Imatges de pÓgina
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ordination of State powers, ib.; Bureau of Refugees, 536 (see Mississippi); terms of re-admission to the Union, ib.; question of guarantees, 537; required reaffirmation of laws of Congress by restored States, 538; distribution of the public debt, ib. ; repudiation of Confederate debt, ib. ; votes originally granted to slaves, 510; disproportionate power of Southern whites, ib. ; proposed re-adjustment of voting power, 541; reconstruction of the labour system, 542; recuperative energy of the South, 513; their social materials for re-construction, 544; class of Southern loyalists, ib.; Southerners who accept defeat, 515; discontented planters, ib.;

the mean whites, 546; coloured freedmen, ib.; position of negroes since the war, 517; protective legislation, ib.; General Howard's report of the Freedmen's Bureau, 518 ; exceptional powers of Congress over Southern States, 551; schemes of

negro enfranchisement, ib. 551 America (United States), codification of law in, cxxvi. 362

the Irish in, cxxvii. 505,521

church in, cxxviii. 279; inadequacy of the voluntary system, ib.; described as a "sandhill of sects,' 280

financial reports, 1865–1869, cxxix. 504; growth of the public debt from 1800 to 1865, ib.; financial scbeme of Mr. Chase, 505; interference of Congress with Mr. McCulloch, 506; financial problems after the war, 508; embarrassment of the Treasury, 509; contraction of the currency adopted as a step to specie payments, 511; piecemeal policy of Congress, ib.; the Act of 1866, 513; contraction abandoned in 1808, ib.; disposal of the floating debt, ib.;

Treasury gold reserve fund, 514; the 5•20 bonds, 515; the democratic 'greenback party,' 516; Bill of Mr. Sherman, ib.; General Butler's proposed tax, 517; contest between the House and Committee, ib.; repudiation rejected at the elections of 1868, 518; Mr. Johnson's message to Congress, ib. ; surplus revenue after the war, 519; mischievous mode of taxation, ib.; demoralisation of trade, 520; first reduction of taxes, 522 ; budget of 1867, ib.; corruption of the revenue system, ib.; duty on distilled spirits, 523; indifference to official venality, 525; evils of presidential patronage, ib.; tardy reforms of Congress, 526; budget of 1867–8, 527 and note; reduction of debt in 1869, 528; difficulties of excise taxes, ib.; duties on lumber, salt, and pig iron, 529, 530; recklessness of the tariff therein, ib.; collection of customs-duties, ib.; Mr. Well's report, ib.; increased expenses of life to intermediate classes, 532; vices of financial

government, 533 America (United States), M. Jac

quemont's sketches of, cxxx. 63, 69

State authority weakened by presidential elections, cxxxiii. 11; conduct of legislative business in, 74, 75

claims against England arising out of the civil war, cxxxv. 549. See Geneva Arbitration

waning influence of the Irish element in, cxxxvii. 152; decreasing hostility to England, ib.

Ninth Census of, cxxxix. 130; value of the reports, ib.; rast experiment of slave emancipation, ib.; rerolution caused by the late war, 131; date of the Census, 1:33; present condition of the Southern negroes, ib.; coloured and white

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populations, 134; waste of negro
life by reckless mode of emancipa-
tion, 136; retardation in increase
of negroes, ib.; sufferings of run-
aways, 137; prospects of the negro
race in the South, 138, 139; evi-
dence of their improvement, ib.;
progress of education, ib.; em-
ployment of female blacks, 140;
favourable condition, on the whole,
of the freedmen, 141; blessings of
abolition of slavery, 142; its ques-
tionable advantages to the South-
ern whites, ib.; deterioration of
Southern property since 1860, 144;
their tremendous losses, ib.; agri-
cultural retrogression, ib.; oppres-
sive taxation, 145; causes of
Southern distress, viz., carpet-
bag'misrule and white ruffianism,
146; first difficulties of re-con-
struction, 147; the “Ku-Klux-
Klan,' 149; back-stairs influence
in Congress, ib. ; recent deteriora-
tion in character of public men,
150; possibility of a new party of

