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Notices of Patents-Correspondence.

Notices of Patento

251

I denied.

06

removed from the sheet immediately after leaving the rolls,

CORRESPONDENCE. having served the temporary purpose of producing a fine surface. In order to facilitate the removal of this upper fabric it is recommended to use it damp, or to prepare one

Downing v. Chance. face of it with a coating which shall have the effect of

To the Editor of the CHEMICAL News. preventing adhesion. At this stage the sheet is placed

SIR,-Your version of the “circuit short-hand writer's" finally in a drying chamber, where it is left until the

notes, which appeared in your last week's Number, necessoftening liquid is completely evaporated.

sitates from me a reply, which in fairness I trust you will

insert in your next Number. 1392. An Improved Combination of Metals for the Produc

In my letter which appeared in your Number for April tion of a White Alloy resisting the action of Vegetable

19, I quoted two versions of what (in the Number for · Acids. M. A. F. MENNONS, Paris. A communication.

one | April 5) you made me suy, the accuracy of both of which Dated June 4, 1861. (Not proceeded with.) This alloy is prepared by fusing together the following In your transcript of the circuit short-hand writer's metals in the proportion to make 1000 parts, viz., -banca notes, which are supposed to be “ verbalim," you give a tin 875 parts, antimony 50 parts, nickel 55 parts, and third version. bismuth 20 parts.

Here they are : It will be seen that this alloy differs from common pewter No. 1. * Does not remember the composition of by containing bismuth in the place of lead, and nickel in cyanogen, for the compounds of hydrogen are so compliaddition. The employment of the last named metal may cated." possibly counteract in a measure the tendency to corrosion No. 2. “ He could not just then refresh his memory as by acids, but will, on the other hand, raise considerably the to which two gases cyanogen was composed of at the price of the alloy.

moment. Some of the compounds of hydrogen are so

difficult.” 1397. Improvements in the Manufacture of Gas, and in the No. 3. “Some of the compounds are so excessively

Apparatus connected therewith. A. PRINCE, Trafalgar difficult that it would be perfectly impossible, without Square, London. A communication. Dated June 4, scientific books, to enter into their composition." 1861.

| Leaving to others to comment on these three “reports," These improvements are based upon the action of a all said to be taken in the very words used by me, I feel, current of steam passing through the gas retorts in Sir, that I have a right to ask you, if it is fair-is it English producing a larger volume of illuminating gas from a --to hold me up to animadversion for words spoken, three given charge of coal. The aqueous vapour is decomposed versions of which you have already given ? by the highly carburetted products of the distillation of But you will probably say the circuit short-writer's coal in such a manner as to form carbonic oxide, and at notes about whose accuracy there can be no question) the same time furnishing an increased amount of hydrogen states, that when Serjeant Pigott asked the question, to the gas, and so preventing a great loss in illuminating “Will you tell me what cyanogen is ?" I replied, “ It is effert by diminishing or avoiding the separation of carbon a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen." against the heated surfaces of the retort.

If I had said so, pray how was it that in his next question There is erery probability of a larger yield of gas being (see “report”) he asks, “Is not it an element, tell me obtained by this process, and of the illuminating power in the what you say it is ?aggregate being considerably augmented. The poisonous Is it not plain from his second question that I never character of carbonic oxide gas appears to be the great said it is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen ? disadvantage to which this method of production is liable. If I had so replied, would it not have been arrant

nonsense for Serjeant Pigott to ask, “ Tell me what you 1406. Improvements in the Manufacture of Insulators for say it is," when I had just told him:-I am, &c. Telegraphic Wires, and in Materials and Machinery for

ALFRED BIRD. Coating Telegraphic Wires, H. G. B. ROEBER, Silvertown, Birmingham, April 29.

