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famy to the name of Ezzelino. She up- low, that they proceed from the people. held the misgovernment of the Papal Almost invariably they come from above, States, which has made Rome the scan- from governmental action ; and it is ever dal of Europe. All the nominal rulers in the power of a government to make of the Italian States, with the honorable itself perpetual. The term of its existexception of the King of Sardinia, were ence is in its own hands. At the very her vassal princes, and were no more worst for Austria, she might have accomfree to act without her consent than were plished in Italy what was accomplished the kings the Roman Republic and Em- there three centurirs ago by Spain, then pire allowed to exist within their domin- ruled by the elder branch of the Hapsions free to act without the consent of burgs. She might have commanded althe proconsuls. What the proconsul of most everything within its limits, with Syria was to the little potentates men- Sardinia to play some such part as was tioned in the New Testament, the Aus- then played by Venice. trian viceroy in the Lombardo-Venetian This is said on the supposition, first, that kingdom was to the nominal rulers of the her government should have been mild various Italian States. It only remained and conciliatory, active only for good, and to bring Sardinia within this ring-fence that all her interference with local rule of sea and mountains to convert all Italy should have been on the side of humaninto an Austrian dependency. There is ity; and, second, that no foreign power nothing like this in history, we verily be- should have interfered to prevent the full lieve. In the short period of ten years development of her policy. Unfortunately after the capture of Milan by Radetzky for her, but fortunately for other nations, (August 4, 1848,) the Austrians bad es- and especially so for Italy, she not only did tablished themselves completely in near- not govern well, but governed badly; and ly every part of Italy. Of the twenty- there was a great power which was deepseven millions of people that compose ly, vitally interested — moved by the allher population, twenty-two millions were controlling principle of self-preservation as much at the command of Austria as -in watching all her movements, and in were the Hungarians and Bohemians. finding occasion to drive her out of Italy. Had she had the sense to use her power, She was not content with upholding misnot with mildness only, but beneficially to government in Naples, Rome, Tuscany, this great mass of men, and had nothing Modena, Parma, and elsewhere, but she occurred to disturb her plans, she would meant to subvert the constitutional polity have nearly doubled the number of her established in the Sub-Alpine Kingdom of subjects, and have more than doubled Sardinia. The enemy of constitutionalher resources.

She would have become ism and freedom everywhere, she was esa great maritime state, and have con- pecially hostile to their existence in the litverted the Mediterranean into an Aus- tle state that bordered on a portion of her trian lake. Had they been well govern- Italian possessions, whence they always ed, the Italians might, and most proba- threatened Lombardy with a plague she bly would, have accepted their condition, detests far more heartily than she detests and have become loyal subjects of the cholera. No natural boundary or cordon House of Lorraine. Foreign rule is no militaire could suffice to stay the march new thing to them, nor have they ever of principles. Nothing would answer but been impatient under its existence, when the subversion of the Sardinian constiit has existed for their good. The peo- tution and the bringing of that nation's ple rarely are hostile to any government government into harmony with the adthat is conducted with ordinary fairness. mirable rule that existed, under the doubThere is no greater error than that in- le-headed eagle's protection, in Naples volved in the idea that revolutions or and Modena. Unless all Austrian hischanges of any kind originate from be- tory be false, Austria's object for years has been a revolution in Sardinia, and porting Turkey against Russia, and in Rome has aided her. This is the neces- preventing the further extension of Russity of her moral situation with reference sian power to the South and the East ? to her little neighbor. The world has The old traditionary policy of England smiled at Austria's late complaint that pointed to an Austrian alliance, and naSardinia menaced her, it seemed so like tions are tenacious of their traditions. the wolf's protestation that the lamb was The war in Italy was unquestionably predoing him an injury; but it was really cipitated by Austria's belief that in the well founded, though not entitled to much last resort she could rely upon English respect. Sardinia did menace Austria. support; and she made a fatal delay in She menaced her by the force of her ex- her military movements in deference to ample,- as the honest man menaces the English interposition. Prussia could not rogue, as the peaceful man menaces the be expected to see the increase of the ruffian, as the charitable man menaces power of the House of Austria with pleasthe miser, as the Good Samaritan men- ure; but it was possible that the extenaced the priest and Levite. In the sense sion of its dominions to the South, by givthat virtue ever menaces vice, and righting it new objects of ambition, and forcing constantly menaces wrong, Sardinia was upon it a leading part in Eastern affairs, a menace to Austria ;-and as we often might cause that house to pay

