« AnteriorContinua »
Last year (1842) the produce amounted to 400.000 oz. pure silver and 400 tons lead. The manufacture of woollens is carried on pretty extensively at Alcoy, 23 miles N. from Alicant; but they are coarse and of inferior quality.
Port Charges on Shipping entering and clearing out.
Foreign Vessels of 300 Tons,
Rs. Vn. Mar. Anchorage
75 Health visit and pratique
98 Captain of Port
8 B of Health
Bill of Health Tonnage Duly (300 Tons), if loaded out
Tonnage Duty, if loaded outwards
If cleared in Balast If cleared in Ballast
Mole and Light Duty
120 Mole and Light Duty
Tarifa Light in and out 49 Maravedis per Tanta Light in and out 21 Mararedis
Tou (300 Tons)
423 IS per Ton (300 Tons)
Equal to 101. 104. sterling. 1019 18 Equal to 61. 10s sterling.
28 Account of Vessels entering Inwards at Alicant in 1812 ; specifying the Countries to which they belonged their Tonnage, Crews, and the luvoice Value of their Cargoes. Invoice
Flaggs. Ships. Tons. Men. Value of
354,14? Sil: ish 116 15,578 1,698 272,30 American
36,300 French 32 3,958 5,600 Hartburch
680 Total 104 57,865 4,400 351,122
416 60,560 4,30 391,102
Principal Articles imported into and exported from Alicant in 1842.
Whereof Whereof from Value.
L. Sewfoundland Fish 103,999! 126.96.36.199 64,355
12,150 12,180 AT from West Indies 5.5,700
114,397 116,397 27,380
46,70 Marufactured Goods 13,160 33,700 71,960 Wool
41,130 Tobacco from America 36.300
Oii (to France and West Della and Tar (from Swe
17,600 den) 9,350 Alnionds
3,810 Salt (to Sweden)
11,180 Custom-hots Regulations. - A manifest of the cargo, the ship's tonnage, and number of crew, must be presented within 71 hoix fler pratique being given, when two ofhcers are put on board to prevent smucing. The consignees then make entry of the articles consigned to them, and obtain an order to discharge from the collecter, or custom-house authorities, a certificat erigin from the Spanish comsul at the port of lading being no longer requisite. To load the whole or part of an outward cargo, the master reports his intention to the collector, who gives his order permitting goods to be shipped, and the shippers make their Specific entries. When the verse is loaded, the waiting officers make their return to the collector who, ambing presented with the receipts of the captan of the port and of the Pratique office for their respective charges, grants his clearance, upon which a bull of health is obtained, and the vessel is clear for sea.
Warehousing System. - Goods legally imported may be deposited in bonded warehouses for twelve months, paying, in lieu of all barges, 2 per cent. ad valorem, but at ihe end of the year they must be either taken for home consumption or re-shipped. The ? per ceni. is charged, whether the goods lie for a day or the whole year. In charging duties, no allowance is made for waste or damare in the warehouses.
Rates of Cermission are usually 2 per cent. on sales and purchases; d per cent. is commonly charged on the negotiation of bills, Goods are commonly sold at 3 inonths' credit. Ordinary discount at the rate of 6 per cent. per annum. Alicant is not a favourable place for repairing ships, and provisions of all sorts are scarce and dear.
Vessels with four bills of health, or coming from an infected or susperter place, though with clean bills, are usually ordered to l'ort Mabon to perform quarantine. But vessels coming with clean bills obtain, under ordinary circumstances, immediate fratique,
Money. - Accounts are kept in libras of 20 sueldos; each sueldo containing 12 dineros; the libra, also called the peso, -- 10 reals, and a real Alica'it=272 marvedis of plate, or 31.2 maravedis vellon. The libra may be valued at 3s. 6d. sterling, and the real at 4 d. ditto.
Weights and Measures. -- The carg1=2) quintals - 10 arrobas. The arroba consists either of 21 large pounds, or of 36 small ditto ; the latter having 12 Castilian ounces to the pound, the former 18. The arroba - 27 lbs. 6 oz. avoirdupois; but at the Cuvom-house the arruba = 25 lbs. of 16 oz. each.