Essex. Dated June 4, 1861. (Not proceeded with.) [Our readers will see that the “ three versions" are The insulators employed in connection with telegraphic strictly what they profess to be. The first two being wires and apparatus have hitherto been made of only one

condensed accounts, and the third a verbatim report, non-conducting material; the first part of this invention relates to their manufacture from two or more insulating

given to prove the perfect accuracy of our former substances, such as india-rubber, gutta percha, or shellac,

abstract. It is satisfactory to know that Mr. Bird employed conjointly with glass, earthenware, or porcelain. admits there can be no question about the accuracy of

The principle of associating two or more non-conducting the circuit short-hand writer's notes.-Ed, C.N.) materials in the manufacture of telegraphic insulators cannot be said to have originated so recently as June last. Many of the earlier patterns were constructed in this

Spectrum Analysis. manner ; glass and shellac, earthenware and gutta percha,

To the Editor of the Chemical News. besides other combinations, being employed. It is a common

SIR,-On page 214 of your Number for April 19, Sir D. practice in the present day to make the insulators of more Brewster is stated to be the first who (in 1822) examined a than one material.

coloured flame by the prism. A short investigation, however, shows that the first application of the prism to such purposes

must be dated at least seventy years previous. The very , Royal Institution. The following Lectures will paper (Trans, of the Roy. Soc. of Edinburgh, vol. ix. p. 435)

e delivered in the ensuing week :-Monday, May 5, at in which Sir David published his examination of yellow ..100 o'clock, General Monthly Meeting. Tuesday, May 6, sodium light, proposing to use it in his monochromatic

Four o'clock, Mr. C. T. Newton, “On Ancient Art." lamp, contains a reference to a paper in the “ Edinburgh nursday, May 8, at Three o'clock, Dr. Lyon Playfair, | Physical and Literary Essay," (vol. ii. p. 34,) in which we

On Progress of Chemical Arts, 1851-62." Friday, May find these previous observations described. To the writer % at Eight o'clock, Mr. W. Fairbairn, “On Resisting of this paper the remarkable phenomena exhibited by properties of Iron." Saturday, May 10, at Three o'clock, coloured lights when examined by the prism were well Professor Anderson, “On Agricultural Chemistry." known. To show how fully he was acquainted with the

252

Correspondence- Chemical Notices.

CHEMICAL NE, 1 May 3, 1862.

peculiarities of yellow sodium light, it is sufficient to employed. In this way, slowly, the steel was dissolved, quote the following passage, in which he speaks of the and the carbonaceous flocculent matter that was left light of burning alcohol mixed with nitre (impure?) or collected, carefully dried and analysed. The iron was sea-salt :

treated in the same manner, and the comparatively very " The proportion in which the bright yellow exceeds small proportion of carbonaceous residue given by it also the other colours in this light is still more extraordinary examined. And these were compared with the residue than in the former; insomuch that the hole seen through obtained also from cast-iron. If the acid be strong, and the prism appears uniformly of this yellow, and as dis- | heat be used, and the voltaic arrangement be not used, the tinctly terminated as through a plain glass, except that results are very different. Gaseous nitrogen, in very there is adjoining to it on the upper side a very faint minute quantity, is given off along with the hydrogen, stream of green and blue. White bodies illuminated some muriate of ammonia is formed in the solution, and by it appear also through the prism perfectly well-defined; but little nitrogen left in the residue.'" both which are very surprising phenomena to those who Herr Weil, who announces this as his method of analysis, have been accustomed to the use of the prism in other is not the only one (MM. Fremy, Caron, and others, for heterogeneous lights, where it never fails to throw con. example,) who have been anticipated in this paper of Mr. fusion on the extremities of all visible bodies."

Binks. This paper was read before the Medical, afterwards the Mr. Binks' object in resorting to this, then, new mode Philosophical, Society of Edinburgh, on January 3 and of analysis, was to examine into the character of the February 7, 1752. Its author was Thomas Melvill, M.A., previously so-called carbonaceous matter found in steel a young and talented experimentalist, who, according to a and in some kinds of iron. The result forms one of his note prefixed to the printed paper (vol, ii. p. 12), died in numerous proofs of the invariable and inevitable co-operaDecember, 1753, at the early age of twenty-seven years. tion of nitrogen as well as of carbon in the formation and Melvill, it is added, noticing that few, if any, of Sir Isaac composition of steel,-results that have, as you are aware, Newton's followers had gone one step beyond him in his been recently confirmed by the researches of some of the researches on the spectrum, proposed to apply himself | French chemists.-I am, &c.