less regard find the wrongdoer denouncing the good to German matters, leaving them to be as subverters of social order, we ought managed by the House of Hohenzollern. not to be astonished at the plaintive Russia, under the system that Nicholas whine of the master of thrice forty le- pursued, could not have seen Austria abgions at the conduct of the decorous, hu- sorb Italy without resisting the process at mane, and enlightened Victor Emanuel. any cost; but Alexander IV.,* a wiser

The only foreign power that had a man than his father was, never would direct, immediate, positive interest in pre- have gone to war to prevent it, his views venting the establishment of Austrian being directed to those internal reforms power over Italy was France. Several the success of which is likely to create a other powers had some interest adverse Russian People, and to place his empire to the success of the Austrian scheme, in a far higher position than it has ever but it was so far below that which France yet occupied. Yet Russia could not have felt, that it is difficult to make any com

witnessed Austria's success with pleasure; parison between the several cases. Eng. and the readiness with which she has land, speaking generally, might not like agreed to aid France, should the Gerthe idea of a new naval power coming mans aid Austria, is proof sufficient that into existence in the Mediterranean, she is desirous that Austria should not which, with great fleets and greater ar- merely be prevented from extending her mies, might come to have a controlling territory, but actually reduced in extent influence in the East, and prevent the

and in means. From no part of Europe establishment of her power in Egypt and have come more decided condemnations Syria. She might see with some jeals of the course of Austria than from the ousy the further development of Austrian Russian capital. The language of the commerce, which has been so successfully St. Petersburg journals touching the pursued in the Mediterranean and the Treaties of Vienna has been absolutely Levant since 1815. But then England contemptuous; and that language is all is not very remarkable for forethought, the more oracular and significant because and she has a just confidence in her own we know that the editors of those journaval power. Besides, would not Austria, in the event of her adding Italy Fourth, as there have been three other Alex

* I call the present czar Alexander the virtually to her dominions, become the

anders sovereigns of Russia; but he is genally of England in the business of sup- erally styled Alexander the Second.

nals must have been inspired by the gov- times her fortunes have been reduced ernment. It has been justly regarded as very low, as during the closing days of expressing the views of the Czar, and of the Valois dynasty, and in 1815; but the statesınen who compose his cabinet. even in 1815 she had the melancholy Though not disposed for war, and prob- consolation of knowing that it required ably sincerely desirous of the preserva

the combined exertions of all Europe to tion of peace everywhere, the rulers of conquer her. Her wonderful elasticity Russia are quite ready to support France in rising superior to the severest visitain all proper measures that she may adopt tions has often surprised the world, and to drive the Austrians from every part of those who remember 1815 will be most the Italian Peninsula. They are too sa- astonished at her present position in Eugacious not to see that France cannot rope, or rather in Christendom. Her hold a league of Italian territory, and position, however, has always been the the reduction of Austrian power is just result of indefatigable exertions, and a BO much gained towards the ultimate variety of circumstances have made those realization of their Oriental policy. exertions necessary on several occasions.

