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value: but as they are the only coloured stones, except garnets, that are worn with mourning, they still retain, when perfect, a distinguished rank among the precious gems. The present price of inferior lightcoloured stones, in the rough state, is about 208. per pound, whilst those of good quality sell at 10s, or 123. per ounce. Amethysts calculated for brooches or seals may be purchased at from 15s, to two or three guineas each, for which, ten years ago, treble that sum would have been given.” --(Mawe on Diamonds, 2d ed. pp. 115-117.)

AMIANTHUS, ASBESTOS, OR MOUNTAIN FLAX, a mineral of which there are several varieties, all more or less fibrous, flexile, and elastic. It is inconsum. able by a high degree of heat; and in antiquity the art was discovered of drawing the fibres into threads, and then weaving them into cloth. Pliny says that he had seen napkins made of this substance, which, when soiled, were thrown into the fire, and that they were better cleaned by this means than they could have been by washing! Hence it obtained from the Greeks the name of Apiartos (undefiled). Its principal use, as stated by Pliny, was to wrap the bodies of the dead previously to their being exposed on the funeral pile, that the ashes of the corpse might not be mixed with those of the wood. And in corroboration of this statement we may mention, that in 1702, a skull, some calcined bones, and a quantity of ashes, were found at Rome, in a cloth of amianthus nine Poman palms in length by seven in width. Its employment in this way was, however, confined to a few of the very richest families, incombustible cloth being very scarce, and bringing an enormously high price. Rarum inventu, difficile textu propter brevitatem.

Cùm inventum est, aquat pretia excellentium margaritarum.-(Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. xix. cap. 1.) The disuse of the practice of cremation, or of burning the dead, caused the manufacture of amianthine cloth to be neglected. Several moderns have, however, succeeded in making it; but, if it be not lost, the art is now rarely prac. tised. -- (For further particulars, see Rees's Cyclopædia.)

AMMONIACUM (Fr. Gomme Ammoniaque; It. Gomma Ammoniaco; Sp. Goma Ammoniaco; Lat. Ammoniacum; Arab. Feshook), a concrete resinous juice obtained from a plant resembling fennel, found in the north of Africa, Arabia, Persia, the East Indies, &c. Pliny says that it derived its name from its being produced in the vicinity of the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Africa. --( Hist. Nat. lib. xii. cap. 23.) It has a faint but not ungrateful smell ; and a bitter, nauseous, sweet taste. The fragments are yellow on the outside and white within, brittle, and break with a vitreous fraciure; their specific gravity is 1.207. The best ammoniacum is brought from Persia by Bombay and Calcutta, packed in cases and chests. It is in large masses, composed of small round fragments or tears; or in separate dry tears, which is generally considered a sign of its goodness. The tears should be white internally and externally, and free from seeds or other foreign substances. Reject that which is soft, dark-coloured, and foul. It is used principally in the materia medica, and the quantity imported is but small. - (Rees's Cyclopædia ; Thomson's Dispensatory; Milburn's Orient. Com. &c.)

AMMONIAC (SAL). See ALKALIES ( Muriate of Ammonia).
AMMUNITION, a term expressive of the various implements used in war.

No ammunition can be imported into the United Kingdom by way of merchandise, except by licence from his Majesty, for furnishing his Majesty's stores only, under penalty of forfeiture. --(3 & 4 Will

. 4. cap. 52. § 58.) His Majesty may forbid, by order in council, the exportation of any saltpetre, gunpowder, or any sort of ammunition. Any master of a vessel exporting ammunition when so forbidden, shall for every such offence forfeit 1001. – (29 Geo. 2. c. 16.),

