Imatges de pÓgina
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girls. The crowns a little higher, and the trimming of soft bows and loops of ribbon. Youth and beauty are always bewitching, but young girls should remember that the simpler the hat and its garniture, the brighter and more

attractive is the face below. Let her see to it that the shape of her hat is becoming, its style modest and its trimming appropriate, and our girl need not fear to go in the best society.

OUR EATING.

ROMANIA B. PRATT, M.D.

HYGIENE. D

WHAT, when and how we eat are

WH

questions to be solved individually to a very great extent.

An understanding of the physiology of the digestive organs and processes will be an intelligent guide in deciding their necessities, and their preservation against overwork or neglect. A primary rule of hygiene is, Let the amount equal the demand, and the kind and frequency of ingestion suit the exigencies of the condition and circumstances.

When the amount exceeds the need, the surplus becomes a burden upon the organs of secretion and excretion, part being stored up in the form of fat and the rest being thrown out of the system.

The selection of food will involve a knowledge of its nutritive value and digestibility.

It has been already stated that the nitrogenous or albuminous constituents are mainly intended for the construction and repair of the tissues; that the fatty and farinaceous constituents are largely concerned in the maintenance of bodily heat and the production of animal force; that the salive constituents, besides aiding in the process

of nutrition, are concerned in the consolidation of the tissues; and that water is the great solvent for the conveyance of the nutritive material and the removal of waste products.

Experience teaches and experiment proves that all four of these constituents are required in a hygienic dietary. The relative proportions of the proximate constituents of our daily dietary is 100 parts: 22 parts nitrogenous, 9 of fat, and 69 of starch and sugar. This proportion is maintained most healthfully by consuming a mixed diet containing the different constituents.

The system seems to demand a certain satisfaction which is only obtained by supplying all the constituents in about the above proportions. To fill up the stomach with something does not appease hunger, and it is not economy to attempt to satisfy the cravings of the appetite by eating large quantities of one kind of food. People living in cities and dependent upon buying all their food out of the various shops should give the subject of the selection and discrimination of good and wholesome food from that which is unwholesome a great deal of attention.

When we consider the numbers of

disorders communicable by eating the meat of diseased animals, in beef, mutton, pork and game we are deeply impressed with the wisdom and loving kindness of our Heavenly Father in giving us timely advice in the Word of Wisdom. The dishonesty and depravity of the human heart in its ininordinate greed for gain which prompt men to sell to unsuspecting people meats and food known to be diseased is scarcely creditable, but is, nevertheless, a lamentable fact.

We read, in works on hygiene, how to distinguish beef when the animal has been killed while infected with cattle-plague, pleuro-pneumonia, tuberculosis, puerpural or milk fever, acute rheumatism, etc.; also how to detect mutton when attacked with the "rot," in which the liver of the animal is filled with entoza (worms), known commonly as "flukes," and in sheepscab where the flesh is described as flabby and emaciated. When calves and lambs have been born permaturely or died during birth the meat is known as "slink meat." As to pork we are told how to discern if the animal when killed had pig-typhoid or hog-cholera, quinsy or strangles, tricheniasis or trichinosis a parasite infecting the muscular flesh of the animal, and mealey pork which is infected with the formidable cysticescus cellulosus or tape-worm, etc. In poultry if it had cholera, and in other game the certain stages of "highness" are spoken of.

A few lessons of this kind are very convincing that it is wisdom to "eat most sparingly and only in winter and times of famine.' It is much safer to buy fowls alive, and buy meat only of reliable shops. In large cities the safe plan, if there is any, is to buy that tagged as "Koscher meat" a Jewish

term signifying clean, and indicating that the animal was sound and was killed in a peculiar way considered to be most healthful. The law is also that if the meat is not sold within three days that it be destroyed.

Milk is another source of anxiety, especially if very young children have to depend on it. Good milk should yield 6-12 per cent. of cream by volume, be a clear opaque white, undergo no change when boiled and have no deposit after standing.