Of the other European powers, and of Great as France is now, and great as she their opinions respecting the effect of has been at several periods of her history Austrian supremacy, little need be said. since the death of Mazarin, it may be Such countries as Sweden, Denmark, doubted if she is so great as she was at Holland, Belgium, and Portugal have the date of the Treaty of Westphalia, little weight in the European system, in- the work of her arms and her diplomacy dividually or collectively. Even Spain, (1648). At that time, and for many though she is not the feeble nation many years afterwards, several nations bad no of our countrymen are pleased to repre- pronounced political existence that now sent her, when seeking to find a reason are powers of the first class. Russia had for the seizure of Cuba,-- even Spain, no weight in Europe until the last years we say, could not be much moved by the of Louis XIV., and her real importance prospect of Austria's reaching to that con- commenced fifty years after that monarch dition of vast strength which would neces- was placed in his grave. Prussia, though sarily follow from her undisputed ascen- she attained to a respectable position at dency in Italy. The lesser German States the close of the seventeenth century, the would probably have seen Austria's in- date of the creation of her monarchy, crease with pleasure, partly because it did not become a first-class power until would have helped to remove their fears two generations later, and as the result of France and Russia, and partly because of the Seven Years' War. The United it would have been flattering to their States count but eighty-three years of pride of race, the House of Austria being national life ; and they have had interGermanic in its character, though ruling national influence less than half of that directly over but few Germans,-few, we time. England, which the restoration mean, in comparison with the Slaves, Ma- of the Stuarts caused to sink so low in gyars, Italians, and other races that com- those very years during which Louis pose the bulk of its subjects. Turkey alone XIV. was at the zenith of his greatness, had a direct interest in Austria's success, has been for one hundred and seventy as promising her protection against all the years the equal of France. On the other other great European powers; but Tur- hand, the two nations with which France key is not, properly speaking, a member was formerly much connected, Turkey of the European Commonwealth. and Sweden, bave ceased to influence

But the case was very different with events. France allied herself with TurFrance. She is the first nation of Conti- key in the early years of her struggle nental Europe,-a position she has held with the House of Austria, to the offence for nearly four centuries, though some- of Christian peoples; and the relations

between Paris and Constantinople were ment of 1814. Then France was struck long maintained on the basis of common down, trampled upon, spoiled, insulted, interest, the only tie that has ever sufficed and mulcted in immense sums of money; to bind nations. Both countries were the and finally forced to pay the cost of an enemies of Austria. The second half of armed police, headed by Wellington himthe Thirty Years' War was maintained, self, which held her chief fortresses for on the part of the enemies of Austria, by three years, and saw that her chains were the alliance of France and Sweden ; and kept bright and strong. Never, since between these countries a good under- Lysander demolished the Long Walls of standing frequently prevailed in after- Athens to the music of the Spartan flute, times, the growth of Russia serving to had the world seen so bitter a spectacle force Sweden into the arms of France. of national humiliation, so absolute a rePoland has disappeared from the list of versal of fortune,– the long-conquering nations, and her territory has augmented legions perishing by the sword, and him the resources of two countries that had who had headed so many triumphal prono political weight in the first century of cessions perishing as it were in the Mathe Bourbon kings, and those of France's mertine dungeon. rival. Thus France has relatively fall- It was from the nadir to which she had en.

That ancient international system thus fallen, that the rulers of France, of which she was the centre for nearly acting as the agents of its people, have one hundred and fifty years — say from been laboring to raise her ever since the middle of the reign of Henry IV. 1815. They have had a twofold object to the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, (1599- in view. They have sought territory, 1748) — has passed entirely away from in order that France might not be drivthe world, and never can be restored. en into the list of second-class nations, France has seldom seriously thought of - and military glory, to make men forattempting its restoration, though some of get Vittoria, and Leipzig, and Waterher statesmen, and probably a large ma- loo. All the governments of France have jority of the more intelligent of her people, been alike in this respect, no matter how have from time to time warmly favored much they have differed in other respects. the idea of the reconstruction of Poland; The legitimate Bourbons, - of whom an and of all the errors of Napoleon I., his American is bound to speak well, for they failure to realize that idea was unques- were our friends, and often evinced a tionably the greatest. The turn that feeling towards us that exceeded largely things took in the French Revolution en- anything that is required by the terms or abled France to establish an hegemony the spirit of a political alliance,- the soliin Europe, which might have been long tary Orléans King, the shadowy Repubpreserved but for the disasters of 1812; lic of '48, and the imperial government, but the empire of Napoleon I. was never all have endeavored to do something to a political empire, being only of a mili- elevate France, to win for her new glotary character. France then led Europe, ries, and to regain for her her old posibut she lost her ascendency on the first tion. The expedition into Spain, in 1823, reverse, like Sparta after Leuctra. His- ostensibly made in the interest of Absotory has no parallel to the change that lutism, was really undertaken for the purthe France of 1814 presented to the pose of rebaptizing the white flag in fire. France of 1812. On the 1st of Octo- Charles X. and M. de Polignac were enber, 1812, the French were at Moscow; gaged in a great scheme of foreign policy on the 1st of April, 1814, the allies were when they fell, the chief object of which, in Paris. Eighteen months had done on their side, was the restoration to France work that no man living at the first date of the provinces of the Rhine,-- and which had expected to see accomplished. What Russia favored, because she knew, that, happened in 1815 was but the comple- unless the Bourbons could do something