The principal com measure is the cahiz or caffise, containing 12 barchillas, 96 medios, or 192 quartillos. The cahiz -- 7 Winchi busheis nearly,
The principal liquid measure is the cantaro of 8 medir, or 16 quartillos. The cantaro = 5:05 English wine gallons. The tonnelada or ton contains 2 pipes, SO arrobas, or 100 cantaros.
The sard or vara, divided into a palmos, is = 29-46, or very nearly 30 English inches. — (Consul's Reports to Foreign Office for 1841 and 1942; Inglis's Spain in 1830, is. 301, &c.; Kely's Cambist, fe.)
ALIENS. According to the strict sense of the term, and the interpretation of the common law, all individuals born out of the dominions of the crown of England (alibi natus) are aliens or foreigners.
It is obvious, however, that this strict interpretation could not be maintained without very great inconvenience; and the necessity of making exceptions in favour of the children born of native parents resident in foreign countries was early recognised. The 25 Edw. 3. stat. 2. enacts, that all children born abroad, provided both the parents were at the time of their birth in allegiance to the king, and the mother had passed the seas by her husband's consent, might inherit as if born in England. And this relaxation has been carried still further by several modern statutes : so that all children born out of the king's ligeance, whose fathers, or grandfathers by the father's side, were natural born subjects, are now deemed to be themselves natural born subjects; unless their ancestors were outlawed, or banished beyond sea for high treason, or were, at the birth of such children, in the service of a prince at enmity with Great Britain.
Naturalisation of Aliens. -- Aliens may be naturalised by act of parliament, which puts them in exactly the same condition as natural-born subjects, except that they are incapable of bring members of the privy council, of being elected to serve in parliament, or of holding any office of trust under the crown.
A denizen is an alien born, who has obtained letters patent, er donatione regis, to make him an English subject. He occupies a kind of middle station between a natural-bom subject and an alien. He may acquire lands by purchase or devise, but not by inheritance ; and may transmit such lands to his children born after his denization, but not to those born before. - (Blackstone's Com. book i. cap. 10.)
An alien may also be naturalised by serving on board any of his Majesty's ships of war, in time of war, for three years, or, if a proclamation has been issued to that effect, for two years. -(6 Gco. 4. cap. 109. $$ 16, 17.)
Influence of the Residence of Aliens. There can be no doubt that, generally speaking, the resort of foreigners to a country, and their residence in it, are highly conducive to its interests. Those who emigrate in order to practise their calling in an old settled country are pretty uniformiy distinguished for activity, enterprise, and good conduct. The native inhabitants have so many advantages on their side, that it would be absurd to suppose that foreigners should ever come into any thing like successful competition with them, unless they were acquainted with some branch of trade or manufacture of which the others were ignorant, or possessed superior skill, industry, or economy. But whether aliens practise new acts, or introduce more perfect processes into the old, or display superior economy, &c., their influx cannot fail to be of the greatest advantage. They practically instruct those among whom they reside in what it most concerns them to know, that is, in those departments of art and science in which they are inferior to others; and enable them to avail themselves of whatever foreign sagacity, skill, or practice has produced that is most perfect. It is not easy, indeed, to overrate the benefits conferred on most countries by the resort of aliens. Previously to the invention of printing, there was hardly any other way of becoming acquainted with foreign inventions and discoveries ; and even now it is far easier to learn any new art, method, or process, from the example and instruction of those familiar with its details, than from the best possible descriptions. The experience, indeed, of every age and country shows that the progress of nations in the career of arts and civilisation depends more on the freedom of commerce, and on the liberality with which they have treated foreigners, than on almost any thing else.
English Legislation as to Aliens. — But, notwithstanding what has been stated above, an antipathy to resident foreigners seems to be indigenous to all rude and uncivilised nations. Whatever is done by them appears to be so much taken from the employment, and, consequently, from the subsistence of the citizens; while the advantages resulting from the new arts or improved practices they introduce, for the most part manifest themselves only by slow degrees, and rarely make any impression on the multitude. Hence the jealousy and aversion with which foreigners are uniformly regarded in all countries not far advanced in civilisation. The early Greeks and Romans looked upon strangers as a species of enemies, with whom, though not actually at war, they main. tained no sort of friendly intercourse. “ Hostis," says Cicero, “ apud majores nostros is dicebatur, quem nunc peregrinum dicimus.” --(De Off. lib. 1. cap. 12.) It may, therefore, be considered as a striking proof of the good sense and liberality of those by whom it was framed, that a clause is inserted in Magna Charta which has the encouragement of commerce for its object; being to the effect, that "all merchants (if not openly prohibited before) shall have safe and sure conduct to depart out of and to come into England, to reside in and go through England, as well by land as by water; to buy and sell without any manner of evil tolls, by tise old and rightful customs, except in time of war; and if they be of a land making war against us, and such be found in our nation at the beginning of the war, they shall be attached without harm of body or goods, until it be known unto us, or our chief justice, how our merchants be entreated in the land making war against us; and if our merchants be well entreated there, shall be so likewise here."
