« AnteriorContinua »
OR OF THE FIRST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS.
In the application of the above terminations, the finals of the crudes must first be rejected. Thus, taking deva, and rejecting the final, we have dev; and adding the terminations, we have the nom. devah, &c.
The four examples are now declined in full.
48. Masculine Crudes in a, like a, “a deity" (deus). N. 29: devah, dat devau,
cat: devāh. Ac. & devam,
cara devān. A <I. देवेन devena, देवाभ्यां devābhyām, ,
ta: devaih. D. Cary devāya,
devābhyām, and devebhyah. Ab. देवात् devat,
devayoh, qay deveşhu.
In accordance with r. 21, such words as a “a man," 969, man,” LT,
“a deer,” are written in the ins. sing. Plu, gotu, , and in the gen. plur. quui, gorui, irrui, the cerebral nasal taking the place of the dental. 49. Feminine Crudes in ā and ī, like stat, “life," and qçi,“ a river.” N. जीवा jiva,
jīvābhyām, tant: jīvābhyah.
sflate jīvāsu. Z V. जीवे .ive,
N. नदी nadi,
नद्यौ nadyau ,
nadyau, नदीभ्यां nadibhyām,
nadībhyām, qat: nadyoh,
nadyoh, qui nadyau,
50. Neuter Crudes in a, like cra, “a gift" (donum, dậpov).
दान danam, दाने dane, दानानि dānāni. .
Sta dāne, दानानि danāni.
Observe, that since the voc. dual and plural of the Sanscrit noun coincides with the nom., it will, in future, be omitted.
p When a feminine noun, like jivā, is taken to form the last member of a compound adjective, it is declined like deva for the masculine, and dāna for the neuter. Thus, taking the feminine noun vidya, “learning ;" from this is formed the compound alpavidyā, “little learning:” and when this is used as a compound adjective it becomes, in the nom. masc. fem. and neut., alpavidyah, alpavidyā, alpavidyam, “possessed of little learning.” On the same principle, a masculine noun takes the feminine and neuter terminations when forming the last member of a compound adjective; and a neuter noun, the masculine and feminine.
To convince the student of the absolute necessity of studying attentively the declension of this first class of nouns, he is recommended to turn back to r. 38. He will there find given, under fifteen heads, the various forms of nouns, substantive and adjective, which follow this declension. All the masculine substantives in this list are declined like deva; all the feminine either like jāvā or nadī; all the neuter like dāna. Again, all the adjectives in this list follow the same three examples for their three genders. Again, according to deva masculine, jīvā feminine, and dāna neuter, are declined all regular comparative and superlative degrees of the form punyatara, punyatama (r. 71.); all irregular superlatives of the form balishtha (r. 71.); all present participles of the forms kurvāna, kriyamāna (r. 124.); all passive past participles of the form krita, &c., which are the most common and useful of all verbal derivatives (r. 125. 1. 2. 3. 4.); all indefinite future participles, which are of constant occurrence, of the forms kārya, karanīya, kartavya (r. 129.); all participles of the second future, of the form karishyamana (r. 130.); many ordinals, like prathama (r. 74.). Lastly, according to nadā feminine, are also declined the feminines of adjectives like tanu (r. 40.); the feminines of innumerable adjectives like dhanavat, dhīmat (r. 42.), dhanin, and medhāvin (r. 43.); the feminines of nouns of agency like kārin (r. 131. 3.); the feminines of nouns of agency like kartri (r. 131. 2.); the feminines of irregular comparative degrees like baliyas (r. 72. 69.1); the feminines of present participles like kurvat (r. 123. and 63.); the feminines of active participles of the third preterite like kritavat (r. 127. and 62.); the feminines of active participles of the second preterite like vividwas (r. 127. and 69.1); the feminines of many ordinals like panchama (r. 74.).
Hence it is evident, that although we have arranged Sanscrit nouns under eight classes, the last seven classes contain but a small proportion of nouns and participles compared with the almost innumerable number embraced by the first. The student, therefore, ought not to advance a step further in the Grammar till he has made himself thoroughly master of this declension.
There are a few useful words (originally feminine, and not derived from masculines like nada and putrī, in r. 38. xv.), such as ut, “ prosperity,” ut, “fear,” ki, “shame,” which vary from the declension of aci nadī; thus, sing. nom. vit:, acc. श्रियं, ins. श्रिया, dat. श्रिये or श्रिय, abl. and gen. श्रियः or श्रियाः, loc. श्रियि or श्रियां. .