JOHN STEBBING. particularly to the further illustration of the theory of

Inverness Road, Bayswater. light and colours. The published essay, it is said, " is a specimen of what might have been expected from him, and sufficiently shows the uncommon genius of its

Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. author."

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Another paper by Melvill, on the " Cause of the

Benzyl Mercaptan and Bisulphide of BenzylDifferent Refrangibility of the Rays of Light,is printed

Vogt has prepared (Annal, der Chem. und Pharm., Bd. in the Phil. Trans., vol. xlviii. (1753), p. 261, having been cxix. s., 142) both of the above bodies in Kolbe's laboratransmitted to the Royal Society by its author while

white tory. Benzyl mercaptan, C12H, S2, is prepared as follows: staying at Geneva. It exhibits equal scientific genius.

-Dilute sulphuric acid is poured on some granulated zine It seems, then, only common justice to accord to Thomas

in a good-sized flask, and when the evolution of hydrogea Melvill the full honour of first entering with deliberation

is brisk some sulpho-chloride of benzyl is added. The upon a branch of discovery which now occupies the fore.

flask and its contents are then allowed to stand for twenty. most place in the scientific world. Had his life been pro

four hours, and the whole is afterwards distilled. When longed, many beautiful and important facts concerning

the flask is heated the evolution of hydrogen recommences, the spectrum, which we are only just learning, might have

and the new body passes over with the gas and steam, been given to the world more than a hundred years ago.

condensing in the receiver as a colourless oil. The saline I am glad to find that Professor Roscoe, in the last of

residuum in the flask contains the second body,--the bisul. his three lectures, briefly noticed the claims of Thomas

phide of benzyl. Benzyl mercaptan shares with the known Melvill, which I am now urging. In Phil. Trans., vol. lxxv. (1785), p. 190, is a paper | hydrogen in the form of sulphuretted hydrogen on coming

mercaptans the property of readily exchanging an atoon of relating to the subject by a Rev. Mr. Morgan; it is of very inferior importance. -I am, &c.

in contact with a metal; and in possessing a peculiar

affinity for mercury. One drop placed on dry oxide of

W. S. Jevons. London, April 23.

mercury gives rise to a violent reaction. The author goes on to describe the compounds which are formed by the action

of this body on various metals. Carbon in Iron.

Products of the Oxidation ot Salphindigotic To the Editor of the CHEMICAL News.

Acid.--An interesting paper on this subject, by G. and A. SIR,- In a recent Number of your Journal you give an Schlieper, will be found in the Annalen. der Chemie, und analysis of iron for carbon, taken as new from the Pharmacie, Bd. cxix. s. 1. The authors describe the forZeitschrift des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieurs. Permit me tomation of isato-sulphuric acid C. NH, 0%, 2 SO, + 4 HO, say that this method is not new. It is due to Mr. Chris- and the salts mono- and bibasic formed with the alkalies, topher Binks, who, in his paper read at the Society of alkaline earths, and some metals. Isato-sulphuric acid Arts in 1857, states this very method as his own, and as is prepared by decomposing the baryta salt. The solution the best way for determining both the proportion and the is orange red, and very acid. By drying over sulphuric quality of the carbonaceous matter contained in steel. acid a silky crystalline mass is obtained, which remains The following extract from Mr. Binks' paper shows unchanged in the air, and may be rubbed to a bright this :

yellow powder. The four equivalents of water are lost in “ Under the head of . Some Evidences of the Analysis as the drying. The acid has a strong affinity for bases, and to the Real Composition of Steel,' he says (other evidences will displace some of the strong mineral acids. It being adduced), The best malleable iron, on the one hand, dissolves in strong sulphuric acid without change, and the and by way of comparison with this, the same kind of iron solution may be heated without producing any blackenfully converted by the usual process, were taken on trial ; ing. By reducing isato-sulphuric acid with sulphide of the steel was dissolved in a very dilute and pure hydro-ammonium, the authors obtained a new acid, which they chloric acid, and after many trials it was found best to have named Hydrindin schwefel saure, (and which we may place the bar of steel or iron in single voltaic arrangement translate sulphydrindic acid), CiH. NO, SO, SO, HO. with platinum, and to effect the solution in the cold with several other new compounds are described by the authons the usual precaution of expelling air from the water in this valuable paper,

THE CHEMICAL NEWS.

