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die right of the road, about a mile and a half from Penrith, is another curiomus relic of antiquity, King Arthur's Round Table," a circular area above twenty yards in diameter, surrounded by a fosse and mound ; with two approaches op posite each other conducting to the area. As the fosse is on the inner side, it could not be intended for the purpose of defence, and it has reasonably beri conjectured that the enclosure was designed for the exercise of the feats of chivalry, and the embankment around for the convenience of the spectators Higher up the river Eamont is Mayborough, an area of nearly 100 yards in diameter, surrounded by a mound, composed of pebble stones elevated several feet. In the centre of the area is a large block of unhewn stone eleven feet high, sup posed to have been a place of Druidical Judicature. Six miles north-east of Penrith, on the summit of an eminence near Little Salkeld, are the finest relics of antiquity in this vicinity, called Long Meg and her daughters. They consist of a circle, 350 yards in circumference, formed of sixty-seven stones, some of them ten feet high. Seventeen paces from the southern side of the circle stands Long Meg,-a square unhewn column of red freestone, fifteen feet in circumference, and eighteen feet high.
In a note to his sonnet on this monument, the poet Wordsworth observes,-" When I first saw this monument, as I came upon it by surprise, I might over. rate its importance as an object; but though it will not bear a comparison with Stonehenge, I must say I have not seen any other relique of those dark ages which can pretend to rival it in singularity and dignity of appearance."
At Old Penrith, five miles north-west of Penrith, are the remains of the Ro man station Brementenracum. A military road, twenty-one feet broad, led from it to the Roman wall.
The seats of the nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood of Penrith are rery numerous. The more important are-Carleton Hall, (John Cowper, Esq.,) one mile south-east. Brougham Hall (Lord Brougham), one and a-half miles fouth-east. Skirgill House (L. Dent, Esq.), one mile south-west. Dalemain (E. W. Hasell, Esq.) three and a-half miles south-west Lowther Castle, (the Eari of Lonsdale,) four miles south. Greystock Castle, (Henry Howard, Esq.,) four and a-half miles west north-west. Eden Hill, (Sir George Musgrave, Bart.,) four miles east. Hutton Hall (Sir H. R. F. Vane, Bart.), five miles north-West by north. Some of these, however, deserve more particular mention.
BROUGHAM Hall, an old and picturesque building, is the seat of Henry, Lord Brougham and Vaux. It will be visited with interest, as the patrimonial inheritance
• “He pass'd red Penrith's Table Round,
For feats of chivalry renown'd:
Bridal of Trierwein.
and occasional residence of unquestionably the first orator of the age. It stands upon an eminence not far from the ruins of Brougham Castle, commanding extensive views of the surrounding country, the mountains beyond Ulleswater clos ing the prospect. From its situation and beautiful prospects, it has been termed * the Windsor of the North.” Having at one time belonged to a family named Bird, it was from this circumstance sometimes called Bird's Nest. The pleasure grounds and shrubberies are of considerable extent and tastefully laid out. In one part is the Hermit's Cell,--a small thatched building containing furniture fitted for, and emblematic of, a recluse. Upon the table in the centre these lines are painted :-
" And may at last my weary age
Find out the peaceful hermitage,
To something like prophetic strain." The family of Brougham (or Burgham, as it was formerly spelt,) is ancient ind respectable. The manor, which bears the same name after having been ung alienated, was re-acquired, and still belongs to the Broughams.
EDEN HALL, the seat of the famous Border clan of the Musgraves, is a large and handsome edifice on the west bank of the river Eden, which, being bordered with trees, forms an elegant feature in the pleasure-grounds. In the hall there is preserved with scrupulous care an old and anciently painted glass goblet called the Luck of Edenhall, which would appear, from the following traditionary legend, to be wedded to the fortunes of its present possessors. The butler, in going to procure water at a well in the neighbourhood, (rather an unusual employment for a butler,) came suddenly upon a company of fairies, who were feasting and making merry on the green sward. In their flight they left behind this glass, and one of them returning for it, found it in the hands of the butler. Seeing that its recovery was hopeless, she flew away, singing aloud
" If that glass should break or fall,
Farewell the luck of Eden Hall." The Musgraves came to England with the Conqueror, and settled first at Mus grave in Westmorland, then at Hartley Castle in the same county, and finally at their present residence.
