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violence, unless by the means which amid cries of Vive le Roi ! assassinated were employed now, but which could peaceable citizens, while the youths only be justified by some event shew. who raised the laudable cry of Vive le ing their necessity. With regard to Rot! Vive la Charte! were the object the complaint, that the Deputies had of its invective. A, violent faction had not experienced sufficient protection," committed the most criminal outrages that was the fault of the agents of pour to silence those cries, which are the inlice. Government would institute an terpreters of our dearest sentiments. It inquiry into this subject; all com. was time that public opinion should plaints would be received, and even in' put down thoselying declarations which vited, and justice would be administer. sought to calumniate those admirable ed with the utmost rigour.
youths, who loved at once their King Notwithstanding these explanations, and the charter, who prepared an enManuel and Benjamin Constant called lightened and independent generation, loudly for an inquiry into the events of whom we might boast in the face of the past day, declaring that the vio. of Europe. Il saime lence had been all on the side of the To these charges, the Keeper of royalists ; they insisted, therefore, that the Seals replied, that a legal prothe Chambers were not free to deliv hibition by the prefeet of police against berate. Even M. Courvoisier mains numerous assemblages, was fully justitained the other side only by saying, fied by the events of the preceding day. that they ought to deliberate, “ were The last speaker, therefore, apologi. it beneath the poniard." The left zing for the events of yesterday, had side, according to the principle faid' made at first the apology of sedition. down, took no part in the vote closing The crowd resisted all the injunctions the discussion.
mas made to them by the police, they rePlacards on this day had invited sisted the moderate action of the genthe students to assemble for the pur. d'armerie ; to make them yield, it was poses of vengeance. No movement, necessary to introduce regular troops however, 'took place till the evening, (a cry from the left, « It was necessary when a body of young men, amount to kill them.") "No, gentlemen, no one ing to 5 or 6000, marching two aó was killed ; but for the maintenance breast, and armed with large canes, of the laws, and the publie safety, the traversed the streets, having their num. authority of the King prevailed. Every ber swelled by a vast crowd of specta- forbearance compatible with public ortors. Attempts were made to disperse der was observed. It was only after two them with the foot 'gen-d'armerie, but hours of useless efforts made by the orthey always formed afresh, amid cries dinary police and gen-d'armerie, that of Pite le Roi! vive la Charte! At the regular troops were called in. It length, being charged by the horse is swelling greatly the waves of sedi. gen-d'armes, and by a squadron of tion to say, that 40,000 men were ever dragoons, they dispersed without res assembled; the fourth part of that numsistance. Many had their canes wrestå ber was never united at any one point.” ed from them, and about thirty-five or Some of these facts were strenuous. forty were arrested.
ly contradicted from the opposite side, At the meeting of the following day,' but notwithstanding their protests that Benjamin Constant loudly proclaimed the Chamber was in no state to delithat the freedom of debate was more berate with freedom, the consideration than ever subverted. The Moniteur of the law of elections was resumed. had said nothing of the faction which, This day was the era of a memorable
crisis in this terribly contested ques. that it was only by regular troops thất tion. Brisson and Courvoisier, friends Paris could be saved from a 20th June of ministers, came forward and pro- and a 10th August. posed a modification, which it was ho- The following day, the 7th, being ped would be the means of uniting the that appointed for the execution of opposite parties. Two hundred and Louvel, considerable apprehensions fifty-eight deputies were to be named were felt ; but though the multitude directly and finally by the colleges of assembled was vast, no disturbance arrondissement, and the only change took place, unless of a very trifling nawas to consist in the erection of new ture. The following evening, however, colleges, each of which was to consist was again very stormy. of the fourth part of the electors pay- Meantime, the Chambers were keening the highest contributions in each ly debating the amendment introduced. department. These departmental col- 'The liberals considered this creation leges were to elect 132 deputies, so that of privileged electoral bodies as an unthe whole Chamber was to consist now constitutional measure, while the other of 420 members. By this arrangement, side represented it as a concession made although a considerable infusion of to the factious. The ministry even aristocratic election wasir.troduced, yet floated in someuncertainty, being afraid a great majority, somewhat exceeding of conceding the point, without being three-fifths, was still elected by col-, certain of gaining the law by it. In leges, in which the middling ranks were the course of debate, however, it belikely to predominate.