But until the æra of Edward I. the stipulation in the Great Charter as to foreign merchants seems to have been little attended to. It is doubtful whether, previously to his reign, they could either hire houses of their own, or deal except through the medium of some Englishman. But this intelligent prince saw the advantage that would result to the trade and industry of his subjects from the residence and intercourse of Germans, Flemings, Italians, and other foreigners, who, at that time, were very superior to the English in most branches of manufactures and commerce. He, therefore, exerted himself to procure a repeal of some of the more oppressive restrictions on aliens, and gave them a charter which conveyed considerable privileges.* Down, however, to the reign of Edward III., it continued to be customary to arrest one stranger for the debt, and even to punish him for the crimes and misdemeanors of others! It may appear extraordinary that the gross injustice of this barbarous regulation ever permitted it to be adopted; and yet it was probably, at one period, the common law of most European states. As soon, however, as the foundations of good order and civilisation began to
* This charter was confirmed by Edward III. in 1328. Among other clauses, it has the following ; vit. Ist. That on any trial between foreigners and Englishmen the jury shall be half forcigners ; 20, That a proper person shall be appointed in London to be justiciary for foreign merchants; and, 3d, That there shall be but one weight and measure throughout the kingdom, — (Anderson, anno 1302.)
be laid, its operation was seen to be most pernicious. In 1325, Edward II. entered into a convention with the Venetians, in which it was expressly stipulated that they should have full liberty to come to England to buy and sell commodities, without being liable for the debts or crimes of others, Conventions to the same effect were entered into with other foreigners. At length, in 1953, this disgraceful practice was put an end to by 27 Edward 3. stat. 2. cap. 17.; it being provided in this statute, not only that no stranger shall be impeached for the trespass or debt of another, but that, in the event of a war breaking out with any foreign power, its subjects, residing amongst us, shall be warned thereof by proclamation, and be allowed forty days to arrange their affairs, and to depart out of the kingdom; and that, under special circumstances, this term may be extended. There are few acts in the statute-book that reflect more credit on their proposers, or that have been more advantageous than this.
In consequence of the encouragement given by Edward III. to such of the woollen manufacturers of Flanders as chose to immigrate to England, a good many caine over; and it is from their immigration that we may date the improvement and importance of the woullen manufacture in this country. - (See WOOLLEN MANUFACTURE.) But this policy, however wise and judicious, was exceedingly unpopular. The foreigners were openly insulted, and their lives endangered, in London and other large towns; and a few of them in consequence returned to Flanders. Edward, however, was not to be driven from his purpose by an unfounded clamour of this sort. A proclamation was issued, in which every person accused of disturbing or attaching the foreign weavers was ordered to be committed to Newgate, and threatened with the utmost severity of punishment. In a parliament held at York, in 1335, an act was passed for the better protection and security of foreign merchants and others, by which penalties were inflicted on all who gave them any disturbance. This seems to have had the effect, for a while at least, of preventing any outrages.