So again, tait, "a woman," nom. sing. dual and plur. 27, fraut, feat., acc. fed or want, feant, feara: or tatti, ins. frat, , walifor:, dat. fad, &c., abl. and gen. fract: &c., loc. fraui &c., voc. fra &c. Jat, "fortune,” agrees with yt &c. in making its nom. Jut:.
SECOND CLASS. — CRUDES IN İ, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER. Declined like afa kavi, masc. a poet"; fa mati, fem. “ the mind”;
atfe vāri, neut. “ water.” 51. Masculine Crudes in i, like afa, a poet." N. afar: kavih, dieit kavi,
au: kavayuh. Ac. æfa kavim,
कवीन् kavin. . I. कविना kavind, कविभ्यां kavibhyām, , fafar: kavibhih. D. कवये kavaye,
kavibhyām, oftag: kavibhyah. Ab .: kaveh,
kavibhyah. G. kaveh, caut: kavyoh,
ofertai kavīnām. L. कवौ kavau, ,
kavyoh, V. Ha kave,
So also, agni, “fire” (ignis); and nouns formed from dhā, “ to hold”; as, sandhi, “union.”
52. Feminine Crudes in i, like Afa, Fen ve . afa: matih, variant mati, Kevin Ac. Afå matim, umre — mati,
HRT matyā, 2-3 nafai matibhyām, kuvan CD na mataye, wune
matibhyām, Rauch Ab. Hà: mateh,
****_matibhgãm, Annick G.
mateh, Laver Art: matyoh, Kaun L. At matau, *umienie matyoh, Lue V. w mate, he
53. Neuter Crudes in i, like aft, "water" (mare).
N. anft vāri,
vārini, वारिभ्यां vāribhyam,
vāribhyām, afcat: vārinoh,
vārīni. affir: vāribhih. Giá: caribhgah.
vāribhyah. ardui vārīnām. वारिषु vārishu. .
Although there are few substantives declined like kavi and vāri, yet adjectives like shuchi (r. 39.), and compound adjectives ending in i, are declined like kavi in the masc. ; like mati in the fem.; and like vāri in the neuter.
* When a feminine noun ending in i is taken to form the last member of a compound adjective, it must be declined like kavi in the masc., and vāri in the neut. Thus the compound adjective alpamati in the acc. plur. masc. would be alpamatīn;
* The dat. may also be matyai ; the ab. and gen. matyāh; the loc. matyām.
fem. alpamatīh; neut. alpumatīni. The same holds good if a masc. or neut. noun be taken to form the last member of a compound.
The declension of the neuter of this class follows the analogy of nouns in in. Hence, vāri serves also as the model for the neuters of adjectives and nouns of agency in in, like dhanin and kārin (r. 66.); and the neuters of nouns of agency in tri, like kartri (r. 57.).
of There are two useful irregular masculine nouns in i ; viz. #fer sakhi, “ a friend,” nom. sing. dual and plur. sakhā, sakhāyau, sakhāyah ; acc. sakhāyam, sakhāyau, sakhīn; ins. sakhyā, sakhibhyām, sakhibhih; dat. sakhye, &c.; abl. and gen. sakhyuh, &c.; loc. sakhyau, &c.; voc. sakhe, 8c. And of pati, “a master,” which, when not used in a compound word, follows sakhi in the five last cases sing. (thus, ins. patyā, fc.): in the other cases, kavi. But this word is almost always found as the last member of a compound, and is then regularly declined like kavi ; thus, ins. bhūpatinā, “by the king.” The noun ufeu asthi, neut. “ a bone,” drops the final vowel in some of its cases; as, ins. sing. asthnā; dat. asthne ; abl. usthnah, gc.
THIRD CLASS.CRUDES IN U, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER.
Declined like ang bhānu, masc. the sun"; et dhenu, fem. “ a milch cow";
Fry madhu, neut. "honey."
bhānubhyām, toma: bhānubhyah. Ab. utgit: bhānoh,
bhānubhyām, bhānubhyah. G.
bhānoh, Trat: bhānwoh, agai bhānūnām. L. Tit bhānau,
bhānwoh, भानुषु bhanushu. V. Trit bhāno,