Imatges de pàgina

has to George IV. when Prince of Wales, Brighton was indebted for its celo brity as a watering-place. His Royal Highness first visited Brighton in 1782, after which time he passed the summer and autumn months here for many vears in succession. In 1784, he commenced the erection of the Pavilion, which was completed in its original design in 1787, and under the stimulus of royal patronage, what was formerly a fishing village, has now become the most attractive watering-place in Europe. The Pavilion having been purck.used by the inhabitants in 1840, its gardens are used as a public promenade.

enade Brighton is not an incorporated town. Its government is vested in a chief constable and twelve head boroughs, who are annually chosen at the court-leet of the Earl of Abergavenny. The affairs of the town are managed by 115 commissioners, who regulate the cleansing, lighting, &c.

The fishery of Brighton was once very considerable, but has now declined to an almost incredible extent.

Of the public buildings of Brighton, the most distinguished is the Royal Pavilion, the architecture of which has been severely and justly censured. The Chain Pier is a light and elegant structure, erected in 1822, under the superintendence of Captain Brown, at an expense of L. 30,000. It has twice suffered from violent storms. The marine wall, which was completed in 1838, and mas eleven years in building, is a splendid structure. It is nearly two miles in length, and cost about L.100,000. The celebrated spot called the Steyne, which was formerly a piece of waste land, is now a fashionable promenade, and is surrounded by beautiful buildings. In the northern enclosure stands the famous bronze statute of George IV. executed by Chantrey. The Town Hall is an immense pile of building, the cost of which is said to have been near L.30,000. Brighton contains numerous (13) places of Worship in connection with the establishment, and many belonging to the various denominations of Christian Dissenters, and a Jews' synagogue. In the church-yard of the old church is a monument erected to the memory of Captain Tattersal, who assisted Charles II. in his escape to the continent after the battle of Worcester. There are a considerable number of schools in the town for the instruction of the children of the poor. Brighton contains barracks both for cavalry and infantry ; the former affords accommodation for 625, and the latter for about 400 men. In the rear of the east part of the town is a pleasing rural retreat, called the Park, in which is the German spa establishment, where chemical imitations of the most celebrated mineral waters of Germany are prepared. At Wick, half a mile west of the town, there is a chalybeate spring, which has of late years been much frequented. Brighton is well supplied with baths, and every convenience for the accommodation of those who wish to avail themselves of the advantages of seabathing. The exteriors of many of the hotels are magnificent, and the interiors fitted up with nuch taste and convenience.

Brighton is not a manufacturing or commercial town, but it has an extensive retail trade. Steam-boats ply regularly between this place and Dieppe,

to the north and north-east of the town, on the summit of the Downs, is the sce course, commanding an extensive view. A number of pleasant excursions may be made in the vicinity. The population of Brighton, which, at the commencement of the present century, was only 7339, was, by the census of 1841, 46,661, and by that of 1851, 69,673, while during the fashionable season, it is estimated at 90,000. Brighton returns two members to Parliament under the Reform Act.

At the distance of 8 miles from Brighton, stands the ancient market-town and borough of Lewes, pleasantly situated on a rising ground, and surrounded partly by hills, and watered by the river Ouse. Lewes is a place of great antiquity, and numerous remains of Roman art have been excavated in the town and neighbourhood. It was strongly fortified in the time of the Saxons. At the period of the Conquest, the rape of Lewes fell to the lot of William de Warren, son-in-law of William the Conqueror, who erected a castle in Lewes, and made it the place of his residence. It continued in the possession of his descendants until the beginning of the fourteenth century, when, in default of male issue, the barony passed into the family of Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel. On the death of Thomas, Earl of Arundel, in 1439, it was divided among the noble families oi Norfolk, Dorset, and Abergavenny, in the possession of whose descendants it still remains. In the immediate vicinity of Lewes, a sanguinary battle was fought in May 1264, between the troops of Henry III., and those of the barons under Simon de Montfort, in which the former were defeated. A considerable portion of the castle still remains, and there are also some interesting ruins of the monastery of St. Pancras, founded by the first Earl de Warren in 1076. The annual revenue of the monastery at the time of the dissolution is valued at £1091:9:6. Lewes could also boast in former times of at least nine churches, but of these only two now remain. At present it contains six parish churches, and eight Dissenting chapels. The public buildings are, the County Hall, House of Correction, and Theatre. There is also an excellent race-course. A number of influential county families formerly had their principal residences at Lewes. The town has possessed the privilege of returning two members to Parliament since the time of Edward I. The population by the census of 1851 was 9533.

The distance from Lewes to London by Chailey is 49 miles ; by Uckfield, a mile more.

About forty miles east from Brighton is the borough of Hastings, a celebrated watering-place, and a place of great antiquity. The entrance to it from the London road is extremely beautiful. The town is well paved and lighted, and very neat and clean. It formerly possessed a good harbour ; but its chief de pendence now lies on its fisheries, and on the influx of visitors. The citizens of the place are famous for their skill in boat-building. On a lofty rocky cliff westward of the town are the remains of a very ancient castle, the walls of which are still partly entire, and are in some places eight feet thick. The town contains a supply of hot and cold baths, libraries--a promenade, a theatre, an as sembly room, &c. The notorious Titus Oates was born in this town, and officiated for some time as minister in All-Souls-Church. The vicinity of Hastings abounds in interesting and romantic scenery. The borough ranks as the first of the Cinque Ports in their official proceedings, and returns two members to Par

liament. The population of the borough and Cinque Port was 17,011 in 1851. Hastings is 64 miles distant from London.