came evident, that men's minds were This most important amendment more and more inclined to this concieame on the House by surprise, and liatory plan. Being put to the vote, , neither party found themselves prepa. therefore, on the 9th, it was carried by red to express any very decided opinion the large majority of 135 to 66. upon it ; Other incidents attracted their
It was expected that the publicaattention.
tion of an amendment so materially The following day had been fixed changing the character of the law, for the funeral of Lallemand. It was would have calmed the agitation which attended by 3 or 4000 students, dress- prevailed throughout the capital. The ed in mourning. The ceremony pass- multitude, however, once entered on ed solemnly and tranquilly ; but in their career, were not to be stopped by the evening a considerable assemblage modifications, which they were little took place, not only of students, but qualified to understand. At eight of artizans and workmen. They were o'clock on the following evening the dispersed by an armed force, and seve- boulevards were covered with a multiral among the multitude were struck tude, supposed to exceed a hundred and wounded. These occurrences were thousand men. After fruitless attempts again the subject of warm remonstran. to disperse them by other means, a ge. ces in the Chambers. M. Lafitte ex- neral charge was made by the cuirasclaimed, “ that blood flowed around siers of the Royal Guard, and a comthem; that peaceable citizens were plete Manchester scene ensued; three sabred in the streets, and that fathers are said to have been killed on the of families were condemned to see their spot, and a great number wounded. children massacred before their eyes." This disastrous night gave rise next The ministers replied as before, that day to fresh debates, in which the facts the measures taken had in
no degree were stated in a very different manner exceeded the necessity of the occasion; by opposite parties.' Lafitte present
ed a letter from the inhabitants of Port This catastrophe formed the crisis St Denis, stating, that, notwithstand of the public troubles. On the following the immense multitude assembled, ing days the strictness of the police, not the slightest tumult or cry had and the patroles of troops, prevented been raised, when the cuirassiers ap- any numerous assemblage. Five hun. peared brandishing their sabres. They dred persons were arrested ; and a were received with cries of Vive la number of students were expelled from Charte! upon which they instantly the schools. The others returned to darted upon this immense multitude, their studies; and the people of Paris which sought flight through all the, gradually resumed the usual train of neighbouring streets, while the troops their occupations and pleasures. On followed, putting every thing to the the 15th, 16th, and 17th, correspond. sabre which they encountered. Lan ing movements took place in the cities fitte, therefore, urged, that the soldiers of Brest, Nantes, and Rennes ; they were studiously exasperated against the were suppressed by similar measures. citizens, who were represented to them The law of elections met now with as factious ; that no one was safe; and little farther opposition, its details onthat the deliberations of the assembly ly being the subject of some discuscould not, in any point of view, be con. sion. On the 12th June it was carried sidered as free.
by a majority of 59, (154 to 95.) On the other hand, it was stated by The law, when carried into the Upthe Keeper of the Seals, that these per Chamber, went through with much dreadful events were the result of an less opposition, and without any very organized rebellion, which had its memorable discussion. On the 28th chiefs, its signals, its manoeuvres. It June it was carried by a majority of only waited for darkness, and the dis- 141 to 56. missal of the spectacles on the bou- Thus terminated a question which levards, to take advantage of the con- had shaken France to the foundation, fusion. . The cries were menacing, and had brought her almost to the They were not merely Vive la Charte! brink of revolution. The public voice, they were directed against the King. vigorously and somewhat tumultuousAll peaceful means were employed in ly declared, had the effect of checking vain; the police officers failed; the a measure which would have reduced national guard failed; the gendarmes the French goveroment to a pure ariswho then came up, were surrounded, tocracy, and of modifying it in a manassailed /with stones and canes, and ner which did not perhaps render it obliged to call for assistance. A squa- materially less efficient than before. dron of cuirassiers arrived, but did not The remainder of the debates in the act till the police had three times sum- Chamber related to subjects of finance, moned the people to disperse. They which can excite little interest on this replied by seditious shouts and showers side of the Channel, and even in France of stones. Nothing was then left but were sunk into secondary importance to charge the assailants. Among the by the other great concerns in agitaseditious cries heard were the follow- tion. In the end of January the miniing :- Live our brothers of Manches- ster of finance presented the budget, ter--Down with the Chambers or estimated expense for 1820, with a Down with the royalists-Down with comparison of the preceding year, (in with the emigrants. Down with the livres.) missionaries Down with the cuirassiers-Down with the dragoons,
