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313 The Christian Church. Letter of Edward Lhwyd. (April
, The face of Europe was in a more es- even differ from ourselves in modes pecial manner changed by this great and forms, knowing that we all acevent.-(Mosheim, IV.5.)
knowledge one Master in Heaven, Since nothing is more inconsistent who has fixed his divine Signet upon with that subordination and concord our profession, by which all men shall which are among the great ends of know that we are his disciples, namely, civil government, than imperium in Christian love.
A. H imperio, i. e. two independent sovereigaties in the same body politic- Mr. URBAN,
April 2. the genius of Government, as well as the spirit of
genuine Christianity, pro- T Werte Letter herewith sent was that makes the supreme Head of the Antiquary and Naturalist Edward State the supreme visible Ruler of the Lhwyd, io one of his learned friends, Church also. (Mosh. IV. 286, note, lished.
and has never, I believe, been pub16th cent.)
Caradoc. The very essence of civil
“For the Hond Dr. Martin Lister,
government seems manifestly to point out
AT THE OLD PALACE-YARD, West. the necessity of investing the Sovereign with this spiritual supremacy.
Hon. Sir, Orford, April 18, 1693.
HAVE been all this while ex-
pecting the return of our Lithohas observed this caution in the vene- scopist; but have not yet heard rable establishment of the English thing of him. My only hopes are, Constitution, whereby the just allegi- that, being a shoemaker, he has met ance due to the Sovereign in his tem- with some employment in his trade, poral capacity is not divided by any un- which has thus long detained him. concurrent duty to the spiritual head, Should he be lost in the late great the union of their sway gives the Mo- snow, or otherwise, his wife and chilnarch an undistinguished power which dren must (I doubt) go a begging. secures the obedience of all sects and “I have just now received your preparties on the one hand, and diffuses sent to the Museum: had we but a the blessings of authority and mercy dozen such benefactors, we should in a on the other.
few years have choice collection of Sufficient has been noted to trace books. You take care to send us nothe progress of the establishment of thing but what is valuable and pertichurches, and particularly of that in nent. But I could heartily wish Mr. which we are most interested, and Ashmole had also done the same in his whose venerable history has been deli- legacy of books; and instead of many neated by Warner and other ecclesias- MS volumes of Mr. Napier's Astrolotical writers, who have written with gical Practice in Physic, and above the dutiful affection of filial piety. five hundred other astrological books,
A Church which has been justly ce- I wish he had given us 50 of his best lebrated for having produced men of books relating to coyns and other antithe most profound learning, of the sin- quities, and to natural philosophy: tho' cerest piety, of the most unshaken per- his donation be in its kind also very severance, and of the most truly Chris- useful and considerable; especially tian clarity, of any church in Chris- his MSS. relating to Heraldry, and his tendom ;--- men who have borne the collection of pamphlets and English heat of controversy with liberal for- poems. I have not been so commubearance, --- have eminently filled the nicative of my discoveries in form'd chairs of instruction without rigidity, stones as I guess you imagin : for tho' --and have maintained unsullied in its I have kept acquaintance and correpurity the Church, whose dogmas they spondence with some that are criticks were called to defend.
in that kind, I have notwithstanding We who belong to this Protestant reserved the greatest part of my obscrChurch cannot but unite with our vations to myself. 'Tis true some noChristian brethren in the most un- tions and hints they have had ; but infeigned praise, that this blessing has deed they are not much obliged to me been established in our land also; and for them; for John Fitz-Roberts, to that it has taught us to tolerate and to whom (relying too much upon his ig. embrace all our fellow Christians, who norance that way) I had given some
319 petrified bones, as the siliquastra, medians belonging to the Theatres &c. brought them to Wordward, to Royal of Drury Lane and Covent Garwhom afterwards (making a virtue of den, as of the Comedians belonging to necessity) I presented some better pat- the Theatre in Goodman's Fields, also terns; and also received some good re- of Henry Giffard, the proprietor of turns from him. As to what I com- that house, and of the subscribers *. municated to Mr. Ray, I reckon it But we have not seen any memorial very well disposed of. "But as to the for either Proprietor or Comedians of siliquastra, I shall, about a fortnight the Little Theatre in the Haymarket. hence, send you an account of them. The strong representation of facts with specimens to be engraved: for made by the several cases, must have Mr. Waller. I am, Sir,
deferred the injudicious measures then “Your most obliged and proposed, which, however, became humble servant,
established as law, in a manner more Edw. LHwyd." galling to the feelings of the actor in
1737, by an Act passed as to explain Of The LONDON THEATRES, the old unsavoury Vagrant Act. No. XI.