About seven miles north-west from Hastings is the market-town of Battle, which takes its name from that memorable contest, commonly called the Battle of Hastings, which put an end to the Saxon line of kings, and placed the crown of England on the head of a Norman. In the year following his victory, William, in fulfilment, it is said, of a vow made on the night previous to the battle, caused to be founded a splendid abbey, which, however, was not completed till seven years after his death. His conquering sword, and the robe which he had worn at his coronation, were offered at the altar. Here also was deposited the “ Roll of Battel Abbey," consisting of a table of the Norman gentry who came into England with the Conqueror. This abbey was one of the mitred ones which conferred on the abbot the honour of a seat in Parliament. At the dissolution of the monasteries a grant of the house and site of the abbey was made to Sir Anthony Browne, the ancestor of the Montagu family, who continued to reside here in a part of the abbey which had been converted into a mansion, till the beginning of the eighteenth century, when it was sold to Sir Thomas Webster, Bart.; and it has lately passed by purchase to Lord Harry Vane. The abbey, when in its complete state, formed a square, three sides of which are now partly occupied with its ruins,

The town of Battle is celebrated for its manufacture of gunpowder. Pop. of Parish (1851) 3849.

Ten miles east from Hastings stands the ancient town of Rye, situated on a rock dear the mouth of the Rother. It was strongly fortified in the reign of Edward !!1,ud part of the walls and some of the gates are still standing. Its harbour having been choked up by sand, a new one has been formed by cutting a large canal D'a more direct line to the sea, sufficiently spacious to admit vessels of 200 tons up to the quay. The only objects worthy of notice are, the church, a very large stone building; Ypres Castle, originally built for the defence of the town, by William de Ypres, in the twelfth century, now occupied as a prison; the TownHall and the Market-place; and the remains of the town gates and walls. The fishermen of Rye send considerable supplies to the London market. Rye has for centuries been celebrated for a very extensive illicit trade, which is now, however, greatly diminished. Rye is one of the Cinque Ports ; and, before the Reform Bill passed, returned two members to Parliament. It now, in conjuno tion with some of the neighbouring parishes, returns one. The population of Rye, Parl. Borough, in 1851 was 8541

To the westward of Rye is the disfranchised borough of Winchelsea, formerly a place of considerable importance, but now greatly reduced, in consequence of the sea having deserted it. A part of one of its churches is all that remains out of three which it formerly possessed. It contains two monuments of Knights Templars, and there is a third in the vestry. The whole of Old Winchelsea was swallowed up by the sea in a tempest. The new town was built by Edward I. Between Winchelsea and Rye, and about two miles from the former, are the eins of Winchelsea or Camber Castle, built by Henry VIII.





1 From.



London to Tooting, Wimbledon Park, formerly the seat of the

(Page 22). Earls Spencer, now sub

Merton Bridge. divided into villas.

cr. river Wandle. Mordon Park.


The church contains

Nonsnch Park. Here some curious monuments.

was the royal palace of Population (1851) 2186. Nonsuch. Durdans,


| Nork House, Earl off
Famous for its mineral Egmont,
springsand its annual races.

Woodcote Park.
Parkhurst, tbe celebrated
scholar, was buried in the

church. Pop. (1851) 3390. Randall House.

Ashtead. 1741

Ashtead Park. To Guildford, 12 miles. 37 Leatherhead, on river | 19 Thorncroft,

Mole. Norbury Park,

Mickleham. 201 Grissell, Esq. A beautiful

Burford Bridge.

Box Hill, planted in the seat, surrounded by fi

reign of Charles I., replantations.

3 cr. river Mole.

markable for the extent Denbies, T. Cubitt,


and beauty of its pros32 In the church are buried

pects. Bury Hill Park, C. Tucker, author of " Light

Betchworth Castle, in Barclay, Esg. of Nature," and Hoole,

ruins. The Rookery, translator of Ariosto. Pop.

Deepdene, the beautiFuller, Esq.

1851, of township, 3490.
The vicinity of Dorking

ful seat of the late T. is remarkable for its beau

Hope, author of Anastiful scenery, and abounds

tasius, and now of his with mansions and villas.

son, H. T. Hope, Esq. Two miles distant is Wotton, the birth and burial

place of John Evelyn, and Leith Hill Common and

now the property of his reTower, commanding a

presentative w. J. Evelyn, most extensive view

Esq. Anstie-bury. Here is 282 Bear Green. a Roman encampment.

To Arundel, 274 miles. Arnold House.


Shiremark Mill, Warnham.

(Sussex). A little to the south is


Horsham Park, R. Situated on the Adur. The Chesworth, an ancient

Horst, Esq. church of St. Mary is a fine old residence of the De

Denn Park.
building, and contains several
Braose family.

ancient monuments, two of
which are supposed to be those
of Lord Braose and Lord Hoo,

To Brighton by Hen.
ancestors of the Duke of Nor
folk. The town-hall is a hand field, 24 miles.
some building, erected by the
la e Duke of Norfolk. Horsham
returns one M.P. Population

(1831) 3947. Knepp Castle, Sir c. 131 West Grinstead.

West Grinstead Park. 14. Burrell, Bart.

Ashington. | 47 | Wiston Park,


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