an abbey was founded here for Cistercian monks, and some remains of it are included in the present immense structure.
Seven and a half miles from Mansfield is Bolsover, the church of which contains a costly tomb, in honour of Henry, second Duke of Newcastle, as well as several monuments of the Cavendish family. Bolsover Castle is a noble building, belonging to the Duke of Portland.
SKIPTon, in the district called Craven, on the banks of the Aire, is noted for the sale of corn, cattle, and sheep. The trade of the town is greatly benefited by its proximity to the Leeds and Liverpool canal. The church contains several monuments of the Clifford family. There is also a good grammar school. The vale of Skipton is much admired for its picturesque beauty and fertility. Pop. 1851, 4962.
Skipton Castle was erected shortly after the conquest by Robert de Romeli, Lord of the honour of Skipton, and was long the property of the celebrated family of the Cliffords. It was garrisoned for the king in the time of the civil wars, and withstood a siege in the year 1645, but was ultimately obliged to surrender to the Parliament. It was the birth-place of the celebrated Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery, who repaired it and made it one of her principal residences. It contains ancient tapestries, and is now the property of Sir R. Tufton, Bart., the representative of her descendant, the last Earl of Thanet.
About six miles from Skipton are the ruins of Bolton priory, situated in one of the most delightful spots in England. The nave of the priory church is now used for a parochial chapel. Opposite to the western entrance the Duke of Devonshire has a small hunting seat formed out of the original gateway of the priory. The walks through the woods, and the views of the river, ruins, and surrounding scenery, are remarkably beautiful. About a mile from the priory is the celebrated Strid, a narrow passage torn by the Wharfe through its bed of solid rock, where it rushes with tremendous fury. This was the scene the catastrophe of the boy Egrement, who, in attempting to overleap the chasm, fell in and was drowned. (See Wordsworth's poem entitled the “Force of Prayer.) In this vicinity is Barden tower, a ruined fortress of the Cliffords. Here the famous Shepherd Lord pursued his studies, under the tuition of some of the monks of Bolton.
SETTLE, on the Ribble, is remarkable for its situation at the foot of a lofty limestone rock, the summit of which commands a fine view. Great numbers of cattle are sold at its fairs. The parish church is about three quarters of a mile distant, at the village of Giggleswick, which has a richly-endowed grammar school, founded in the reign of Edward VI. Paley was educated here. In the neighbourliood are several slate and stone quarries. Pop. 2041.
In the vicinity of INGLETON are the Ingleborough mountains, 2360 feet high; Wharnside, 2384 feet; Pennigant, 2270 feet, all commanding extensive prospects; Thornton Scar, 300 feet in height; Thornton Force, a beautiful cascade, falling about 90 feet; and two romantic caves, called Yordas and Weathercote.
KIRKBY LONSDALE is a neat town on the west side of the Lune, over which there is an elegant bridge. It has an ancient church, and the churchyard contains a remarkably fine prospect. The mills belonging to this place are worked by a small brook, the waters of which set in motion seven wheels, one above the other. Pop. of township, 1851, 1675, and of parish, 4184.
CXXXI. LONDON TO CARLISLE THROUGH HATFIELD, STAMFORD, NEWARK,
DONCASTER, BOROUGHBRIDGE, AND APPLEBY, 3000 Miles.
ON RIGHT FROM LOND.
Camfield (Baron Dims. 2891 London to Barnet,
Wrotham Park, Earl dale).
Gobions, Bedwell Park, Sir C.
Re-enter Middlesex. E. Eardley, Bart.
| Brookman's Park. Hatfield Ho, Marquis 2814 HATFIELD, (p. 372.) 193 of Salisbury. To Hertford, 77 miles.
Cross river Lea.
To St. Alban's, 6 miles Bush Hall.
Brocket Mall, late VisDigswell House, and
cross river Maran. count Melbourne. Dear it, Tewin Water. Lockley. 2753 WELWYN
25 Danesbury, W. Blake, Papshanger (Earl Cow- (Dr. Young, author of the
Esq; and, 3 miles disNight Thoughts, was rector tant, Ayott St Laurence, of this place, and is buried in
C.C. W. Dering, Esq. Shephall Bury. the church.)
Knebworth House, Sir
E. L. Bulser Lytton. 2691
STEVENAGE. 311 Bart.; and, beyond, the To the south of this place, 1100 (Lord Dacre), and
but on the east side of the Paulswolden (Earl Chivesfield Lodge. road, are six barrows, said to Strathmore). be of Danish origin.
377 Rocksley Ilouse.
Radwell. In the neigbStratton Pa., C. Bar- 255 BIGGLESWADE,
bourhood are several Ronett. Esq., and, at a disa neat town on the Ivel, by
man remains, called Catance, Sutton Park, Sir means of which it carries on
sar's Camp, from the J.M. Burgoyne, Bart.
outworks of which Row a considerable trade in timShortmead House.
manrebics bave been frus ber, coala, and oats. Its
time to time dug up. chief manufactures are of straw-plait and lace. Pop.
2 miles distant, Old 1851, 3976.
Warden, Lord Ongiet:
Southill, w. Whitbread, AK cross river Ivel.
Esq. ; and Ickwellbury, 2541 Lower Caldecote. 461 J. Harvey, Esq3 m. dist. Everton Ho. 2528
Beeston Cross. 48 To Hitchin, 13 miles.
To Bedford 8 miles
on RIGHT FROM LOND.
ON LEFT PROX LONI
cr. river Ivel. Sandy Place; and, at 2514 Girtford.
49 At a distance Mogge a distance, the Hasells,
hanger House. F. Pym, Esq. Tempsford Hall, and 2494 Tempsford.
51 Tempsford House.
Roxton House, C. Ne cross river Ouse.
Metcalfe, Esq. 247 Wiboston.
531 To St Neot's, 1} mile. 2457
Bushmead Priory, V
H. W. Gery, Esq.
Diddington House, 241 Diddington. late G. Thornbill, Esq.
Buckden Palace, one of the Episcopal resi- 2393 Buckden.
61 dences of the Bishop of The parish church is a very Lincoln.
handsome structure, and To Huntingdon, 4 m. contains numerous monuBrampton Park, Duke Inents. of Manchester, and beyond it, Hinchinbrooke. Earl of Sandwich. 2371
Brampton Hut. 63}
Alconbury Lodge. Great Stukeley.
677 To York, 17 m.; to
For the route from this place Aldborough, 1 mile. 94110 BOROUGH-BRIDGE * 206 Grey, and 8 miles dis
Newby Hall, Earl d Borough Bridge Hall,
(see p. 382-5.)
tant, Copgrove House A. Lawson, Esq.
1 cr, river Ure.
T. Duncoinbe, Esq. Aldborough Lodge,
To Ripon, 5 miles. and Aldborough Hall. Newby Park,
Kirkby Hill. 207
2 m. dis. Norton Con 213
yers, Sir B. R. Graham
Bart. 824 Leeming Lane.
Firby Hall 804 Londonderry. 220
Thorp Perrow, M. Mil
Hornby Castle, Duke Kiplin Park, late Earl of Tørconnel. 724 Catterick,
228 of Leeds. A place of great antiquity.
Brough Hall, Sir Wm
To Richmond, 84 m. beyond Halnaby Hall 687 Scotch Corner. 2323 Sir J. R. Milbanke, Bart.
Aske Hall, Earl of Stanwick Park, Duke
Zetland. lof Northumberland
. This route is four miles longer than the route described at pages 380-886.