As it was,

to satisfy their people, they must remain have been perfected, the Eastern question powerless, and it did not answer her pur- was forced upon the attention of Europe, pose that they should be otherwise than and the two nations which were expectpowerful. The conquest of Algiers was ed to engage in war as foes united their made for the purpose of gratifying the immense armaments to thwart the plans French people, and with the intention of of Russia. Blinded by his feelings, and spreading French dominion over North- altogether mistaking the character of the ern Africa. It was a step towards the English people, the Czar treated Napoacquisition of Egypt, for which land leon III. contemptuously, and sought to France has exhibited a strange longing. bring about the partition of Turkey by In this way the loss of French India and the aid of England alone. It will always French America, things of the old mon- furnish material for the ingenious writers archy, were to be compensated. The of the history of things that might have government of Louis Philippe expended been, whether the French Emperor would mines of gold and seas of blood in Afri- have accepted the Czar's proposition, had ca, much to the astonishment of prudent it been made to him. Certainly it would men, who had no idea of the end upon

have enabled him to do great things for which its eyes were fixed. When the France, while by the same course of acRepublic of 1848 was improvised, even tion he could have struck heavy blows at Lamartine, not an unjust man, could both England and Austria. talk of the rights of France in Italy, and he joined England to oppose Russia, and of her proper influence there ; and the the English have borne full and honorwicked attack on the Romans, in 1849, able testimony to his fidelity to his enwas prompted by a desire to make French gagements. The war concluded, his atinfluence felt in that country in a man- tention was directed to Italy, and he ner that should be clear to the sense of sought to meliorate the condition of that mankind.

country ; but Austria would not hear When Louis Napoleon became Presi- even of the discussion of Italian affairs. dent of France, it was impossible for him The events that marked the course of to devote much attention to foreign af- things in Paris, in the spring of 1856, fairs. His aim was to make himself Em- showed that nothing could be hoped for peror, to restore the Napoleon dynasty. Italy from Austria. She spoke, through This, after a hard struggle, he effected in Count Buol, as if she regarded the whole 1851-'52. It must be within the recol- Peninsula as peculiarly her property, lection of all that the French invasion meddling with which on the part of othquestion was never more vehemently dis- er powers was sheer impertinence, and cussed in England than during the ten not to be borne with good temper, or or twelve months that followed the coup even the show of it. d'état. This happened because it was The twenty-second meeting of the Conassumed that the Emperor must do some- gress of Paris, held the 8th of April, was thing to revenge the injuries his house long, exciting, and important; for then and France had suffered from that alli- several European questions were discussance of which England was the chief ed, among them being the affairs of Italy. member and the purse-holder. Wheth- The protocol of that day proves the sener he ever thought of assailing England, sitiveness of the Austrian plenipotentia. no man can say; for he never yet com- ries and the earnestness of those of Sarmunicated his thoughts on any important dinia. Eight days later, the Sardinian subject to any human being. We may plenipotentiaries, Cavour and De Villa assume, however, that he would not have Marina, addressed to the governments of attacked England without having made France and England a Memorial relating extensive preparations for that purpose ;

to the affairs of Italy, in the course of and long before such preparations could which occur expressions that must have

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