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CXX.

sketch of England at the Conquest,

498
Palgrave (Sir Francis, b. 1802),

his ‘History of Normandy and
England, Vols. III. and IV., cxxi.
1; his unfinished works, ib. 2;
improvements in his later volumes,
3; his theories compared with
those of Thierry, 4; his habit of
withholding references continued,
5; failure of his original design,
ib.; his mild view of the Norman
Conquest, 9; his treatment of
authorities, 16; on the claims of
William I. to the crown, 22; his
wrong account of Harold's acces-
sion, 23, 24; defends William's
toleration after the Conquest, 29;
on the transfer of land to the
Crown, 36; his protest against the
term Anglo-Saxon,' 37; his
masterly portrait of William
Rufus, 39, 40; best passages of his
history, 40; bis unfair strictures

on the Crusades, 41
Palgrave (W. G.), bis Journey

through Arabia,' cxxii. 482; his
acute observation, 483; his first
mission to Arabia, 484; recent
errand to Abyssinia, ib.; general
accuracy of his narrative, 485; his
travelling disguise, 486 ; alleged
recognitions, 487; his contempt of
the Bedouins, 493; respect for the
settled population, 494; criticism
of Bedouin beauty, 495; his novel
view of Arabian character, 498;
his picture of their religious con-
dition, 499; ascribes Christianity
to the Solibah tribe, 500; on the
Moslem colony at Oman, 502 ; his
religious theories summarised,
504 ; his hatred of Mahometanism,
505; denunciation of the Wahha-
bees, 506, 509; on Wahhabee
rule, 516; conclusion of his travels,
517; his literary merits, ib.

alleged superfluity of his dis-
guise in Arabia, cxxv. 12 note

Palissy (Bernard), on the good effects

of the Reformation in France,

cxxiv. 88
Pall Mall, origin of the street-name,

cxxxi. 184
Palmer (Sir Roundell, afterwards

Lord Selborne, b. 1812), his Ad-
dress in 1870 on the proposed
Legal Education Association,

cxxxiv. 507, 510
Palmer (Rev. W.), his Treatise on

the Church of Christ, cxx. 379
Palmerston (Henry Johp Temple, Vis-

count, 1784-1865), on the Turkish
settlement of 1840 and 1841,cxi.153

his extravagant expenditure
on fortifications, cxvii. 275; his
Russian policy in 1853, 334

his death, cxxiii, 263; bis
genial disposition, 264; his high
reputation, 265; causes of his suc-
cess, 266; his assiduity, ib.; his
speeches, 267 ; wrongly accused of
levity, ib.; his fearlessness, 268,
never deserted his subordinates, ib.;
his enviable death, ib.; his long
public experience, 269; energy as
War Minister, 270; his speech in
1829 on Portugal, 271 ; his spirited
foreign policy, ib.; not responsible
for the Crimean War, 272; pros-
perity of his two adıninistrations,
273; his vast powers of statesman-
ship, ib.; his character as a de-
bater, 274; unrivalled faculty of
leadership, 275; exceptional quiet
of his
sway,

276
remonstrates with Mahomed
Ali on his invasion of Arabia,
cxxv. 10; alleged orertures of
Lord Wharncliffe to, in 1831, for a
compromise on Reform, 537

wrongly accused of indiffer-
ence to Reform, cxxvi. 546

called the French alliance
the pivot of his foreign policy,'
cxxxiii. 31 ; his late hours in the
House of Commons, 82;. Life' of,
by Sir H. Lytton Bulwer, 287 ;

unfinished state of the work, 288;
his proposals in 1839 of interven-
tion in Syria, 332; policy to

Mahomet Ali, 333
Palmerston (Henry John Temple, Vis-

count), letter of, on the change of
government in 1834, cxxxvi. 390

his appearance when five
years old, described by Lord
Minto, cxxxix. 196

-Madame de Lieven's strictures
on, cxl. 521; Mr. Greville, on his

abilities as Foreign Minister, 522
Panics, religious, instances of, cxiii.