1735-6-7. Henry Fielding collected
together a company of Performers, unHaymarket Theatre.
der the title of “The Great Mogul's (Continued from puge 204.) Company of Comedians.” This com
pany continued acting there rather 1733. I Nihe prevolters from Drury moelieved to have been with good suc
At first it is Lane Company, consisting principally of Griffin, Harper, Joe Miller, John. cess, but afterwards to diminished auson, and the elder Mills, headed by diences; and probably the Company, Theophilus Cibber, agreed to rent the which, as the bills announced, “dropTheatre, being then unoccupied ; and ped from the clouds," finally melted
into thin air. Some of the pieces perafter making some hasty and necessary embellishments and alterations, open
formed were the production of Fielded it with the comedy of “Love for ing, who, for popularity, was most unLove,” and continued several months. sparing of the prime Minister, Sir R. 1734. “Chrononhotonthologos
Walpole, and his friends. Which cir. was first produced here, and had a fa
cumstance, it is believed, confirmed vourable run, performed by the
the opinion of the Minister of the neCompany of Comedians of his Ma- cessity for restraining theatrical projesty's Revels,” according to the de- ductions and performances, and hasscription given by the author before tened the passing the obnoxious Lihis benefit advertisement.
censing Act of 1737; the effect of In the Session of Parliament of
which was immediately to close the 1735, there was introduced into the Theatres in Goodman's Fields and House of Commons the skeleton of
The restrictions of the Act com“a Bill for restraining the number of
menced the 24th of June, 1737, and houses for playing of interludes, and for the better regulating common passing the same was not speedily forplayers of interludes.” This fact has got. A large portion of society has enurely escaped the research of our
ever been found ready to indulge in theatrical historians. It was proposed
rational and unfevered amusements, to limit the number of Playhouses ;
and unceasingly jealous of any enand for that purpose recited the letters
croachment their esteemed pub
upon patent granted to Thomas Killigrew, lic rights. The lapse of fifteen months, his heirs, &c.; to Sir Wm. Davenant, his heirs, &c.; to Robert Wilkes, Col
* The Case, &c. states : ley Cibber, and Barton Booth, for 21
1731, & subscription being opened to build
a new Theatre in Goodman's Fields, twentyyears; then vested in Charles Fleet
three wood and Henry Giffard : and the hundred pounds each, with which the said
persons became subscribers at one charter for 21 years held by the Royal Theatre was built, and was by indentures Academy of Music. Various memo- assigned in twenty-three undivided shares to rials were presented to the Members the subscribers, to secure to each of them of the House of Commons against the one shilling and sixpence for every acting Bill, as well on the behalf of the Co- day, &c.”
" In the year
[April, if it partially appeased, could not ex- have besides expended large sums of money, tinguish resentment, as appeared by and contracted several debts here, which we the event arising from the following are not in circumstances to pay. So that public announcement of the oth Oct. we are obliged to lay our case before the
public, in hopes that they will permit us to 1738 :
perform three nights only in one of the pa“Hay-Market. By authority. By the tent Theatres, so as to enable us to disFrench Company of Comedians at the new
charge those debts we have contracted here, Theatre in the Hay-Market, this day, Oct.
and we will then humbly take our leare, and 9, will be presented a Comedy called L'em
return to France, with grateful acknowbaras des Richesses: the character of Har- ledgment for the favour done to us. lequin by Mons. Moylin Francisque. To
« MOYLIN FRANCISQUE, which will be added, Arlequin Poli par L'A
J. B. LE SAGE. mour; with several entertainments of danc
Suffolk Street, Nov. 6, 1738." ing, by Mons. Paguorel, Mademoiselle Chateauneuf, Mons. Le Fevre, Madm. Le Fevre,
On the 13th of November, Mr. and others. Boxes 5s. Pit 3s. Gall. 2s. Rich, then proprietor of Covent GarPlaces, &c.”