The corporations of London, Bristol, and other great towns, have been at all times the principal enemies to the immigration of foreigners. Perhaps, indeed, they wer not more hostile to them than to such of their own countrymen, belonging to another part of the kingdom, as should have attempted to settle amongst them without being free of their corporation. But in denouncing foreigners they had the national prejudice on their side; and their attempts to confirm and extend their monopolies by their exclusion were regarded as the noblest efforts of patriotism! Edward III. was fully aware of the real motives by which they were actuated, and steadily resisted their pretensions. But in the reigns of his successors they succeeded better; some of these were feeble and unfortunate, whilst others enjoyed the crown only by a disputed title, and in defiance of powerful competitors. The support of the great towns was of the utmost consequence to such princes, who, whatever might be their own opinion as to its policy, could hardly venture to resist the solicitations of such powerful bodies to exclude strangers, and to impose restrictions on commerce. From the death of Edward III. to the reign of Elizabeth, the progress made by the country was not inconsiderable, but it was little promoted by legislative enactments. Throughout the whole of this period, the influence of corporations seems to have predominated in all matters relating to trade and the treatment of foreigners; and our legislation partook of the selfish, monopolising character of the source whence it was principally derived. Were the acts and proceedings as to aliens the only memorials of our policy from 1377 to 1560, we should certainly seem to have retrograded materially during the interval. Some of these acts were passed with so little consideration, and were so very absurd, that they had to be immediately repealed. Of this sort was the statute of the 8 Ilenry 6. cap. 24., to the effect " that no Englishıman shall within this realm sell, or cause to be sold, hereafter, to any merchant alien, any manner of merchandises, but only for ready payment in hand, or else in merchandises for merchandises, to be paid and contented in hand, upon pain of forfeiture of the same.” But as an enactment of this sort was very speedily found to be more injurious to ourselves than to the foreigner, it was repealed in the following session.
The more tyrannical their conduct in other respects, the more were our princes disposed to humour the national prejudice against foreigners. If not a cheap, it was, at least, an easy method of acquiring popularity. In the very first parliament after the accession of Richard III., a statute was passed full of the most ridiculous, contradictory, and unfounded allegations as to the injury sustained by the intiux of foreigners, and laying them under the most oppressive restraints. Considering, indeed, the sort of treat:nent to which aliens were then exposed, it may excite surprise that they should ever have thought of visiting the country; and, in point of fact, it appears that the resort of foreign merchants to our ports was materially impaired by the statutes referred to, and others of the same description. This is evident from the act 19 Henry 7. cap. 6 , where it is stated that “woollen cloth is not sold or uttered as it hath been in divers parts,” and that “foreign commodities and merchandises are at so dear and exceeding
high price that the buyer cannot live thereon.” But in despite of this authoritative exposition of the mischiefs arising from the restraints on aliens, and on trade, they were both increased in the reign of Henry VIII. And it was not till the reign of Elizabeth that the pretensions of the corporations seem to have been disregarded, and an attempt made to act, not by starts, but consistently, on the policy of Edward III.
The influx of foreigners during the reign of Elizabeth was occasioned chiefly by the persecutions of the Duke of Alva and the Spaniards in the Low Countries. The friends of the reformed religion, which, at the time, was far from being firmly established, and the government, were glad to receive such an accession of strength; and from the superiority of the Flemings in commerce and manufactures, the immigrants contributed materially to the improvement of the arts in England. It would seem, however, that the ministers of Elizabeth contented themselves, perhaps that they might not excite the public prejudice, with declining to enforce the laws against aliens, without taking any very active steps in their favour.
In the reign of James I. the corporation of London renewed with increased earnestness their complaints of aliens. In 1622, a proclamation was issued, evidently written by James himself, in which, under pretence of keeping “ a due temperament” between the interests of the complainants and those of the foreigners, he subjects the latter to fresh disabilities.
Since the revolution, more enlarged and liberal views as to the conduct to be followed with respect to aliens have continued to gain ground : several of the restraining statutes have fallen into disuse, while others have been so much modified by the interference of the courts, which have generally been inclined to soften their severity, that their more offensive provisions are become inoperative. In 1708, an act was passed, notwithstanding the strenuous opposition of the corporations, for the general naturalisation of all foreign protestants; but the prejudice against them was still so powerful that it was repealed within about three years. Some unsuccessful attempts have since been made to carry a similar measure. One of these, about the middle of last century, occasioned the publication by Dr. Tucker of two excellent pamphlets, in which the policy of the naturalisation act is most ably vindicated, and the arguments against it successfully exposed. But no such statute has hitherto been passed, and aliens still continue subject to various disabilities.