461
Panizzi (Sir Anthony), his reforms

at the British Museum, cxxiii. 66;

cxxxix. 37, 40
Pantheon, the, at Rome, consecra-

tion of, cxviii. 356 ; belfries added

by Urban VIII., 363
Panvini (Onofrio, 1529-1568), his

intended work on Christian in-

scriptions, cxx. 221
Paoli (Antonio), his mistaken de-

ciphering of an early Christian

inscription, cxx. 225, 226 notes
Paoli (Pascal, 1726–1807), his insur-

rection in Corsica, cxxxix. 205;
article in Edinburgh Review (ci.
442), referred to, 206 note; in-

duced to leave the island, 207
Papacy, the, early equality of the

Pope as Bishop of Rome, cxii.
105; overthrow of the Lombards,
107; first schemes of temporal
power, 108; the fabricated dona-
tion of Constantine, ib.; influence
of Germany in the middle ages,
109; Hildebrand's idea of a
spiritual empire, 111; the title of
Pope confined by him to Rome,
112; donation of the Countess
Matilda, ib.; temporal aggrandise-
ment renewed by Alexander III.,
113; belief of the Papacy in its
perpetuity a cause of its worldly
success, ib.; the charter of
Rodolph (1278), the real foun-

dation of the Pupal power, 114;
dark period of the exile to Avig-
non, 115; schism on the election
of Urban VI., 117; profligacy
of his successors, 118; the Papal
power established, 121 ; suppres-
sion of municipal rights, ib.;
annexation of Ferrara and Urbino,
122; indivisibility of the Papal
States disproved by history, 124;
degrading effects of Papal rule,
127; vicious system of election,
128; popular hatred of the
Government, 129; scandal of the

French occupation, 131
Papacy inseparable from Rome, cxiii.
279

temporal power of, incom-
patible with the Monarchy, cxiv.
233; Ultramontane views of the
temporal power, 254; problem of
Papal independence examined,
260; Cavour's scheme, 269; early
relations of, with monasticism, 320

the temporal power of, cxvi.
261899.; its Ultramontane suppor-
ters, 263; its origin, 265; grievances
of nepotism, 266; evil effects of
clerical government, 268; unsuc-
cessful rule of Pius IX., 270; low
standard of Roman theology, 274;
evil effects of monastic establish-
ments, 275; influence of Ita-
lianism'on, 276; proposed re-
formation of, 280; moral influence
of, the measure of its spiritual
authority, 287; its probable
future, 292

fortunes of, connected with
those of Rome, cxviii. 343; vir-
tual foundation of, by Pope Gre-
gory, 354; the temporal power
becomes an object of worldly am-
bition, 364; position of the Popes
in the Leonine City, 307

anti - Papal movement
throughout Europe, cxx, 460, 461

early projects of union with
the Greek Church, cxxi. 485

Papacy, contests of, with Napoleon, taxation, 373; on the aptitude of
cxxviii. 451, 488. See Pius VII, races for taxes on property and

usurpations of, over Ecu- income, 380; on the taxation of
menical Councils, cxxx. 299, 300; luxuries, 382; his personal share
conflicting authority of, with in legislation, 383
Church Councils, 316; its rela- Paris, evil of exclusive attachment
tions with science, 322; relations of Frenchmen to, cxi. 227; com-
of, to the State, 329; doctrine of parative obscurity of, in the middle
the Syllabus thereon, ib. ; claims of the seventeenth century, 342
of civil allegiance, 330

political intelligence of the
changes in, effected by the working classes in, cxv. 343; pub-
Vatican Council, cxxxiv. 158 ; lic monuments of, in 1698, 551;
prospects of, ib., 161

the column in the Place Vendôme,
antagonism of culture to, in 553
the fourteenth century, cxxxvi.

attractions of, to educated
117; corruptions at Avignon de- Scotchmen in the sixteenth cen-
nounced, ib. ; efforts to revive tury, cxviii. 236; their creditable
learning at Rome, 121 ; reforms conduct there, ib.; the Rue d'É-
of Martin V., 123; removal to cosse in 1313, 239
Florence, 125; policy of territorial

desolate condition of, under
ambition commenced by Sixtus Charles VI., cxix. 536
IV., 143; Florentine influences,

parks and gardens of, by Mr.
ib. See Humanists

Robinson, cxxx. 459; formation
autocracy of, recently at- of the Bois de Boulogne, 460;
tacked in Germany, cxxxvii. 533 ; preservation of grass-swards, 461;
recent claims to civil allegiance, the Park Monceau contrasted with
576

the Parc des Buttes Chaumont,
Papal States, brigandage in, cxxxii. 462; opening of new squares,