AMSTERDAM, the principal city of Holland, situated on the Y, an arm of the Zuyder Zee, in lat. 52° 22' 17" N., long. 4° 53' 15" E. From 1580 to 1750, Amsterdam was, perhaps, the first commercial city of Europe; and though her trade has experienced a great falling off since the last-mentioned epoch, it is still very considerable. In 1785, the population is said to have amounted to 235,000; in 1815 it had declined to 180,179; but its increase in the interval has been such, that it amounted in 1840 to 210,077. The harbour is spacious and the water deep; and it has recently been much improved by the construction of docks, two of which are already completed, and a third in a very advanced state. Owing, however, to a bank (the Pampus) where the Yjoins the Zuyder Zee, large vessels going or coming by that sca are obliged to load and unload a part of their cargoes in the roads. The navigation of the Zuyder Zee is also, by reason of its numerous shallows, very intricate and difficult; and as there were no hopes of remedying this defect, it became necessary to resort to other means for improving the access to the port. Of the various plans suggested for this purpose, the preference was given to the scheme for cutting a canal capable of admitting the largest class of merchantmen, from the north side of the port of Amsterdam to Newdiep, opposite to the Texel, and a little to the east of the Helder. This canal has fully answered the views of the projectors, and has proved of signal service to Amsterdam, by enabling large ships to avoid the Pampus, as well as the difficult navigation of the Zuyder Zee

, where they were frequently detained for three weeks, and to get to and from New diep without any sort of risk in less than 24 hours. The canal was begun

in 1819, and completed in 1825. It has 5 sluices large enough to admit ships of the line; the dues and charges on account of towing, &c. being at the same time very moderate. At Newdiep the water is deeper than in any other port on the coast of Holland, and ships are there in the most favourable position for getting expeditiously to sea. ---( See Canals.) The imports principally consist of sugar, coffee, spices, tobacco, cotton, tea, indigo, cochineal, wine and brandy, wool, grain of all sorts, tirnbir, pitch and tar, hemp and flax, iron, hides, linen, cotton and woollen stuffs, hardware, rock salt, tin plates, coal, dried fish, &c. The exports consist partly of the produce of Holland, partly and principally of the produce of her possessions in the East and West Indies, and other tropical countries, and partly of commodities brought to Amsterdam, as to a convenient entrepôt from different parts of Europe. Of the first class are cheese and butter (very important articles), madder, clover, rape, hemp, and linseeds, rape and linseed oils, Dutch linen, &c. Geneva is principally exported from Schiedam and Rotterdam; oak bark principally from the latter. Of the second class are spices, coffee, and sugar, principally from Java, but partly also from Surinam, Brazil, and Cuba ; indigo, cochincal, cotton, tea, tobacco, and all sorts of eastern and colonial products. And of the third class, all kinds of grain, linens from Germany, timber and all sorts of Baltic produce ; Spanish, German, and English wools; French, Rhenish, and Hungarian wines, brandy, &c. The trade of Amsterdam may, indeed, be said to com. prise every article that enters into the commerce of Europe. Her merchants were formerly the most extensive dealers in bills of exchange; and though London be now, in this respect, far superior to Amsterdam, the latter still enjoys a respectable share of this business.

The Bank of the Netherlands was established at Amsterdam in 1814. It is not, like the old Bank of Amsterdam, which ceased in 1796, merely a bank of deposit, but a bank of deposit and circulation formed on the model of the Bank of England. Its capital, which originally amounted to 5,000,000 fl., was doubled in 1819. It has the exclusive privilege of issuing notes. Its original charter, which was limited to 25 years, was prolonged in 1838 for 25 years more.

For an account of the Dutch fisheries, see the articles HERRING FISHERY and WHALE FISHERY.

About 250 or 260 large ships belong to Amsterdam; they are employed in the East and West India trades, and in trading to the Baltic, the Mediterranean, &c. There is comparatively little coasting trade at Amsterdam, the communication with most other ports in the vicinity being principally kept up by canals, and that with Friesland by regular packets.