Vol. V. No. 127.—May 10, 1862.

2. In the successive revivification of the absorbing proSCIENTIFIC AND ANALYTICAL

perties of animal charcoal, according as they become CHEMISTRY.

exhausted, by various means appropriate to the nature

of the matters the charcoal has absorbed. A New Method of Clarifying Saccharine Liquids,

3. In the possibility of augmenting at will the energy Juices, and Syriips, and of Revivifying the Animal of the absorbing properties of the charcoal, and thus to Charcoal used in the Manufacture of Sugar, by H. render its refining action on juices and syrups more LEPLAY and J. CUISINIER.

complete. Of late years, most of the improvements in the manu- 4. In obviating any necessity for a temperature higher facture of sugar have been directed to the disuse of than that of boiling water or free steam. animal charcoal. Having for many years witnessed the By investigating the process of the filtration of juices services which animal charcoal has rendered, and still and syrups, we find that the exhaustion of the absorbing renders, we have directed our researches in a direction properties of the charcoal can be divided into three entirely different. Our principal object has been to periods, which we will examine successively. analyse the action exercised by animal charcoal on sac The first series of absorbing properties is almost charine liquids at each stage of the manufacture, the entirely exhausted after a few hours' filtering,-say, duration of this action, and its exhaustion. We have under ordinary circumstances, about four hours. These sought to restore, by easy and speedy methods, the are the properties which affect viscous, nitrogenised, absorbing properties it loses by use, and to ascertain the ammoniacal, sapid, and odorous matters, which injure cause of its various absorbing properties, on which the fluidity of syrups, their crystallisation, the hardness chemistry hitherto has thrown but little light. This and consistence of the grain, the quantity and quality of cause being discovered, we can, so to speak, increase it the sugar, and which impart to rough sugars the odour at will, and thus effect in saccharine liquids, juices, and and flavour peculiar to the produce of the beet-root. We syrups, a greater degree of purification than can be completely re-establish the primitive absorbing properties obtained by the ordinary means.

by passing a current of steam through the granulated This study has led us to the discovery of a new method animal charcoal contained in the filter. The absorbing for refining saccharine liquids, and of revivifying animal properties of animal charcoal can thus be regeneruted charcoal, as shown in the following principal results in indefinitely. the manufacture of beet-root sugar :

A much longer time is required to exhaust the second 1. To completely do away with the use of fresh animal series of absorbing properties. They last six or eight charcoal.

times as long as those of the first series. The period of 2. To abolish revivification at a high temperature exhaustion varies with the alkalinity of the defecated (kilns for revivification, &c.).

juices and syrups. Free alkalies, lime, potash, soda, 3. To greatly reduce the quantity of charcoal used in salts of lime, and other saline matters are absorbed by the course of the work, and thus to effect a notable

| the series in question. These matters especially contrieconomy.

bute to colour the juices and syrups during evaporation 4. To obtain sugars of a superior quality, with a larger by destroying the sugar, and when present in large proyield, without changing the apparatus now in use.

portion prevent crystallisation. We revive these absorb5. To reduce considerably the net cost of sugar. ing properties by pouring a weak solution of hydro

Now, to point out this new method. In the ordinary chloric acid over the charcoal contained in the filter and manufacture, a filter filled with granulated charcoal | by sufficiently prolonged washings in water. lasts from twelve to twenty-four hours. The absorbing

The third series comprise the absorptive properties of properties of the charcoal then appear to be exhausted, charcoal for colouring matters. They last thirty or forty and have to undergo revivifying processes, the principal times as long as the first series. Moreover, the presence being calcination in a closed vessel at a high temperature. of colouring matters in these syrups is of no great imThe animal charcoal thus revivified does not completely portance when they are transparent and brilliant and recover its primitive qualities, and its value as an

hold no matter in suspension. White sugars can be absorbent is reduced one-half, and sometimes more.

obtained from coloured syrups, and when, from the tint In the ordinary method, all the absorbing properties of the products, it is deemed necessary to revivify the of the animal charcoal are supposed to be exhausted at power of absorbing colouring matters, we make use for the same time, and the object of the revivifying process | this purpose of a weak solution of boiling caustic alkalies. is to restore them equally and simultaneously.