299 ; reforms of Sixtus V., 301 464 ; nurseries at Passy, 465; and
Paper, early kinds of, in England; Petit Bry, 466; tree-nursery at
cxxvi. 45

Nogent-sur-Marne, ib.; tropical
Papyrus, varieties of, used by Ro- and sub-tropical plants, 469-473;

mans for letter-writing, cxxiv. hardy plants, ibi; plant-decorations
354

of rooms and conservatories, 475;
Paraná river, the, its magnitude, fruit-growing, 478; peach-cultiva-

cxxxix. 446; its steady and con- tion at Montreuil, 480; market-
stant flow, 447; M. Révy's ob- gardens, 481; mushroom-caves of
servations, 448; grandeur of its Montrouge, ib.
scenery, 450; stillness of the re-

Scottish Missionary College
gion, 451; its course, ib., 454 ; at, cxix. 200; connexion thereof
compared with the Nile, ib. ; cata- with the Stuarts, cxxxvi. 55; bis-
racts, 456; its affluents, 457; torical records at, ib., 56
geology of the district, ib.

technical schools at, cxxvii.
Paray-le-Monial, recent pilgrimages 443
to, cxxxix. 250. See Sacred Heart

National Library at, cxxxix.
Parieu (M. Esquirou de), his Traité

des Impôts, cxxxi. 370; his high Paris, relief of, in 1436, by the
qualifications, ib.; his classification Constable, cxl. 219
of taxes, 372 ; questions on French

Congress of (1856), its de-

25, 35

claration against privateering, cxv. 262; its provisions as to arbitration disregarded by Prussia and Italy, cxxiv. 278. See Paris,

Treaty of Paris, Peace of (1763), its disastrous

results to France, cxxv. 508 Paris, Treaties of (1814–1815), neu

trality of Switzerland and Savoy assured by, cxi. 543, 546; the treaties disregarded by France and Sardinia, 548

Treaty of (1856), negotiations preceding, cxxxiii. 267, 273 (see Russian War); neutralisation of the Black Sea, ib., 275; separate Treaty of 15th April between

England, France, and Austria, ib. Paris Commune, the, early munici

pal rights of, cxxxiv. 256 ; longstanding State jealousy of, 259; Marcel's insurrection of 1356, 261; outbreak of the Maillotins, 262; the Guise insurrection, 263; spirit of military sedition, 264; policy of the National Assembly, 265 ; anarchy after 1789, 268; the municipal law of 1790, 269; the • Permanent Committee,' 270; during the Reign of Terror, 272; origin of the crisis, 273; measures of the directory,' 275; constitution of 1790 described, ib.; apathy of electors, 276; condition of, in 1792, 278; the stronghold of revolutionary excesses, 279; treacherous conduct of Pétion as Mayor, ib.; events from June 20 to August 10, ib., 281; usurpation of executive power, ib.; the Comité de Surveillance, 282; the Assembly overawed, 284; parallel of the Commune of 1871, ib.; its theory, 285; English admirers of, 287; gloomy prospects, 288; predicted by M. Randot, 289 ; recent works on the Commune of 1871, 511; the insurrection of March 18, ib.; obscurity of the leaders, ib.; po