ib.
America (Southern States), difficul-

ties of negro emancipation, cxv.
62

scanty knowledge of, since
the late war, cxxxvi. 148; gene-
ral need of re-construction, 149;
desolation in Tennessee, 150; Mr.
Well's picture, 151; liberated
negroes, ib.; observations of Mr.
Somers, 153; spirit of isolation,
ið.; profuse natural resources, 154;
the land question in Virginia, 155;
want of capital and labour, 150;
fertility of the soil, ib.; coal-fields,
157 ; white labour needed in
Alabama, ib.; re-organisation of
agricultural labour, 158; public
opinion reconciled to free negro
labour, 159; their value in cotton
cultivation, ib.; their condition
improved by liberation, 161; their
position as agricultural labourers,

103; revival of cotton culture,
161-170; exceptional legislation
due to Southern whites, ib.;

the
Ku-Klux-Klan, 171; recent legis-
lation thereon, 172, 173; obstacles
to complete restoration of pros-
perity, 174; question of tariffs, ib.;
financial discontent, 175; irritating
policy of the North, 176; pros-
pects of domestic politics, 177;
need of more direct trade with
Europe, 178; problem of cheap

production of cotton, 179
America (British North), enormous

extent of, cxix. 442; original
definition of Rupert's Land, 413;
the Hudson's Bay and North-West
Companies, 444; fluctuations in
the lake system of, 415; rival
explorations of the two companies,
416; their final union, 447 (see
IIudson's Bay Company); failure
of attempts to colonise Vancouver
Island, 448-451; British Columbia
made a colony, 451; gold-mining
in the Fraser river, ib.; the
Cariboo gold-field, 468; the Lau-
rentides, 477; the Fertile Belt,
478; dangers of a population of
adventurers, 479

seasonable proposals for a
Federation, cxxi. 182; resolutions
at the Quebec Conference, 185-
189; proposed Federal Parliament,
186; its legislative powers, ib.,
187 ; local legislation, 188; powers
of taxation, 189; omissions in the
resolutions, 190 note; their Con-
servative character, 190, 191;
completion of the Intercolonial
Railway, ib. ; general result of the
proposals, 192 ; difficulties of ad-
justing relations between Imperial,
Federal, and Local Governments,
ib., 193; novelty of the scheme,
ib.; theory of responsible Govern-
ment,' 194; its difficulties illus-
trated, 195; definition of the
Federal Executive required, ib.;

reform,

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564;

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proposed form of imperial sore-
reignty, 197; anticipated inde-

pendence of, 199
America (Spanish South), revolt of

the colonies, cxxviii. 138; their
independence recognised by Eng-

land, 140
America (Spanish). See Spain, Nero
American artillery-failure of huge

guns against Fort Sumter,cxix.513
American House of Representatives;

rule for limitation of speeches,
cxxxii. 75

practice regarding Bills, ,
cxxxiv. 588; the previous ques-
tion,' 589 note; divisions in Com-

mittee, 590
American navy, itsimportant services

in the late war, cxxiv. 185 (see
American War of Secession); penury
of resources when the war began
186; the Powhatan,' 190; its
strength at the accession of Lin-
coln, 192; disaffection among naval
officers, ib.; first ironclad vessels,
193; the Monitor,' ib.; vigour of
the department under Mr. Welles,
194; rapid growth of, in 1862, 196;
appointment of rear-admirals, 198
note; first trial of rams by the
Confederates, 199; fire-rafts at
New Orleans, 206; the Monitor
and · Merrimac,' 213; the Minn-
tonomah,' 226; use

smooth-bore guns, ib.
American railways—legislation re-

specting, cxxv. 103; unsystematic
construction of, 104; position of

Congress, ib.
American War of Independence,

weakness of the British army in,
cxvi. 141

inferiority of British generals
in, cxxvi. 39

the cause of independence
gained by the English Opposition,
cxxxix. 188; Irish feeling towards

the English in, 487
American War of Secession, valuable

work of Mr. Ellison on, cxiv. 556;
public opinion on, in England,
558; the question of slavery, 559;
high prerogative claims of Fede-
ralists, ib.; State and Federal
Sovereiguties, 561; causes of dis-
union, 563; crisis at President
Lincoln's election, ib.; mistaken
doctrines respecting Secession,