The following account (No. II.) of the value of the trade of Amsterdam in 1840(given in Macgregor's Tariff for Holland) was derived from returns transmitted by the French consul at Amsterdam to his government. We do not know the precise degree of credit to which it may be entitled, though we are inclined to think that it is not far from accurate, This, however, is certainly not the case with the account taken by Mr. Macgregor from the same source of the navigation of Amsterdam in 1840. It states, for example, that 4,177 ships, of which 1,062 were English, entered the port in the course of that year; whereas in point of fact only 2,198 ships entered the port, and of these (though we have no exact return), the English were considerably under 300.-- Private communications from Holland.). It is really, however, not a little difficult to get any authentic information as to the present state of Dutch commerce. Government rarely publishes any statements having reference to it; and those of private parties are not always to be depended on. 1. Account of the Value of the Principal Articles imported into and exported from Amsterdam, in 1840.

Imports.

FI.

L.

Exports.

L.

Ironmongery

Sugar

121,170,200 2,014,183
Refined

23.820,000 1,0 Coffee

20,4,200 1,663.350 Sugar
Raw

149, Cotton

851,9110
71,733 Coffee

9.162,254) 7821 Wool

739,50 61,512 Thread and

Cotton

6,439,000 536, 193,050 Hemp and Linen Twist of

16.058
Wool

907.300
Silk

13.000
1.053 Thread and

Hemp and Linen
Twist of

$21,000
1 Other Articles
6,714,750 798,963

147,510 Tobacco

4,867,900)

Other Articles

196,200 Dyes and Colours 4,631,600 383,967 Cheese and Butter

7,271,500 605,95 Metals, raw and Nails, Iron Wire, and manufactured Other Metals Ironmongery $25,600 68,500 Metals, raw and Nails, Iron Wire, and

8.37,200
manufactured
3,15,3,400

69,767 Other Metals

2.700,00
Wheat, Re, and Meal
3,767,310

3,141,10 261,292
135,00 11,317
Dyes and Colours -

3,011,000 2247,717 Seid, oleaginous.

2,932.150 246,013

In Leaves exotic)

702,00 58,7 Woods, manufactured

2,798,400
233,83 Tobacco In Rolls (indigeno

79,00
159,987
Manufactured

40,0 5.5.10 1,919,850 Brandy and Alcohol Spirits

Spices and Provisions

1,343,000 112,033 Ruin, &c.

317.150 26.429 Spices and Provisions

1,921,650 160,1,37

1,725,800 113.917 lesiher and Hides

1,725,500 143,7921 Cotton and Wool

1,340,150 115.013 Tea

1,155,200 96,267 Hemp and linen:

1,025,000 85,417

Grain Barices, Oats, &c.

31.3,912 Oils

Wine

11. An Account of the Value of Imports into and Exports from Amsterdam, in 1840 ; distinguishing

those from and to each Country. Countries.

Imports, in Florins

Exports, in Florins and Sterling,

and Sterling.

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How deficient soever, the previous statements show that Amsterdam still continues to preserve no inconsiderable portion of her former importance as a commercial city. The extent of her transit trade cannot fail to attract the reader's attention; the more especially as Rotterdam, from her situation on the Meuse, and her greater facilities of communication with the interior, has very superior advantages for the prosecution of this department of commercial industry. Subjoined is An Account of the Quantities of the principal Articles of Foreign and Colonial Produce (exclusive of Manufactured Goods)

imported into Amsterdam, in 1812. Ashes 7,569 barls. Spirits, Spirit 3-6ths

573 casks. Barley

2,699 lasts.
Brandy

294 casks. Buckwheat

648 lasts.
Arrack.

689 casks. Cinnamon

212 pkgs.
211 bxes.
Rum

823 punch. Cloves

7,256 bags.
Sugar, E. I.

14,028 mts. 1,021 by. 103,692 bks. Cochineal

51 sur.
211 chats
Surinam

21,014 hhds. Cocoa

29 barls. 2,948 bags.
Havanna

42,963 boxes. Cod Oil

. 12,723 baris.

Brazil

670 bags. 7,403 barls. 4,827 cases. Coffee, E.I. 315 baris. 458,932 bags. Tallow

2,333 casks. w.l.& Braz. 310 baris. 39,529 bass, Tar

21,600 baris. Surinam 498 baris. 8,455 bags. Tea

15,602 pkgs. Copper • 30,742 rules. Tin

49,180 slabs. Cotton • 20,903 baley. Tobacco, American

17,432 hhds. Cow hair

1,979 bales.
W.I.