Disabilities of Aliens. – The principal of these regards the possession of fixed property. It is ruled that lands purchased by an alien for his own use may be seized by the king. “If,” says Blackstone," he could acquire a permanent property in lands, he must owe an allegiance, equally permanent with that property, to the king of England, which would probably be inconsistent with that which he owes to his own natural liege lord; besides that, thereby the nation might in him be subject to foreign influence, and feel many other inconveniences. Wherefore by the civil law such contracts were made void, but the prince had no such advantage of forfeiture thereby as with us in England." -- (Commentaries, book i. cap. 10.)
An alien cannot take a benefice without the king's consent, nor can he enjoy a place of trust, or take a grant of lands from the crown. Aliens may, however, acquire property in money, goods, or other personal estate, and may have houses for the purpose of their habitation, and for carrying on their business. They may bring actions as to their personal effects, and may dispose of them by will. The droit d'aubaine (jus aibinatus, i. e. alibi natus), or the right of the crown to succeed to the effects of an alien at his death, so long the custom in France, never obtained in England. If an alien abroad die intestate, his whole property here is distributed according to the law of the country where he resided; but such residence must have been stationary, and not occasional, otherwise the foreign municipal regulations will not apply to the property.
Aliens may trade as freely as natives ; and for these many years past the duties of package and scarage in the port of London, repealed in 1833, were the only peculiar duties with which they were burdened. The statutes of Henry VIII, restraining alien artificers from working for themselves are understood to have been repealed by the stat. 5 Eliz. c. 7., and they are quite at liberty to employ themselves as they please.
Aliens indicted for felony or misdemeanor are tried by a jury of which half are foreigners, a privilege they have enjoyed, as already seen, with some partial interruptions, from the reign of Edward I.
Conditions of Residence. - During the late war aliens were placed under the surveillance of the police; they were obliged to send frequent reports of their residence, and of the mode in which they were employed, and were liable to be sent out of the kingdom at any moment by an order from the secretary of state. The conditions under which they now reside amongst us are embodied in the 6 Will. 4. c. ll.
Every master of a ship arriving from foreign ports shall, to the best of his knowledge and belief, immediately declare, in writing, to the chief officer of customs, the name or names, rank, occupation, &c of any alien or aliens on board his ship, or who may have landed therefrom at any place within the realm, under a penalty of 201. for omission or false declaration, and of 101. for every alien omitted in the declaration. This regulation does not, however, extend to foreign mariners navigating the vessel. -$2.
On arrival in this country the alien is to declare his name, description, &c., and to produce his passport; which declaration is to be registered by the officer of customs, who is to deliver a certificate to the alien. A copy of this declaration is to be transmitted, within two days, to the secretary of state, or (if the alien land in Ireland) to the chief secretary of the lord lieutenant. The original certificate given to the alion is to be transmitted to the secretary of state on his leaving the country. New certificates to be granted in lieu of such as may be lost, without fee, under a penalty of 201. Forging certificates, or falsely quersonating aliens, punishable by imprisonment, not exceeding three months, or by fine, not exceeding 1001. - 3, 4, 5, &c.
Policy of the Laws as to Aliens. - The reasons assigned by Mr. Justice Blackstone and others for preventing aliens from acquiring fixed property seem to be very unsatis
* Historical Remarks on the late Naturalisation Bill, 1751 ; Queries occasioned by the late Naturalisation Bill, 1752.
factory. In small states there might be grounds, perhaps, for fearing lost the easy admission of aliens to the rights of citizenship should give them an improper bias ; but in a country like England, such apprehensions would be quite futile. In this respect the example of Holland seeins quite decisive. Notwithstanding the comparatively limited population of that country, it was “the constant policy of the republic to make Holland a perpetual, safe, and secure asylum for all persecuted and oppressed strangers; no alliance, no treaty, no regard for, no solicitation of any potentate whatever, has at any time been able to weaken or destroy, or make the state recede from protecting, those who have fled to it for their own security and self-preservation.” --(Proposals for amending the Trade of Holland, printed by authority. Lond. 1751.)