LOWTHER CASTLF, the seat of the Earl of Lonsdale, is seated in a noble park of 600 acres, on the east side of the woody vale of Lowther. It was erected by the late Earl upon the site of the old hall, which had been nearly destroyed by fire, as far bıck as the year 1726, after the designs of the architect Smirke. The white stone of which it is built, is in pleasing contrast with the vivid green of the park and wools. The effect of the whole pile is strikingly grand, worthy the Tesidence of its wealthy and powerful owner. The north front, in the castellated
style of the thirteenth or fourteenth century, is 420 feet in length. The south front is in the Gothic Cathedral style, and has the usual number of pinnacles, pointed windows, &c. So far from the diversity of the fronts being discordant, the art of the designer has made them increase each other's effect. Surmounting the whole is a lofty tower, from the summit of which the prospect is extremely fine -the mountains of Helvellyn, Seat Sandal, Saddleback, and Skiddaw, their sides probably shadowed
"By the white mist that dwells upon the hills," are distinctly visible. The fitting up of the interior is in a style of grandeur corresponding with the external appearance. Heart of oak and birch occupy, in a great measure, the place of foreign woods in the furniture and carvings The staircase which climbs the great central tower is highly imposing. Many masterpieces of the old painters hang upon the walls, and tho corridors and rooms are adorned with busts from the chisels of Chantrey, Westmacott, and other sculptors. Amongst these, the bust of Queen Victoria, taken when she was about three or four years of age, will be viewed with more than ordinary interest. There is also a facsimile of the famous Wellington shield, cart. ed in solid silver, after the designs of the late Stothard, R. A. The different cumpartments exhibit in a regular series, the victories which his Grace has obtained over the foes of Britain in India and the Peninsula, but as the shield was executed before the battle of Waterloo, that crowning victory is unfortunate ly omitted.
The capabilities of the situation which the park afforded had been publicly noticed by Lord Macartney, who, in describing a romantic scene in the imperial park at Gehol in China, observed, that "it reminded him of Lowther in Westmorland, which, from the extent of prospect, the grand surrounding objects, the noble situation, the diversities of surface, the extensive woods and command of water, might be rendered by a man of sense, spirit, and taste, the finest scene in the British dominions." How far his Lordship's views have been realized the visitor will judge. The park has been much admired for the profusion of fine forest trees which embellish its banks and braes. It is watered by the Lowther, the pellucid clearness of which fully justifies its supposed etymological derita tion. The grey and tree-crowned crags, the transparent stream, and the grace ful windings of its course, add greatly to the charms of its scenery. One po:. tion bears the name of the Elysian fields. Near the Castle there is a large grassy terrace shaded by fine trees, from which the prospect is most charming
The Lowther family is of great antiquity, the names of William de Lossth and Thomas de Lowther, being subscribed as witnesses to a grant of lands in the reign of Henry II. Sir John Lowther, first Viscount Lonsdale, distinguished himself by influencing the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland in favour of King William, at the memorable era of 1688 ; in return for which services that king created him a Viscount, and conferred upon him many other honoun Sir James Lowther, first Earl of Lonsdale, succeeded to the three great therri
ances of Mauds Meaburn, Lowther, and Whitehaven, which came to him by different branches of the family. When a commoner, he was thirty years M.P. for Westmorland or Cumberland, and in 1761 was returned for both counties. He was also Lord Lieutenant of the two counties, an alderman of Carlisle, and succeeded to the two millions left by his kinsman, Sir James Lowther of White baven, 1755. Of his immense wealth, the distribution of which by will was said to give universal satisfaction, “a small portion in gold,” L.50,000, was found in his houses.
Upon the death of the first Eærl, the title of Viscount descended to his cousin, Sir William Lowther of Swillington, Bart., who, in 1807, was created an Earl. At his death, in 1842, he was succeeded in the possession of the title and estates by his eldest son, the present Earl.
Tourists whilst at Penrith will not fail to visit the romantic lake of
ULLESWATER, and those who can bear the fatigue of lengthened excursions will be gratified by a ride to Hawes Water.