6,156 bales. Hides

. 116,512 pces.
Java - bxes.

,5,349 bales. Indigo

18 sur.
4,781 chests. Turmeric

300 bags. Iron, Swed. & Russian • 12,234 bars. Turpentine

1,094 barls. English . 150,204 bars. Whale Oil

54,000 hect. Lead 15,799 slabs. Wheat

9,396 lasts. Mace 310 casks. Wine, Bordeaux

8,996 hhds. Nutmegs

721 casks,
Languedoc

1,948 casks. Olive Oil

671 casks.
(porto

61 casts. Paddy

89,000 bush.

Spanish

542 barls. 1,002 pps. Palm Oil

976 casks.

Teneriffe Pepper 5,026 bags. Woods, Log

1,918 tons. Pitch

1,200 baris.
Fustic

606 tons. Pimento

803 bags.
Sapan.

250 tons. Quercitron Bark

251 casks.
Rio de la Hache

200 tons. Raisins 6,420 drms, 15,914 bres. 11,535 baris.

Larra Nicaragua

95 tons, Rice, Java

• 40,229 bags.
Ked Saunders

216 tons. American

3,355 casks.
Brazil

10 tons. Rosin 10,434 baris. Wool

2,746 bales Rye

8,472 lasts, These imports were effected by 2,156 vessels ; viz., 2 from China and Manilla : 96 froni Java, &c. ; 74 from Surinam, &c.; 20 from South America ; 32 from Cuba, &c.; 73 from the United States; 31 from the Levant, Italy, Spain, and Portugal; 65 from France ; 66 from Liverpool and London, &c. - (From the Brokers' Returns.)

Expenses of Ships in Amsterdam. - The expenses of a ship of 300 English tons, or 158 Dutch lasts, with a mixed cargo on board, inwards and outwards, coming and departing by the canal, were, in 1842, nearly as follows:

baris.

599 pps.

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There is besides, the merchants' and brokers' commission on recovering and procurlng freights, generally settled by agreement. The tonwege duly is 45 cents 190.) the Netherlands tou (newly equal tv the British) inwards, and the same outwards, with the Bildition of the Syndicate tax of 13 per cent. It is payable only once a year by native ships, and by ships belonging to countries which have reciprocity treaties with Holland. Others pays 57) cents (11.) per ton inwards, and the same outwards, every vocage.

The charge called port money is payable half on entry, and half on departure ; and that called haven money the same. The hire of a horse for towing along the whole line of the canal amounts to 12 or. 40 cents, or about IIle.

Quran'ine. - The quarantine station is at the island of ll'ierengen, near the Helder.

Conmission. The usual rate of the commission or factorage on the purchase or sale of goods is 2 per cent., and on billi transactions and per cent, according to their nature.

I'rovisions of all sorts are abundant at Amsterdam, and reasonably cheap. The wages of ships' carpenters vary from 1 flor. 20 cents to 1 flor. 80) cents; that is, from about 21. to 38. a day.

For an account of the corn trade of Amsterdam, see Corn TRADR AND Corn Laws.

Cusion house Reguidations. - Captains of ships are bound to make, within 24 honrs of their arrival at Amsterdam, or any
Dutch port, a declaration in writing of the goods of which their cargo consists. If the captains be not acquainted with the
goods of which the cargo consists, they inust make their declaration under the general term of merchandise, and exhibit the
bills of lading along with the declaration. The Custom-house officers are instructed to inform the captains of all formalities
required by law.
The ships entering Amsterdam during each of the 6 years ending with 1842 have been,-
Years.
Ships.

Years.
Ships.

Years,

Ships.
1837
- 1,933

- 2,335

1841

• 2,036
1838
. 2,074

1810
- 2,198

1842

- 2,156 of these ships by far the largest number come from ports on the Baltic and the North Sea. The numbers entering in 1812 from the more distant countries are specified above.