A short residence in the country, and a small payment to the state, was all that was required in Holland to entitle a foreigner to every privilege enjoyed by a native. And it is of importance to remark, that it has not been so much as insinuated that this liberal conduct was in any instance productive of a mischievous result. On the contrary, all the highest authorities consider it as one of the main causes of the extraordinary progress made by the republic in wealth and commerce. It is said in the official paper just quoted, that " Throughout the whole course of all the persecutions and oppressions that have occurred in other countries, the steady adherence of the republic to this fundamental law has been the cause that many people have not only fled hither for refuge, with their whole stock in ready cash, and their most valuable effects, but have also settled and established many trades, fabrics, manufactures, arts, and sciences, in this country; notwithstanding the first materials for the said fabrics and manufactures were almost wholly wanting in it, and not to be procured but at a great expense from foreign parts." --(Ibid.)
With such an example to appeal to, we are warranted in affirming that nothing can be more idle than to suppose that any number of foreigners which it is at all likely should ever come to England under the most liberal system, could occasion any political inconvenience; and in all other respects their immigration would be advantageous. A general naturalisation act would, therefore, as it appears to us, be a wise and politic measure. It might be enacted, that those only who had resided three or four years in the country, and given proofs of their peaceable conduct, should be entitled to participate in its advantages.
(Some parts of this article have been borrowed from the Treatise on Commerce, written for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge by the author of this work.)
ALKALIES. The distinguishing characters of these bodies are, a strong acrid and powerfully caustic taste; a corrosive action upon all animal matter, destroying its texture with considerable rapidity; exposed to the atmosphere, when in their caustic state, they absorb carbonic acid with great rapidity, and become carbonated (or mild). Their action upon vegetable colours also affords us means by which the presence of an uncombined or carbonated alkali may be detected; the yellow colour of turmeric is changed to a red brown tint when immersed into solutions containing them; the blue colour of the litmus, after being reddened by an acid, is again restored; the infusions of the red cabbage, the violet, and many other purple vegetable colours, are converted to green. Litmus paper reddened by carbonic acid is, however, the most delicate test of the presence of an alkali. With the various acids they also combine, forming the very important and extensive class of compounds generally called salts ; a salt being any compound formed by the union of an acid with an alkali or a metallic oxide.
Alkalimetry: - The method by which the value of the alkalies, or carbonated alkalies, is determined, being of considerable iinportance in a commercial point of view, we shall here treat it someu hat in detail. It is an established fact, that 19 parts by weight of oil of vitriol of the specific gravity of l8485 are exactly equivalent to the neutralisation of 70 parts by weight of pure carbonate of potash, or 48 of pure potass, or 54 of carbonate of soda, or 32 of soda, and that 70 parts of oil of vitriol will therefore be necessary to neutralise 100 parts of carbonate of potass. Hence, by employing a glass tube of about two ounces' capacity, and accurately divided into 100 equal parts, taking 70 grains of oil of vitriol, and diluting it with water, to make the 100 measures complete, every measure of this dilute acid must be equal to a grain of pure carbonate of potass. The per-centage of real carbonate of potass existing in any sample of pearlash may be at once ascertained by taking 100 grains of the sample, dissolving in hot water, straining, and adding by degrees 100 measures of tbe test acid above mentioned; the point of neutralisation (when it ceases to affect litmus paper or reddened litmus) being accurately ascertained, the residual acid will give the percentage of impurities; for instance, say that 75 measures of the dilute acid have been employed to render 100 grains of a sample of pearlash perfectly neutral, then we have ascertained that it contains 25 per cent. inpurities. The same process of course must be followed in examining samples of barilla or kelp, except that the alkali contained in them, being carbonate of soda, 90-75 of oil of vitriol must be employed instead of 70. The process recommended by Mr. Faraday, and in which he uses only one test acid, is as follows:Into a tube about three quarters of an inch in diameter, and nine and a half long, and as cylindrical as possible throughout its whole length, 1,000 grains of water are to be weighed, and the space occupied inarked on the tube by a fine file ; this space is then divided from above downwards into 100 equal parts. At 23:44, or 76 56 parts from the bottom an extra line should be made, and soda marked opposite to it; at 48-96 potass should be marked in the same way; at 54.63 carbonate of soda ; and at 65 carbonate of potass. A dilute acid is now to be prepared, which shall have a specific gravity 1.127, and this is made by mixing intinnatriy together 19 parts by weight of oil of vitriol and 81 of water. The method to be followed in the employment of this acid is as follows:- The dilute acid is to be measured in the tube up to the line opposite to which the alkali sought for is marked ; if barilla, which contains carbonate of soda, 54:03