The former lake is generally viewed by tourists when travelling between Ambleside and Penrith, as the road between the two places passes along its northern shore. As, however, it is a general rule that lake scenery, in order to be seen to advantage, should be visited in a direction opposite to that in which the waters flow, it would be better to invert this order of approach. Two roads conduct from Penrith to Pooley Bridge, at the foot of the lake about six miles distant, both of which lead through a country abounding in picturesque scenery. One leaves the Keswick road two miles and a half from Per rith, and, passing through Mr Hasell's park at Dalemain, reaches Ulleswater, three-quarters of a mile above Pooley Bridge. The other road leads along the Shap road to Eamont Bridge, shortly before reaching which, Carleton Hall is seen on the left, After crossing the bridge, by which Westmorland is entered, the first road on the right must be taken. In the angle of the field on the left at this deviation, is King Arthur's Round Table, and a little beyond on the right is Mayborough, both of which antique remains have been previously noticed. At Yanwath, two and a-half miles from Penrith, there are the ruins of an ancient Hall, formerly one of the “noble houses” of Sir Lancelot Threlkeld. The road, passing through Tirrel and Barton, ultimately arrives at Pooley Bridge, six miles from Penrith. The Eamont is crossed by a stone bridge upon issuing from Ulleswater. At " the Sun," a good hotel, boats upon the lake may be procured. On the vest of the village is a steep and conical hill, cloth with wood, called Dunmallet, upon which there were formerly the vestiges of a Roman fortification. Winding walks lead to the summit, from which a fine view of the lake is commanded. About half a mile from Pooley, on the east side of the lake, is a villa named Eusemere, which for some time was the residence of the late Wit viam Wilberforce. From Pooley Bridge to Patterdale, a distance of ten miles
the road traverses the west margin of Ulleswater. The lake itself is nine mil. in length, and is partitioned by the mountains into three separate chambers, or reaches, as they are locally termed, no two of which can be seen at once from any point near the margin. Its extreme width is about three-quarters of a mile. The first reach, commencing at the foot, is terminated on the left by Hallin Fell, which stretches forward to a promontory, from the opposite side called Skelley Neb, upon which stands Mr Marshall's house, Halsteads. The middle and longest reach is closed in by Birk Fell on the left, and on the right by Stybarro Crag, far away above which “ the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn" rises into thin air. The little island, called House Holm, spots the water exactly at the cermination of this section of the lake. The highest reach is the smallest and narrowest, but the mingled grandeur and beauty which surround it, are beyond the power of the liveliest imagination to depict. Four or five islands dimple the surface, and by their diminutive size impress more deeply upon the beholder the vastness of the hills which tower above them ; Stybarrow Crag, and other offshoots from Helvellyn on one side, Birk Fell and Place Fell on the other, springing from the lake's margin almost at one bound, shut in this terrestrial paradise.
" Abrupt and sheer the mountains sink
At once upon the level brink." Leaving Pooley Bridge by the high road, Waterfoot is passed on the right about a mile from the bridge, and Rampsbeck Lodge, on the left, about two miles from the same place. A little further is the village of Watermillock. So far the lake has lain amongst somewhat tame scenery, but here promise is given of its coming grandeur. Halsteads, the seat of Wm. Marshall, Esq., is seen on the left,the grounds circling which are beautifully laid out. The wood at the foot of Hallin Fell, on the other shore, has a pleasing effect. A mile from Halsteads, Gowbarrow Park is entered. This park, which contains upwards of a thousand acres, must attract the attention of the most careless observer, by its grace of forest charms decayed,” and innumerable sylvan groups of great beauty still re main, round which herds of deer will be seen bounding. It belongs to Henry Howard, Esq. of Greystoke Castle, to whom it was devised by Charles, 11th Duke of Norfolk, his uncle. The Duke's predecessor erected upon an eminence in the park a hunting-box in the castellated style, which is called Lyulph's Tower ; it commands a splendid view of the lake. About five and a-half miles from Pooley Bridge, a stream is crossed by a small bridge, a mile above which, in a rocky dell, is a waterfall of considerable volume, called Airey Force. The banks of the stream, which are thickly sown with trees, become exceedingly precipitous as the cascade is approached. Two wooden bridges are thrown across the stream, one above, the other below, the fall. Glencoin Beck, issuing from Linking Dale Head, runs under the road a mile beyond Airey bridge, and forms the line of demarcation between Cumberland and Westmorland. The highest reach of the late is now unfolded to the view. The road soon afterwards passes under Str.