The warehousing system has been long established in Amsterdam ; and all goods, whether for home consumption or transit, may be deposited in bonded warehouses. It is, however, material to observe that merchandise re-exported by sea or by the Rhine has no transit duty to pay ; whereas a small transit duty is payable on all merchandise re-exported by roads, canals, or otherwise than ly the Rhine, for the interior; but the impression is that this duty will at no distant period be repealed. Speaking generally, goods can only be kept in bonded warehouses for two years; but grain of all kinds may be kept for an unlimited period. The warehouse rent chargeable per month on a quarter of wheat is, on an upper loft, Id. and 2-5ths; on an under lofti. On a ton (Eng.) of sugar in casks the charge is Ad.; in bags 60.

The dock and its adjacent warehouses, belonging to the Entrepôt General, or establishment for warehousing goods imported by sea or intended to be re-exported by sea or by the Rhine, are large and commodious. The dock has water to float the largest ships, and the dues and other charges are exceedingly moderate. Merchants may employ their own men or those of the dock in loading and unloading; and may either place their property in separate vaults or floors of which they keep the key, or entrust it to the care of the dock officers.

Dutch Trading Company. - A large proportion of the foreign trade of Holland has been for a con. siderable period engrossed by the large traling company called the Nederlandsche Handelmaatschappy, created in 1824. Its capital, which consisted originally of 37 millions fior., was reduced in 1824 to 24 millions do. ; but as the company borrowed 10 millions for. in 1835, and 13 millions more in 1837, its capital consists at present of 47 millions A. At first it extended its operations to America and the West Indies, as well as to the East Indies. But it has latterly very much contracted the scale of its operations ; and having lent 40 millions of its capital to government, it is now merely the agent employed by the latter to bring home and sell that part of the produce of Java which, under the new colonial system, belongs to the state, and to carry on the trade with Japan, which, however, is of little or no value. The company has no ships of its own, but charters those of private individuals. Its charges on importation are limited to certain fixed rates.

This company is believed to be principally indebted for its existence to the late king, who held a tenth part of the shares, and who, to encourage the undertaking, guaranteed the shareholders a dividend of 4 per cent. There can, however, be little doubt that it were better had it never existed. Government might have directly chartered the ships of private parties to bring hoine the produce of Java, on any conditions it mighi have chosen to specify, under a system of open competition, which would have been ten times more advantageous to itself and to the public. It has no doubt been said, that owing to the demand of the company the trade and shipping of Holland have increased so much, that while Holland and Belgium had together in 1820 only 1,176 vessels (exclusive of fishing boats) of the burden of 148,000 tons, Holland alone had on the 1st of January, 1840, no fewer than 1,528 vessels of the burden of 270,678 tons. But this is altogether illusory; the company has, in fact, had nothing to do with this increase, which, as every body knows, has been wholly a consequence of the astonishing increase of produce in Java, and of the plan pursued of bringing it home to Holland for sale. The privileges conferred upon or usurped by the company are so many encroachments on the rights of individuals, and obstruct that private enterprise and free competition that are the soul of trade. It seems, indeed, to be the general opinion of all the most intelligent persons in Holland unconnected with the compauy, that the sooner it is dissolved the better; and now that it has lost its most powerful protector, this event is probably not very distant.

The business of insurance is extensively practised at Amsterdam; the premiums are molerate, and the security unexceptionable. The high duty imposed in this country on policies of insurance has contributed to the increase of this business in Holland.

