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their own motions being more ardent or more slow, towards virtue or towards wickedness, and not from the inequality of him who dispenses..... According to us, there is nothing in any rational creature, which is not capable as well of good as of evil.... There is no nature which does not admit of good or evil, except the nature of God, which is the foundation of all good."-Vol. 1. p. 74.
"Since all have free-will, and may of their own accord pursue virtue or vice, some souls will be (at the end of the world) in a much worse condition than they now are, and others will arrive at a better state."-Vol. 1. p. 76.
"We have frequently shewn in all our dispu tations, that the nature of rational souls is such, as to be capable of good and evil. Every one has the power of choosing good, and of choosing evil."-Vol. 1. p. 91.
"The Creator indulged the minds formed by himself with voluntary and free motions, that the good in them might be their own, since it was preserved by their own will; but indolence and dislike of exertion in preserving good, and aversion and indifference to better things, caused the beginning of receding from good."--Vol. 1. p. 97.
"Because rational creatures themselves are endowed with the power of choice, the liberty of his will has either excited every one to proficiency
by imitation of God, or has drawn him to deficiency through negligence. And this, as we have before said, was the cause of the difference between rational creatures; not deriving its origin from the will or decree of the Creator, but from the freedom of their own will."-Vol. 1. p. 99.
"That any thing external to ourselves should happen, exciting in us this or that idea, is confessedly not in our power; but to determine in what manner we should use any thing, is the work of nothing, but of the reason which is within us, namely, of that reason, which, according to opportunities, forms us for those impulses, which invite us to what is right and honest, or incline us to the contrary."-Vol. 1. p. 109.
"That it is our business to live virtuously, and that God requires this of us, not as his own gift, or supplied by any other person, or as some think, decreed by fate, but as our own work, the Prophet Micah will witness, saying, 'He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good: and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God (1)?' And Moses, 'I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose Iffe, that both thou and thy seed may live (m)." And Isaiah,If ye be willing and obedient, ye
(2) Mic. c. 6. v. 8.
(m) Deut. c. 30. v. 19.
shall eat the good of the land; but if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it (n).' And in the Psalms, O that my people would have hearkened unto me: for if Israel had walked in my ways, I would have put down their enemies, and turned my hand against their adversaries (o) ;' which proves that it was in the power of the people to hearken, and to walk in the ways of God. And our Saviour says, 'But I say unto you, that ye resist not evil (p):' and' that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgement (q):' and that whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart (r).' And when he gives other commandments, he shews that it is in our power to keep them, as we shall be justly subject to judgement if we transgress them: 'Therefore, says he, whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him to a wise man which built his house upon a rock,' &c.: ' And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened to a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand,' &c. (s). And
(n) Is. c. I. v. 19, 20. (p) Matt. c. 5. v. 39. (r) Matt. c. 5. v. 28.
(0) Ps. 81. v. 13, 14.
And he says to those on the right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father,' &c.; for I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat; I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink,' &c. (t): plainly shewing, that he makes promises to those who are themselves the cause of their being praised. And on the contrary he says to the others, as being themselves the cause of their being culpable, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire,' &c. And let us see how Paul also reasons with us as having free-will, and being ourselves the cause of our destruction or salvation: Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? but after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgement of God; who will render to every man according to his deeds: to them, who, by patient continuance in well-doing, seek for glory, and honour, and immortality; eternal life but unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation, and wrath, tribulation and anguish upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile but glory, honour, and peace to every man that worketh good,
(t) Matt. c. 25. v. 34, &c.
good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile (u).' There are therefore innumerable passages in the Scriptures, most clearly asserting free-will."Vol. 1. p. 111.
"Let us make use of a comparison from the Gospel: Some stones are covered with a very little earth, upon which if the seed falls, it quickly springs up; but not having root, when the sun rises, it is burnt up and withered. And this: stone is the human mind, which is hardened by negligence, and converted into stone by wickedness; for no person's mind is created stony by God, but becomes so by wickedness."-Vol. 1. p. 122.
"But because the Apostle (Paul) sometimes does not ascribe to God that the vessel is to honour. or dishonour, but refers the whole to ourselves, saying, 'If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified and meet for the master's use, and prepared unto every good work (r):' and sometimes he does not attribute it to ourselves, but seems to refer every thing to God, saying, 'Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another to dishonour (y)?' These expressions are not contradictory:
(u) Rom. c. 2. v. 4—10. (x) 2 Tim c. 2. v. 21. (1) Rom. c. 9. 7.21.)