pular rage at Bazaine's surrender of Metz, 512; the Belleville fanatics, 513; Flourens, ib.; earlier and younger revolutionists, 615; character and antecedents of Delescluze, 516; Félix Pyat, 517; negotiations of Jules Favre with Bismarck, 518; speech of Ledru Rollin, 519; cry for La Commune,' ib.; capture of the Hôtel de Ville, ib.; plébiscite in favour of Trochu, 520; later unpopularity of the Government of Defence, ib.; émeute of January 22, 521; the capitulation, ib.; the new National Assembly, ib.; peace ratified at Bordeaux, 522; the 'Rurals,' ib.; irritation towards the Assembly, 524; quiet at the Prussian entry, ib.; revolutionary placards, 525; the International Society, 526, 532; other elements of disorder, ib.; outbreak at Montmartre on March 17, 533 ; murder of Generals Lecomte and Clément Thomas, 534; the insurgents masters of Paris, 535 ; Lullier and Assi, ib. ; tardy attempts of the Government to recover the cannon, 536; they withdraw to Versailles, 537; rise of the party of order,' ib. ; conduct of the Assembly, 538; Admiral Saisset sent to pacify Paris, 539; matter of the Communal elections, 540; courageous protest of the Press, ib.; demonstrations of the party of order, ib.; massacre on the Place Vendôme, ib.; the maires and deputies at Versailles, 541 ; the Communists pretend to negotiate, 542; the elections, 543; title of Commune' adopted, 544; first Committee of Public Safety, 545; relations with Paris journals, 547; sovereignty of the Assembly contested, 548; the delegates of Lyons, ib.; ultimatum of the Central Committee, 550 ; execution of

, |

,
552; hostages seized in reprisal,
ib.; and assassinated, 553; Rigault
and Ferré, ib., 555; murder of
Chaudey, ib. ; reign of massacre
begins, ib.; preparations for burn-
ing Paris, 559, the conflagration,
560, 562 ; entrance of the Ver-
sailles troops, ib.; panic of the
pétroleuses, 562; slaughter and
suppression of the insurgents,

563
Paris Exhibition (1867), deteriora-

tion of English goods and ma-
chinery at, cxxvii. 436 899.

-Official Reports on,cxxix. 366;
ephemeral interest of, ib. ; com-
pleteness of the iron and steel col-
lection, 368; cast-iron bridge work
and water-pipes, 370; French de-
licacy and finish in casting metals,
ib.; specimens of steel-work, 371;
Bessemer-steel, 374; the Allen-
Whitworth-Porter engine, 377;
Indret's marine engines, ib.; rail-
way locomotive engines, 378; fo-
reign competition therein, 379;
display of machine-tools, 380;
lethargy of English makers, 381;
steam-bammers, 382; superior
tool-work of Manchester and
Leeds, 383; Mr. Siemens' gas-
furnaces, 384; incomplete display
of English glass, ib.; priority of
English textile fabrics, 385; splen-
did show of French cotton trades,
386; Swiss prints and dyed cot-
tons, 387; Mr. Murray's Report on
Cotton Goods, 388; woollen fa-
brics, ib.; effects of the silkworm
disease, 390 ; silks of Lyons and
St. Etienne, 391; Swiss silks, ib.;
laces, 392; embroidery, 394 ; Pa-
risian bronze-workers and wood-
carvers, 395; models by workmen,
396 ; lessons for Great Britain, ib.;
want of scientific knowledge in

England, 398
• Parisians,' the, unfinished novel by

Lord Lytton, cxxxix. 383; interest
of its authorship, 384; the author
impersonated in Graham Vane,
388; history and purpose of, ex-
plained in his son's preface, 389;
compared with Kenelm Chil-
lingly,' ib., scenes of Paris life, 390;
character of De Rochebriant, 393;
Lemercier and his class, 395;
character of Vane, 398; Isaura
Cicogna, 401; knowledge of cha-
racter shown in the hero, 408;
Armand Monnier, 412; essentially
a novel of character and incident,
414; its genuine French flavour,

417
Park (Mr.), his triumph in amputa-

tion, cxxxvi. 495
Parker (Matthew, Archbishop of

Canterbury, 1504-1576), his pre-
tensions on behalf of Convocation,

cxxi. 155
Parkes (Joseph), cxxxviii. 230
Parkhurst, first State Reformatory

at, cxvii. 247
Parliament, shortening of time for

assembling of, after a dissolution,
cxi. 194

doctrine of ministerial respon-
sibility to, under Charles I., cxx.
33; the Speaker held in his chair,
34

salutary legislation of, be-
tween 1832 and the Crimean War,
cxxvi. 573

increased power of, under
Edward III., cxxix. 548

enormous increase of legisla-
tion in, cxxxü. 60; defects there-
in, 62 (see Commons, House of);
its proper

functions of control over
the army, 240, 245

problem of success in, cxxxv.
508; debating power as & qualiti-
cation for office, 509

authority of, over Convoca-
tion, cxl. 434; not unfitted for
legislating on religious questions,
449

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