Credil, Discount, &c. - Hotland is, and has always been, a country of short credit. A discount is usually given for prompt payment, at the rate of 1 per cent for six weeks, and of 2 per cent. for two months, but the terms of credit on most articles, and ihe discount allowed for ready tnoney, have been fixed by usage, and are regarded as essential comditions in every barg in. Some of the more important of these terms and discounts are specified in the following usble. In consequence of the preference given in Holland to ready money transitions, it is not a country in which adventurers without capital have much chance of speedily making a fortune. “Rien, en effet, de plus facile que de s'établir à Amsterdam ; mais rien de plus difficile que de s'y 801 truir sans des grandes ressources. Dans cette ville, où l'argent abonde, où on le préte contre des saréte a si bon marché, il cat pourtaat impossile de s'en procurer a crédit; et sans argent il n'y a plus de josibilité d'y travailler, que de trouver quelqu'un qui Feuille de se charger d'un papier nouveau qui ne seroit pas appuyé d'un crédit que l'opinion, la protection, ou des atlets reels feroient valor à la bourse. Les Hollandois suivent la dessus des maximes tres austeres, meme a l'egard des maisons d'une certaine cunsidération." - (Encyclopédie Methodique, Commerce, l. it. p. 650.) But this custerity is not a disadvantage, but the Teverse. It prevents commerce from degenerating, as it hus i so often done in other places, into gambling adventures, and places It on a comparatively solid foundation. And it should be mentioned to the honour of the Dutch, and as a proof of the excellence of this system, that not with standing the distress and loss of trade occasioned by the invasion and occupation of the country by the French, the bankruptcies in 1795 and subsequent sears were not, comparatively, so numerous as in England in ordinary seusons! The regulatins in the Code Napoléon as to bankruptcy are enforced in Holland.

It has long been the practice in Holland to make, on selling articles, considerable deductions from their weight, particularly
from those of large buik, as compared with their value. These tares and drafts, as they are terined, are now fixed by ancient
usage: and the most important amongst them are here specified.
Tares and Allowances on the principal Articles sold at

Coffee, East and West bags 3 per cent.,
Amustrydam.

India in ge.

casks real tare..
Tares.
Allowances.

neral........
(Draft and Discount.)

2 per cent, and ? ( 10 lbs. per original

per cent. 18 months' dis. Ashes ................ 42 lbs per cask...

Jira...

1 count, and

14 lbs. KT gunny:

Mocha..... 24 lbs. per bale ..., per cent.

Cotton, per cent, and 2

Surat Barilla .. per cent. ....

per cent. .......

Bengal....... per cent.

2 per cent, and 1 Cocos, Caracas ......

42 lbs.
1 per cent.
all other kinds .. ' 6 per cent. ......

per cent. Maranham ...

Cotton yarn twist ....

1 per cent. Cavenne ...... chitto 2 per cent, and 2

(1 per cent. 2 per Martinique ...

per cent.
Indigo, Bengal ....... real tare

cent, and I per Surinam ...... 6 per cent.

cent.

Bourbon .... mat.

and

8

ditto

ditto

lbs......

}25 12o. or 13 lbs.

Ditte Musco:}

4 per cent. aug. Cochineal............ 3 & 4 lbs.....

ment.

1 per cent. deduct. Galls..

6 lbs. or 20 lbs....

2 per cent and 2

per cent. Gams, Senegal

16 lbs. 14 lbs. of 21 12 per cent. and 2 Barbary Arabic 14 lbs. or 50 lbs...

per cent. Logwood

2 and 3 per cent. Fric

2 per cent.

2 per cent. Mules, Buenos Ayres, 12 lbs. per hide....

{ % per cent and i &c.

per cent. Linens, Flemish .....

{ 2 per cent. and 1

per cent. all other kinds ...

I per cent. Cils

1 per cent. Rice, Carolina

real tare

12 per cent, and 2 East India 6 lbs.

* pret cent. Saltpetre ............

8 14 lbs...

(1 pr cent. and 11

5 per cent. Liquorice............

real tare and 4 tbs. 2 per cent, and 1

per cent. Spices, pepp.....

Cannon
closes and mace

1 per cent.
14. 16. and above

{ pirvento

100 lbs.

1 per cent. nutmt.....

(12 per cent.. ginger

8 lbs. à 16 lbs. 2 per cent. Sugara, Martinique ..