There is a simple little instrument called a lactometer by which we can detect if the milk has been creamed or watered, and should be brought into use when the milk is for young children and a doubt exists of its purity. This little instrument tests the specific gravity of the milk, which means its weight as compared with water which is taken as a standard and is marked

as 1000.

The specific gravity of good milk is about 1030, and if a specimen of milk was only 1025 it would show that water had been added. When the milk has had the cream removed from it the specific gravity is higher, as 1032 or 3, and when allowed to stand raises no cream. If the cream is removed and water added to the proper amount the specific gravity could be made the same as genuine milk, but on standing no cream would rise.

It has been stated that water standing in a sleeping apartment readily absorbs impurities and becomes unfit for use, but milk much more easily becomes tainted because very sensitive to odors and effluvia of all kinds. is also a ready carrier of disease. Diptheria and other diseases have not infrequently been carried and spread by the milk man. In warm weather milk

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rapidly changes from sweet to sour, one molecule of milk sugar splitting into two and forming two molecules of lactic acid-a simple thing to cause so great a change.

Little infants fed on milk the least changed to sour soon develop summer complaints. Mothers could detect this change very readily and accurately by dipping a very small slip of blue litmus paper in the milk before feeding the child, and if the blue color is changed to pink the milk is sour. This is a very delicate and simple test and no trouble compared to the extra care and anxiety obliged to be given the infant if it became sick.

There is a food called "Malted Milk" which is good and can be taken and retained on the stomach when milk is rejected. Its purity and ease of preparation make it a most desirable "stand-by." Its preparation only requires a little of the powder to be stirred in hot water and in a few minutes it is ready for the child to drink. Only enough for each meal should be prepared at one time.

Food for young children, old enough to eat at the table, should be prepared with a great deal of care by the mother or attendant. Children have likes and dislikes as much as adults, and not having the knowledge of how to fix the food to their taste have many times left the table with an insufficient meal. Their tastes should be studied their food made palatable, and it should be seen to that they have sufficient food and that, too, of the proper kind for growth and health. There is many a little green mound in the city of the dead that "might not have been" had more real, sensible solicitude been felt and acted upon in regard to the proper feeding of the little

child. Just as much care should be taken not to over-feed or be irregular in the meals or that too rich or indigestible food be given for their age.

In meats we have the nitrogenous, flesh forming elements of myosin and syntonin in the lean meat. In milk we have casein. In eggs we have eggalbumen.

Some vegetables as peas, beans and lentils contain so much nitrogenous food as to be sometimes called "vegetable meats." Wheat, corn, oats, barley and rye are all nitrogenous, while some, as oats, is rich also in fats, starch and sugar, furnishing all the constituents necessary for the maintenance of the body.

Oatmeal deserves special mention. Oats give strength, vigor and life to the horse fed upon it, so it does in the meal to man if properly cooked, slowly eaten and well masticated. It not only furnishes a food containing all the constituents of the body but is digestible and palatable to most people, or can be cultivated to be so in a short time. It is a good nerve-food also and an extract has been made from it highly extolled as a nerve tonic.

It is most excellent food for growing children, and being eaten generally with milk or cream and sugar it becomes a most valuable as well as inexpensive article of diet. Potatoes, rice, tapioca, sago might be called the starch family. Starch is changed to sugar before it is absorbed into the blood and is principally a force food. The many other vegetables are valuable for the salts they contain and the variety they furnish.

Fats are supplied in the fats of meats, in the cereals and in butter. Wheat contains but little fat, therefore bread is more digestible with butter.

Fruits supply acids, salts of sodium, potassium and phosphorus and water. Apples are said to furnish more phosphorus than anything else in the vegetable kingdom. The acid of apples is malac acid. This fruit is so digestible and healthful that it may be given in some cases of typhoid fever.

The late and early varieties should make it a staple fruit the year round. Each fruit in its season, sound and ripe, eaten at proper times and in temperate quantities, rarely injure but assist all the functions in their normal performance.