den and Lincoln's Inn Fields TheaThe intended performance, as might tres, advertised at the bottom of the be expected, called forth all that true play-bills, “Whereas it has been in. English feeling for which John Bull dustriously reported that the French is so renowned, and the expression of the Theatres belonging to Mr. Rich,
Comedians are to perform in one of public discontent upon the rising of the curtain swelled into a riot, and the this is to certify to the publick, that actors were dismissed with contempt. nothing of that kind was ever intendThe history of that evening is well cd, or would have been permitted by knownt; but not so the attempt af him, unless the same had been with terwards made to awake the commi- the general consent of the town.” seration of the public in favour of this
In April 1741, English Operas were exotic company, in dispersing the fol- Happy Captive” had attached a spice
of “ lowing case : « The case of the French Comedians.- two comic scenes, between Signor Ca
of the old leven, as“ an interlude, in Whereas we, Moylin Francisque and John Baptist Le Sage, were in England in the poccio, a director from the Canary ismonth of February last, and having then ob- lands, and Signora Dorinna, a virtained leave to bring over a French Company
tuoso." of Comedians, for to represent the same in
Here in the Spring of 1744, Mackthe Little Theatre in the Hay-Market, this lin, who had seceded from Drury season ; we, for that purpose, returned into Lane Theatre, attempted to permaFrance, and collected together the best com- nently raise an anarchical standard, pany that were to be had; being wholly ig; and, as usual, expected to support fame norant of any affairs transacted in England by the aid of popular favouritism. He relating to the regulation of the Stage, and not in the least doubting but that the Com- of that veteran terms an “unfledged
commenced with what the biographer pany would meet with
the same encourager Company," but which company rement as heretofore, made us engage with main's still of importance in the theaseveral performers abroad at very great expences, to come into England; and the trical nomenclature, as a callow memnight the said Company were to have acted, ber of it was (the afterwards truly witty they met with such an obstruction from the comedian) Samuel Foote. Little or no audience, that a stop was put to the per- profit was derived by Macklin by takformance, and the said Company disconti- ing wing in the gale of discontent, and pued, and laid aside all thoughts of making as early as the 19th of December folthe least attempt, since the same was not lowing, he recommenced at Drury agreeable to the public. Notwithstanding, Lane with a supplicating prologue, we the said undertakers, by the contracts saying, we made, have been obliged to pay to each performer the same monies hitherto, and And, beggar'd by the war, solicit peace."
that all domestic feuds may cease, Tiable to the same obligations for the remainder of this whole season, as if the Com
In November of the same year, pany had performed the whole time; and Theophilus Cibber, with a company,
revived, as not performed for an hun+ Victor's History of Theatres, vol. I. dred years, Romeo and Juliet, himself p. 53.- Gentleman's Magazine, vol. VIII. playing Romeo, and Juliet by Miss
Jenny Cibber. The announcement
321 was “ At Cibber's Academy in the Three of the valiant heroes beat a boy alHaymarket will be a Concert; after most to death! After which they made a which will be exhibited (gratis) a Re
most gallant retreat, and joined their comhearsal in form of a play, called Ro- manders, the ladies : however, the Anglomeo and Juliet, &c.”
fool party at last reign'd triumphant, and all 1747. The comic powers of Samuel the Court wh-s and Gallic scoundrels were Foote wanted little practical ripenirig. ed with French cooks, barbers, and valets.”
hiss'd out of the house. The pit was crowdIn this season he commenced, on his own account, a new species of amuse- The company is said to have per-' ment, called “ The Diversions of a formed twice afterwards, with such Morning," framed to avoid the penal- indifferent prospect of success, as to ties of the Act. As the exhibition was
be obliged to disband, and some of a strong personal satire, and one of the them became so much distressed as to characters Mr. Lacy, the patentee, an
ask public charity: attempt was made on the part of that 1755. Opened in August by Theo. gentleman to check the performance, Cibber and his actors, styled • Baye's but without further effect, than occa
Company.” In 1758, the same masioning the title to be altered to nager obtained the Lord Chamber“Foote's giving Tea.” A similar en
lain's license. tertainment in the following year was
1760. In the Summer of this
year, called “ An Auction of Pictures.” Mr. Foote, upon some urgent occasion, These pieces, franght with “ living having hastily collected a company to manners,” proved extremely popular, perform the Minor,” found the plan and obtained crowded audiences.
so well received, as first to suggest to 1749 was memorable by two dis- him an attempt to establish the house tinct riots at this Theatre, each pro- tion, then regularly kept by the patent
as a Summer Theatre, during the vacavoked by exhibitions from which no other result could be expected. The
ones. This plan there was time to first occurred on the 16th Jan. after mature, as Foote could not obtain the the memorable hoax of the Bottle
house the following season, it being Bubble," or "Bottle Conjuror,” the previously engaged by the more imevent of which has been already de- portant manager of a company of tailed in your pages, vol. XIX. p. 42.