We use these various means of revivification either in The following is, on the contrary, the fundamental the filter itself or in a special apparatus similar to the idea of our method :

filter. 1. Granulated charcoal plays a manifold part, and has The various methods of revivification just described various absorbing powers, which act independently, and restore the absorbing properties of the animal charcoal do not become exhausted simultaneously.

I to their primitive state, but without augmenting them.

SCHEXOCAL News, 254 On the Commercial Analysis of Chrome Ores.

May 10, 1862 We have sought, in the production of a new fixed product trated nitric acid, from 9 to 10 parts of water. It is in the charcoal itself, for the solution of the problem of advisable to pass the gas through a tube filled with augmenting the absorbing properties of charcoal. pumice-stone saturated with ferrous sulphate, to prevent

When one equivalent of biphosphate of lime is added the admixture of a small quantity of binoxide of nitrogen. to one equivalent of tribasic phosphate of lime, identical with that which enters into the composition of animal charcoal, the two phosphates combine and form a third,

On the Detection of Bromine, by M. FRESENIUS, which is a phosphate with two equivalents of base. This

ACCORDING to M. Balard, the best vehicle for dissolving is explained by the following formula :

bromine just displaced by chlorine is sulphide of carbon, POK:]CaO +POK.CaO.:HO = 3(PO42CaO.HO).

a process long used in France for detecting iodine. M. This new phosphate is insoluble in water, has no acid Fresenius, who has verified this fact with his usual care, action on litmus paper, produces no inverting action on insists on the necessity of avoiding excess of chlorine, the sugar, and possesses very energetic absorbing pro- and of employing sulphide of carbon free from sulphurous perties.

and sulphuric acid. What takes place in a test-glass with tribasic phosphate His preference for sulphide of carbon over ether and of lime is produced in the same manner in a filter filled chloroform is founded on a series of direct experiments with granulated animal charcoal when a weak solution with standard solutions containing various proportions of biphosphate of lime is poured over it. The same of bromides. Solutions containing only tobooth of effect is produced with powdered animal charcoal. bromine in the state of bromide of potassium, when Charcoals treated in this way possess greater absorbing treated with the requisite quantity of chlorine, do not powers, which can be varied at will, and a smaller quan communicate the least colour to ether or chloroform, tity of this charcoal suffices to produce a greater degree while sulphide of carbon acquires a decided yellow tint. of refinement in juices and syrups.

This vehicle, then, answers best for this purpose. Further, we have utilised for clarifying and purifying | Moreover, being heavier than water, it sinks to the saccharine liquids the singular property possessed by the bottom of the liquid with the bromine it has dissolved, phosphate with three equivalents of lime, of precipitating and there remains. itself in a gelatinous form, and of carrying with it all! If the bromide is accompanied by an iodide, the iodine matters hindering the transparency of syrups, much must be previously eliminated by adding a little hypomore effectual than albumen, blood, and other matters nitric acid and a drop of sulphide of carbon, which takes used in clarification. In short, our processes are founded away the displaced iodine. After this the separation of on attentive and inductive study of the singular and the bromide may be proceeded with.-Zeitschrift für useful properties of different phosphates of lime, and of Analytische Chemie, i. 46. their application to the refinement of saccharine liquids, particularly beet-root juice and syrups.

The foregoing processes are in operation at two important sugar-works in the department of the Oise, one

On the Commercial Analysis of Chrome Ores. at Fraucières, belonging to MM. Bachoux and Co.: the We have received a valuable communication on this other at Froyers, belonging to MM. Daniel and Co. The subject from Mr. C. L. Oudesluys, of Baltimore, the quantity of sugar made at these two works by our processes proprietor of extensive deposits of chrome iron ore near is now about 300,000 kilogrammes. This manufacture has that city. Our correspondent writes:sufficiently shown the value of our processes and the "I see in your Notice to Correspondents' that you call reality of the advantages they offer. Our processes can be applied with like success to the manufacture of cane

upon me to furnish my formula. I enclose one received

from a chemist here, by which he has obtained results very sugar as well as sugar refining.