1819. The King's Household,
34,000,000 Judicial Establishments,
17,460,000 Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
7,850,000 the Interior,
45,200,000 Finance, registration, pensions, &c. 115,889,000
8,000,000 104,340,000 181,850,000
Expenses of public debt,
D'or The increase of 3,900,000 livres was not its attention been "engrossed by represented as very small, when it was subjects of stronger interest. The comconsidered that there were eleven mil. mittee, however, to whom the budget lions of expenses not comprised in the was referred, examined its details with service of 1819. Besides, in conse- great rigour, and finally recommended quence of upwards of five millions of a reduction of 6,187,700 livres, of arrears still to be drawn, the service of which upwards of two millions was in 1820 would not cost more than that of the war department. The different the preceding year. The minister re- items of expenditure were warmly disgretted that he was unable to an, cussed in a series of debates, and the nounce, for this year, any diminution reductions proposed by the commitof the public burdens, but entertained tee were partly adopted, and partly resanguine hopes that this might take jected. The final diminution upon the place in future years.
proposal of the minister amounted on: The increase in the expenditure, Iy to 2,300,550 livres. however, small, caused a painful feel. The following estimate was made ing in the Assembly, which would to the Chamber, of the amount of the have shewn itself more strongly, had receipts of the preceding year :-.1.
The session was dissolved, some- ginated with one Nantil, a captain in what unexpectedly, on the 228 July. the legion de la Meurthe, a person in
Soon after the rising of the Cham- embarrassed circumstances, and disconbers, France was alarmed by a some- tented at not having obtained the cross what serious military conspiracy, of the Legion of Honour. Several of formed at Paris. It seems to have ori. his brother officers being gained over by him, the plot soon spread through ers. They were taken without resistthe legion, and was communicated to ance in their barracks or lodgings ; the the inferior officers of other' military affair was not known in Paris till next bodies.
Nantil seems to have gained morning, and was exhibited to the eye over accomplices by the most false re- only by the imposing military force presentations, describing the conspiracy assembled for the protection of the as supported by several general offia Tuilleries. Nantil made his escape. Of cers, and as possessed of most extensive seventy-five who were arrested, very pecuniary funds. One individual was
few were found of high rank in the asserted to have contributed not less army, and the conspiracy, on the whole, than 25,000l. It was said to be form- did not appear to be nearly so formied into three committees, one called dable as had been at first inferred from the Imperial Committee, and intended the exaggerated statements given by to proclaim Napoleon II. with Prince the ringleaders to itemente hom they Eugene as regent. The other was wished to seduce. Of the seventy-five named the Republican Committee, and apprehended, no evidence was found had under it the Committee of Gre. against forty-one ; the trial of the rest noble, acting upon the same view 9. took place in the following year by the After a good deat of discussion, these Chamber of Peers. three committees at length agreed tot. A ramification of this conspiracy unite, and to proclaim Napoleon II. as was formed at Cambray, where sevethe name which would be most attrac- ral officers, belonging to the regiment tive to the military. Apprehensive of of the Seine, there quartered, had discovery, they determined, even in an formed the design of leading it to Paimperfect state of preparation, to at- ris, to co-operate with the insurrection tempt a rising in Paris on the evening in that capital. On learning the disof the 19th of August. Governments covery which had taken place at Paris, however, already knew the design, by they left their quarters, and Aed into the information of several non-commis Belgium. - The King of the Nethersioned officers of the Royal Guard ; lands, however, having agreed to deand on the morning of the 19th the liver them up, some were arrested at Duke of Ragusa was informed of that Mons. being the night fixed. A council of This alarm was followed soon after members was immediately called, and by a joyful occurrence, the birth of a it was at first proposed to allow the son to the Duchess of Berri. This conspiracy to put itself into action, event furnished the royal house with and only to be ready to meet and crush the heir which it had long wanted, and it . This course, however, was judged was considered as giving
an additional too critical; and at five the Duke re- stability to the throne of the Bourceived authority to arrest the ringlead. bons.