St Demo .. 18 per cent. ......
St. Croix
Surinn
English Colo->20 per cent....... 2 per cent. and 2
pies....

per cent.
Demerara
Herbice
Equibo.....

18 per cent.......
Brasil, white..

18 months' discount,

2 per vado..

cent. and 2 per

cent. Havannah 80 lbs.

12 per cent. and 2 Java 48 lbs.

per cent. Salt...

1 per cent.
Tea, bohea
congo

21 lbs. à 24 lba....
Achong
campos

I per cent.
18 lbs.....
pekoe

13 lbs. & 42 lbs....
tonquin

(2 per cent. and 1 Tobacco, Maryland.. casks tared

per cent, da Virginia ... 2 and 5 per cent. . maged, and 1

per cent. Tin plates ........... 2 per cent. .... 1 per cent.

21 months' disWool, Spanish

count, and lbs. per 173 lbs.

per cent. Wines

1 per cent. Madder ....

10 Thes, per cask, casks tared.

and 2 per cent.

1 per cent. 2 per Herrings

3 or 5 per cent. cent, and % per

cent. Sinalt 2 .......

36 lbs. .....

2 per cent Fu, hams, weeds, ge

i per cent. Desa, grain Rutter

none.

2 and 1 per cent. Cheese, F'dan

? per cent. Gouda

I per cent. The above are the cistomary tares and other allowance mance by the merchants in their transactions with each other. Hitin paving the import duties at the Custom-house, the lare upuan gouds paying city by weight is, with the exceptions un. dermentioned, fixed at 15 percent. for such as are in casks or bourets, and at % pret ceat. for such as are in packages, canistets, mats, baskets, &c. Merchants dissatisfied with theme allowances may pay the duty according to the real weight, ascrtained by the customs officers at their expense.

Erceptions. The tare upon grain imported in sacks is fixed At per cent. Pelain, 15 per cent. Indigo

in chests, 25 per cent. in nerons, 15 per cent. chest trom Havannah 18 per cent., other places 20

Picert.
Bugar

canister, 10 per cent.
Casks and packages, 15 and 8 per cent. The tare

upon sugar retined in the interior and exported,

is 12 per cent, per barrr!, S per cent per package. Alondncer for leckage are made upon all liquids, including treacle and honey, as follows, viz.:

Coming from England, the northern ports of Europe, and France, by inland navigation, 6 per cent.

From France by sea, and from other countries by the rivers Rhine and Waal, 12 per cent.

From any other port or place, 14 per cent. Finally, from whatever place the sune may come, upon train oil, 12 per cent., blubber, 6 per cent.

In case liguids shall have experienced, upon the voyage, such leakage as shall cause the importer to be dissatisfied with the allowance before specified, he is permitted to pay the duty upon the actual quantity, to be ascertained by the officers at the importer's expense.

Mony. - Accounts used to be kept at Amsterdam by the pound Flemish - 6 florios = 20 schillings - 120 stivets 210 groats = 1,920 pennings. But in 1820 the decimal system was introduced. In order, however, to cause as little inconvenience as posible, the tlorin 18.14. sterling, was made the unit of the new system. The tlorin is suposed to be di. vided into 100 equal parts of cents, and the other Iver

itThe is called the florin piece, and is worth 168. 644. very nearly. But accounts are still sometimes kept in the old way, or by the pound Flenish. Par of exchange between Amsterdam and London is 11 flor. 58 cents per pound sterling.

Wrights and Measures. -- In® 1870), the French system of weights and measures was introduced into the Netherlands, the names only being changed.

The pursul is the unit of weight, and answers to the French kilogramme Its divisions are the ons, lood, wigije, and korrel.

The elle, which is the init or element of long measure, equals the French metre. Its decimal divisions are the palm, duim, and streep, and its decimal multiples, the roede and mijle.

The vierkante elle, or square ell, is the unit of superficial measure, and answers to the centidre or wtre carré of France. Its divisions are the vierkante palm, vierkante duim, and the vierkante streep, and its multiples, the vierkante roede and vierkante bunder.