What shall the meal consist of, and how many shall be eaten depend upon

the age, occupation and condition of the individual. Men and women who use their muscles much require more food, and that of a nitrogenous nature, than people of literary and sedentary habits. Health is the sum of temperate habits, industry and cheerfulness. directed by intelligence and discretion.

Mental worry wears out the nervous system and more or less interferes with the normal performance of every function of the body. When we give more attention and study to the relation and power of mind over matter, we shall be able to control and prevent many physical ills which now afflict and overcome.

THE EDITOR'S DEPARTMENT.

IT is a great pleasure to greet you, my dear young sisters, with the present enlargement of our JOURNAL. The aim and object of this publication has been set forth many times, and yet it is proper to again refer to it; the present generation demand amusement, and we as a people drink largely of the spirit abroad in the air. It is held and conceded by the great thought leaders that lessons of virtue or vice, of strength or weakness, of beauty and morality are more vividly taught, more deeply impressed through the medium of books and theatres than through homilies and sermons. This fact is utilized by every class of thinkers. Has a man a pet hobby, a scheme, a spite at a party or a man, he casts his ideas in the form of a story, and be the story but well told, he is sure of a large audience. Knowing this drift

cuss.

of the age, it is wiser in us to lead, not follow where the world may choose to go. Our girls will read, mothers, be sure of that, and what they read forms a large element in the formation of their characters. There are questions of large import rising before us, and after us the world, to define and disCan we discuss them, can we even understand them if our minds are filled with nonsense and frivolity? It is not alone the girls whose minds are empty of real thoughts and ideas. If you think so, just sit down with the next matron you meet and listen to her talk. Passementerie trimmings, the total depravity of hired girls, and surplice waists form the whole burden of her conversation. Girls, do you know the whole world is shaken with the problems that God, through Joseph Smith, has made plain and

beautiful to us? Faith, the healing of the sick, the very doctrines contained in the Word of Wisdom, the healthful clothing of our bodies, the laws of chastity, the United Order and the Millennium are all receiving careful consideration at the hands of their great men. To be sure they do not seek Divine aid on these subjects, oh no; one great thinker arises and says, "Carry out my theories, O people of the world, and you shall be forever healthy and happy." Another man arises and says, "Nay, that man is a dreamer and impostor, but here is the great plan by which man will receive his temporal salvation." None of these men lay any claim to inspiration, but demand for themselves the honor and glory of their schemes.

FROM KIRTLAND TO SALT LAKE.

JO ONE thing that has occurred to

us, as a people, within the last five years has been more gratifying than the publication of so many valuable and excellent books. It is an indication of the fact that we are rapidly progressing to that goal long looked. forward to by our modern prophets, the lifting of our standard so high that we shall stand above the rest of the world in morals, in unity, in wisdom. and in intelligence. The study of the history of this people, as a cause of which we are the result, is of the utmost importance. The story of the happenings and journeyings of the Saints from Kirtland to Salt Lake City forms one of the most interesting and important chapters of that history. No one who can possibly afford it should refuse to buy the fine book just issued by the Juvenile Instructor Office,

bearing the title of this article. That it is written by Brother James A. Little is a sufficient evidence of the fact that it is interesting and entertaining. Well do I remember reading the first book written by this excellent author, "Jacob Hamblin's History," and the thrill of delight caused by the fact that there was at last a book, written by one of our own people, for our people, being the history of one of our people. Added to that, it was so vividly written, was so simple and earnest in style that it carried one along as if one were living the very incidents portrayed. Since that book was printed-one of the pioneer books if not the very first of the Faith Promoting series-many good and excellent works have been put forth. None, let me say, that have more claim to the attention of the people than this last work of Brother Little. All of my dear young readers who can, should put this history in their modest little library. In conclusion, let us hope that the author of "From Kirtland to Salt Lake City" shall continue in the field in which he is so evidently designed to labor, that of writing the history of the Latter-day Saints.

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