Mr. Douglas' speech in 1861,
567; the struggle anticipated by
the Edinburgh Review in October
1856, 569; political blindness in
America thereto, ib.; impossible
permanence of a Southern Slave
Confederacy, 570; dangers of suc-
cess to the North, ib.; horrors of
emancipation by war,' 571;
Congress powerless to abolish
slavery, 572; intemperate procla-
mation of General Fremont, 573 ;
different American versions of the
causes of the war, ib. ; insufficient
grievances of the Southern States,
574; the contest one for territorial
dominion, 575; English aversion
to the war, 578; exhausting
nature of the struggle, 580; mu-
tual confiscations, 581; delusive
notion of a perpetual union, ib. ;
bitter feeling against England,
582; the Queen's proclamation
misinterpreted, 583; precedents of
American jurists, 584; recognition
of the South must depend on
events, 586 ; probable short dura-
tion of the war, 587 ; mutual sepa-
ration anticipated, ib.

aspect of the contest at its
beginning, cxvi. 519; preponderant
value of Southern votes, 551 ; sla-
very the origin of the war, 553;
English sympathy with the South,
560; democracy as a

cause of
disruption, 561; doctrine of the
perpetuity of the Union, 561;
schemes

of government before
the Convention, 566; sovereign
character of the states, 508; ac-

of heavy

tion of the Supreme Court, 570;
theory of the sovereignty of the
people, 571 ; desirability of sepa-
ration discussed, 574; hostility to
England ascribed to Southern
policy, 576; despotism of the
Washington government, 578;
Northern hatred of England ex-
plained, 580; progress of the war,
582; its increasing atrocity, 584;
financial policy of the North, 585;
improbability of re-union, 586;
futility of foreign recognition of

the South, 590
American War of Secession, three

degrees of recognition open to
England, cxvii. 298; historical
precedents, 299; the question one
of expediency, not of principle,
304; ill-timed proposal of the
French, ib.

European contempt of Ame-
rican strategy, cxxi. 252; McClel-
lan's Anaconda strategy, 253, 254;
capture of Vicksburg, ib.; Grant's

lief of Rosencrans, 256 ; his
brilliant tactics at Chattanooga,
ib.; he defeats Bragg at • the
Clouds, 257; opening of the 1864
campaign, 259; gloomy prospects
of the Confederates, ib.; Federal
transport of supplies, 261, 262;
Sherman's expedition to the Ala-
bama frontier, 203; demeanour of
the slaves, 264; Federal forces
concentrated, 265, 266; double
operations against Richmond, ib.;
battle of Pleasant Ilill, 267; the
Confederate ram “ Albemarle,' ib.
and note; routes to Richmond,
208; different views of McClellan
and Lincoln thereon, ib. 2699;
triple plan of invasion by Grant,
272, 273; simultaneous Federal
advance, ib.; first contest with
Lee, 274; normal character of
battles in the war, 275; Federal
use of breastworks, ib. 276; battle
of “the Wilder uess' continued

ib.; Lee adopts the defensire,
277; series of skirmishes, 278;
value of the Sanitary Commission,
281 and note; battle of Cold Ilar-
bour, 283; siege of Petersburg,
ib. ; results of the Virginian cam-
paign, 284; Sherman's capture of
Atlanta, ib. 286; and of Saran-
nah, 287, 288; cruel treatment of
prisoners by the Confederates,

415 note
American War of Secession, intro-

duction of tirailleur practice from,
cxxiii. 117; cause of indecisive
battles in, ib.; use of mounted in-
fantry, 121; and of fieldworks,
125; its military lessons, 127; its
unexpected result, 524; questions
decided by the contest, 529; con-
sequent diminution of State-rights,
531; Mr. Johnson's terms of re-
admission to the Seceded States, 536

importance of the navy in,
cxxiv. 185; failure to relieve
Fort Sumter, 186; the Merri-
mac' seized by the Confederates,
192; Confederate privateers, 195;
mixed operations in Albemarle
and Pamlico Sounds, 196; Du-
pont's services at the mouth of
the Savannah, 197; Farragut's
operations against New Orleans,
198-209; importance of its cap-
ture, ib.; the Confederate iron-
clad · Arkansas,' 211; attack on
Vicksburg, ib.; the battle of
Hampton Roads, 213; Federal
failure against Fort Sumter, 216;
victory of the Weehauken’orer
the Confederate" Atlanta,' 219,
220; action in Mobile Bay, 221;
surrender of the Tennessee,' 223;
the ram