similar to those obtained by Dr. Genth from a part of the same sample ; but Dr. Genth's formula is only known

to himself. I had an interview with him yesterday. On the Preparation of Protoxide of Nitrogen by the

He has consented to communicate his formula to Edward Moist Way, by M. H. SCHIFF.**

Franklin,* Esq., a chemist residing in London, for VARIOUS substances, such as sulphide of ammonium, examination, and is willing to abide a test of a sample sulphide of potassium, moist finely-divided iron, possess of fused and pulverised ore he will send to Mr. Franklin, the property of changing binoxide of nitrogen into and thinks it will agree with a test of a part of the same protoxide. Nascent hydrogen has the same property, sample made by Genth., Dr.

sample made by Genth. Dr. Genth thinks that the and we know that greatly diluted nitric acid disengages English formula, as stated by Charles O'Neill, of Manprotoxide of nitrogen in presence of zinc or metallic chester, is good (CHEMICAL NEWS, No. 123); but that iron. Moderately concentrated nitric acid, on the con- he should take 74 grains for fusion instead of only 5 trary, yields binoxide of nitrogen ; but if weak sulphuric grains, and should fuse an hour or more instead of only acid is added to the mixture, the gas disengaged becomes half an hour. He thinks Mr. O'Neill loses chromic in a short time protoxide of nitrogen free from binoxide. oxide in his solutions." The addition of sulphuric acid, instead of intensifying, The following is the Baltimore chemist's process as it generally does, the action of the nitric acid,

referred to by Mr. Oudesluys:weakens it,-a phenomenon which can be explained only by a reaction of the nascent hydrogen on the

“Half a gramme of the finely pulverised ore is taken binoxide of nitrogen.

and fused in a platinum crucible with three times its Protoxide of nitrogen, sufficiently pure for ordinary

weight of bisulphate of potash for one hour; then purposes, can be readily prepared from zinc and a mixture

allowed to cool, and the same amount of a mixture (of of i part of concentrated sulphuric acid, 1 of concen

equal parts of nitrate of potash and carbonate of soda)

put on the top, and again fused for another hour, then * Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, vol. cxvill. 84.

* Qy. Frankland.

CHMICAL NEW,} The Preparation of Sulphur Soluble in Sulphide of Carbon.

255

allowed to cool, and digested in a porcelain dish for two sulphite of soda to 100 grammes of water, would yield or three hours, with water on the sand bath. Then about 70 grammes of perfectly pure soluble sulphur. filtered, and well washed out with boiling water. The This result proves, in the first place, that sulphur filter is then treated with hydrochloric acid for two or insoluble in sulphide of carbon dissolves more rapidly three hours in a warm place until the sesquioxide of than soluble sulphur in sulphite of soda. Thus, by subiron is dissolved; then filter, and if there is not too mitting separately two samples of sulphur, of 50 much undecomposed chrome remaining, it can be weighed grammes each, one soluble, the other insoluble, to the and deducted, or if too much remains it must be again action of a solution of 50 grammes of sulphite of soda fused as before. The chromic acid solution is warmed, in 500 grammes of water, and weighing the residue after and carbonate of ammonia added to precipitate any one, two, three, and four hours' boiling, I obtained the alumina, silica, or lime in solution, allowed to stand an following results : hour and filtered, then hydrochloric acid added to the

S. soluble.

S. insoluble. solution until acid, then warmed and sulphurous acid

After 1 hour . . 47 gr.

24 gr. added to reduce the chromic acid to sesquioxide, then

m 2 , . , 25 gr.