The kubicke elle is the unit of measures of capacity; and equals th French stere. Its divisions are the kubicke palm, kulike duim, and kubicke streep.

The term wisae is given to a kubicte elle of fire-wood.

The kop is the unit of measures for dry wares, and is the cube of the palm; answering to the French litre. Its divis.un is the maatje, and its multiples the schepel and mudde: the latter is also called the zuk, and equals the French hectolitre. 30 mudden make i fast,

The kan is the unit for liquid measure, and is the cube of the palm ; it corresponds to the French litre. Ils divisions are the inaat je and vingerhoed, and 100 kans mate a vat or cask, which equals the French hectolitre.

The apothecary's new pound is 12 ounces, 96 drachm., 289 scruples, or 3,760 grains; and answers to 375 grammes, of 5,787 English grains.

By the old method of calculating, which is not yet entirely superseded, the pound of Amsterdam was = to 1.09 lb. avoir dupois, or 100 lbs. Amsterdam = 108 923 lbs. avoirdupois.

The last or measure for corn27 mudden = 10 qurs. 5 bushels Winchester measure. The aam liquid measure ankers = ☆ steckans = 21 viettels = 64 stoops or stoppen = 281 mingles = 256 pints=41 English wine gallons.

The stop contains 5l sth pints English measure. 100 mingles are equal to 3t English wine gallons, or 26 1-5th English beer gallons, or 26 2-3d Imperial gallons.

French wine is sold ner hogshead of..... 180 mingles. Spanish and Portuguese wine, per pipe of. ..349 ditto. French brandy, jer hogshead of

30 viertels. Beer, per barrel (equal to the aam) of. ..128 mingles. Vegetable oils, per aam, of

..120 ditto. While oil, per ditto

16 ditto. Rum is sold per anker of 2 steckan = 10) English wine gallons.

The foot of Amsterdam = 111-7th English inches.
The Rhineland foot.... = 12

ditto. The ell, cloth measure = 27 1-12th ditto.

Rock salt sold per hondert of 404 maaten, making 20 tons, or 1,000 lbs. Dutch.

Pit coal is sold per hoed of 38 maaten; nine hoeds are five chaldrons of Newcastle, or mix hoeds are five chaldrons of London.

Butter is soid per barrel; the barrel of Leyden is 320 Ibe. nett - that of Friesland 28 lbs. nett - and the common Dutch barrel 336 lbs. gross. A last of herringe is reckoned at 12, 13, or 14 barrels. A last of wilch is 12 barrels. A last flur, 13 barrels. A bag of seed = 24 Winchester quarters.

A last for freight is reckoned 4,000 lbs., equal to two English tons.

Eight hopheads (or oxhofts) of wine
Twelve barrels of pitch

are reckoned Thirteen barrels of tar

as one last Twenty chests of lemons, &c.

in settling 4,000 lbs. of trun, copper, and colonial produce the freight 4,000 lbs. of almonds

of ships. 2,000 lbs. of wool or feathers

A last of wheat is considered 10 per cent. higher than one of rye, and the latt" 205 per cent higher than oats, and 12 per cent. higher than seed. A last of ballast is only 2,000 lbs. - There details have been derived from the answers by the British consul to the circular queries: the Detionnaire du Commerce (Ency, Mahod.), tom. 1. pp. 554-030.; Kelly's Cambist, private information, &c.

hy on

We subjoin an account illustrative of the amount of the trade of the United Kingdom with Holland. The greater part of this trade is, however, carried on with Rotterdam, which is more favourably situated for the intercourse with this country than Amsterdam. (See Table next page.)

Magnitude of the Commerce of Holland in the Seventeenth Century - Causes of its Prosperity and Decline. — We believe we need make no apology for embracing this opportunity to lay before our readers the following details with respect to the commerce and commercial policy of Holland. It forms one of the most instructive topics of investigation; and it is to be regretted that so little attention should have been paid to it in this country.

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