• Albemarle' surk by a
torpedo, ib.; Porter's guccess
against Wilmington, 224; Con-
federate piracy, ib.

the battle of Belmont, cxxix.
236; new phase of, in 1862, 237;
the spring campaign of that year,

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238; position of the Confederates,
ib. ; Federal capture of Fort Donel-
son, 239, 240; battle of Pittsburg,
24+-247; desperate nature of the
war thereafter, ib.; Confederate
scheme of Northern invasion, 248;
Grant's capture of Vicksburg, 250–
252; investment of Chattanooga,
253; unfinished work of Colonel
Badeau on, 256; the affair of Cold
Harbour, 260; Lee's position at
Richmond, 263; Confederate de-
sertions, 264; surrender of Rich-

mond, 268. See Grunt, General
American War of Secession, Ameri-

can claims against England aris-
ing out of, cxxxv. 550 (see Genova
Arbitration); the contest not an
ordinary insurrection, 555

battle of Bull's Run, cxxxvii.
574; its unimportant results, 375;
MeClellan in Western Virginia,
ib.; Federal programme in the
spring of 1861-2, 376; battle of
the Seven Pines, 377; Lee's vic-
tory on the Chickahominy, 380

Mr. Grote's views on,
cxxxviii. 243

frightful mortality of the
Confederates, cxxxix. 135; Fede-
ral employment of runaway ne-
groes, 137; demoralising effects

of, on society and public life, 150
Americans, their passion for tracing

Old World pedigrees, cxx. 189;
instability of their social life, 468

their genuine attachment to
the mother country, cxxix. 456

causes of French sympathy
with, cxxx. 63

their huniour of exaggera-
tion accounted for, cxxxii. 282

instance of their pride of
English pedigree, cxxxv. 389

Continental tourists,
cxxxviii. 497

foreign influences on their
language, cxl. 144; distinctive
features of Anglo-American speech,

ib.; their interest in the study of

the English language, 145
Amethyst, an alleged antidote to

wine, cxxiv. 237
Amphictyonic Council, the, origin of,

cxii. 392
Amravati, the Tope of,—the Mack-

enzie marbles of, in the Indian
Museum, cxxx, 484; discovery
of the ruins of, 506; Sir W. El-
liot's excavations, 507; Græco-
Bactrian colony at Amravati, ib.;
Mr. Fergusson on the age of the

Tope, 508
Amsterdan, Bank of, cxv.

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Anacreon (6th century B.c.), the

reputed author of light lyrical

poetry, cxl. 356
Anästhetics, use of, in surgery,

cxxxvi. 490
Analogy, argument of, applied to

geology, cxviii. 258
Anaximander (b. B.C. 610), his

notions of Transcendentalism,

cxxiii. 301
Anaximenes (d. about 1.c. 546), his

theories of the universe, cxvi. 91
• Anchor Ice,' cxiï. 77
Ancona, suppression of its municipal

rights by Clement VII., cxii. 122
• Ancren Riwle,' the, early English

text, cxxy. 236
Andaman Islands, curious skeleton

discovered in, cxvi. 172.
Anderson (Dr.John), his "Expedition

to Western Yunan,' cxxxvii. 295–

330
Andorre, Republic of, its history,

compiled from original records,
cxiii. 345; antiquity of its inde-
pendence, 347; simple form of
government, ib.; evidences of tra-
dition, 349; genuineness of Char-
lemagne's charter, 351; War of
Independence, 352; its constitu-
tion finally settled, ib.; primitive
life of the magnates, 354; general
ignorance of the people, 355; their
field sports and religious fêtes, 357

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