learned or dancing dogs. The second riot was on the 14th of
1762. Foote regained possession, November, arising from another, and
gave his popular Lectures on Oratory, we believe the last, attempt to esta
and continued to act during the sumblish the French performers, or, as
mer seasons without interruption, inamore commonly called, “the Italian gisterial or otherwise, until his unforStrollers”. Still strongly supported by tunate accident on Feb. 7, 1766, when, the nobility, the opposition rested with by a fall from his horse at the seat of the crowd in the gallery; and a ludi- Lord Mexborough, he broke his leg. crons prologue, published at that pe
That event gave him so much interest riod, describes the missile ammuni- with the Duke of York, who happention, as potatoes, turnips, eggs, and ed to be present, as to occasion his obmedlars. The following record is taining a Royal License for acting from the Penny Post, or Morning Ad- plays at the Haymarket Theatre Jurcerliser :
ing his life, in each year from the 15th * On Tuesday night the campaign open
of May to the 15th of September. ed at the Little Theatre in the Hay-market,
(To be continued.) from whence we hear the victorious troops of the Grand Monarque, headed by the
ACCOUNT OF THE ISLAND OF ST. Right Honourable Lady P—, the celebrated Miss A-, with their auxiliaries, his G
MICHAEL'S, AND ITS SPRINGS. the D- of H-, Lord H-, Lord &c. M. VT. MICHAEL'S is the principal G. &c. and several others of as great ho
, nour and rank, attacked the gallery sword which lie about midway between Enin hand (occasioned by a few unpolite English attempting to interrupt them in their per- rope, Africa, and America. Its trade
may be considered as rather extensive, formance) with such great success, that be it spoken to their immortal faine, they entirely and has annually employed on the defeated ten gentlemen, some of whom were average for the last few years more run thro' the arms, face, eyes, and body. than seventy vessels of different burGent. Mag. April, 1922.
322 Account of the Island of St. Michael's, and its Springs. (April, thens. The communication with Por- of the human frame, attest their utitugal is the means of exporting, to lity to mankind. Lisbon, and the other ports of that The valley in which they are situkingdom, fruit, poultry, &c. &c. ated lies about twenty-five miles N.E. Various articles are received in ex- of Ponto del Gado, having upon its change; the principal of which, as S. E. side a small village called Carthe religion is Catholic, consist of holy cuis, or Furnace; from whence the relics, dispensations, and images of valley takes its name. On an elevasaints. Much of their fruit, and some tion about a quarter of a mile square, wine, are exported to England; whence are several hillocks, in which are every they receive in return woollens, hard where met with varieties of strata, pyand earthenwares, and many other ne- rites, lava, pumice, clay of different cessaries. America also supplies them colours, iron-ore, ochre, and calcarewith pitch, tar, iron, boards, staves, ous earth, mixed with alum and sullumber, and some Indian goods, which, phur. A number of hot fountains are they pay for in wine and fruit. The here, and, singular as it may appear, island has also much intercourse with there are several cold springs also. Madeira and the Canary islands for Many streams are formed by the hot cattle.
springs, which, in their several courses, St. Michael's is the only city of the emit a sulphureous steam, the vapour island, but there are five towns, and from which, in a calm day, may be upwards of fifiy parishes. The inha- seen rising to a considerable height. bitants are affable, courteous, and hos- The largest of these fountains, called pitable to strangers. They are com- the Caldeira, is nearly thirty feet in puted at more than 28,000 souls, and diameter, while its depth, notwithhave regular establishments of in- standing several attempts, has not fantry, artillery, militia, &c. with a been ascertained. The water is scald. proportionate number of officers to ing hot, and constantly agitated; it each. The dress of the principal in- emits a vapour highly sulphureons, habitants bears a strong resemblance smelling not unlike burnt gunpowder, to the English. The hat worn by the and depositing a clayey sediment of a male peasantry is of a curious form, light blue colour. A short distance, and gives them an appearance some- another of these wonderful producwhat singular. Its crown is convex, tions is met with behind a ridge of not unlike some of the English hats, lava, at the bottom of a projecting from which a front projects, bearing rock. It is not so large as the former, some resemblance to a shovel, and is and is therefore denominated the seturned up on each side like a horn. cond fountain, and called the Forgu, In breadth it is about twenty inches, or Forge. The surface is seldom visiand has a flap hanging from the crown, ble, from the dense sulphureous vapour which passing over the shoulders but- that arises, which boils with considertons close under the chin, and shelters able violence, and is accompanied by a them from the weather.
noise, at the same time throwing up Numerous mountains, hills, and and scattering about a fine blue clay, vallies abound throughout the island ; . incrusting the rock and surrounding and from the singular appearance of objects. These fountains are the printhe former, with distinguishable cavi- cipal ones, but there are several others; ties at their summits, an accumulation and vapour is distinctly seen to issue in of scoria, and other volcanic appeare many places from the crevices of the ances, it is evident that they have rock. "On placing the ear to some of been produced by some violent convul- the fissures, a noise similar to that prosion of nature.
duced by boiling water is distinctly Among the natural productions of heard; and from others water is occathe island, the hot and cold springs or sionally thrown out, which actually fountains are the foremost, and arrest scalds those who unwarily get within the attention of all who behold them, its reach. They present themselves in many di- The temperature of these springs is rections, and from the phenomena not uniformly the same. In some it they exhibit, confirm the existence of is as high as boiling heat; in others subterraneous volcanos; while their more moderate, and in some very cold. uses in eruptions, and other disorders The appearance of the water varies.