10 gr. ammonia added, and allowed to stand twelve hours,

" 3 " . . 16.75

2'5 . 10'07

0*2* filtered, washed out by decantation, dried, burnt, and

The difference in the rapidity of absorption of these weighed.”

two sulphurs led me to inquire whether sulphite of soda Mr. Oudesluys remarks upon this :

acting on a mixture of the two sulphurs would not " By the above method, a sample of grain ore, of which dissolve all the insoluble sulphur before affecting the the enclosed sample is a part, gave 41°04 per cent. oxide soluble. of chrome, or 53'07 chromic acid. It then contained 1. To determine this question, I took three portions, A 2-71 per cent. of moisture. If dry, as it is now, it should B, and C, of the same flour of sulphur, each portion have contained 42°30 oxide or 55.38 of chromic acid. | weighing 50 grammes. I treated them separately in a By O'Neill's analysis, as reported by him, a part of boiling-water bath with a solution of 10 grammes of this sample analysed dry gave 46°02 acid,-a discrepancy sulphite of soda to 100 grammes of water. After an of 9'36 per cent., thus:

hour's boiling, I removed the sample A, which was Analysis made in Baltimore, dry ... 55.38 acid reduced to 42 grammes; two hours' boiling reduced B to , , Manchester, by O'Neill. 46'02 , 39 grammes; and after three hours, C was reduced to

37.30 grammes. By the aid of sulphide of carbon, I Difference . . . . . . . . 9-36

found their composition was, “ Baltimore, April 11, 1862."

Specimen.

A.

B.
Soluble sulphur. . 375 35696 36.48

Insoluble sulphur . 495 3.04 0.82 On the Preparation of Caustic Soda, by M, WOEHLER.

4240 39.00 37•30 This process consists simply in calcining nitrate of soda

By noticing that the flour of sulphur employed gave with peroxide of manganese. No chameleon is formed,

the composition in centièmes, as might be supposed, since the nitrate decomposes long

Soluble sulphur ,

• before the mixture can reach the temperature necessary

80.88

Insoluble sulphur for the production of manganic acid.-Annalen der

. . 19:12 Chemie und Pharmacie, cxix. 375.

100'00 and that each of the preceding compositions gives in

centièmes, On the Preparation of Sulphur Soluble in Sulphide of

A. B. C.

Soluble sulphur. . 89.30
Carbon, by M. L. FAUCHER.

92'21 97°79

Insoluble sulpbur 10'70 7.79 2021 THE works of MM. Ch. Deville, Fordos, Gélis, and Berthelot show that, besides sulphur soluble in sulphide

100'00 100'00 100'00 of carbon, there exists a variety of sulphur insoluble in it will be understood how sulphite of soda, by a suffithis liquid. Sulphurs obtained by distillation contain ciently prolonged action on the flour of sulphur, can insoluble sulphur varying in quantity with the rapidity separate from it the soluble sulphur in a state of perfect of the process of cooling from 2 to 3 per cent., as in purity. roll sulphur, to 35 or 40 per cent., as in flower of The tendency of insoluble sulphur to dissolve itself sulphur.

more rapidly than soluble sulphur, is not the only cause Thus, to obtain pure soluble sulphur, it is necessary of this separation. In fact, I have ascertained that by only to digest any kind of sulphur in sulphide of carbon treating insoluble sulphur with a quantity of sulphite of to filter the solution through cotton, and then to evapo- soda, insufficient to dissolve it completely, that this insorate in a distilling apparatus. But the disagreeable odour | luble sulphur is transformed by a few hours' boiling into and inflammability of sulphide of carbon renderits employ- soluble sulphur. ment both unpleasant and dangerous. Moreover, the Finally, the aqueous liquid of the sulphite of soda sulphur thus obtained has to be freed from all trace of exercises a double action on the flour of sulphur. In the sulphide of carbon by repeated washings in ordinary | first place, it diesolves insoluble more rapidly than soluble alcohol.

sulphur; secondly, it transforms insoluble into soluble It is easier and more convenient to obtain perfectly sulphur. For these two reasons, sulphite of soda is an pure soluble sulphur, by boiling for several hours in a excellent agent for obtaining pure sulphur soluble in water bath, any kind of sulphur with a solution of sulphide of carbon.-- Journal de Pharmacie et de Chemie. sulphite of soda, insufficient to dissolve it entirely. Thus, In a former number of the Journal de Pharmacie et de Chemie, 100 grammes of flower of sulphur, kept boiling for four vol. xxiv. p. 343, M. Favre showed that insoluble sulphur, extracted or five hours in a solution containing 16 grammes of than soluble sulphur.

from flower of sulphur, is more rapidly attacked by hypochlorous acid

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