Imatges de pÓgina
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Certain (pro-)nouns and adjectives are common to both genders; as on thou, o 1, that, aw this,* 083 fascinating, & co long, wo all, ovo young, as tender, acoć lovely, 20 € white, o. & cold, &c.

Verbal appellatives are put in either gender according to their respective significations; † but participial nouns are (usually) in the masculine gender; as weg a going, oog a coming, @1023 a seeing, (vision).

The following admit of no gender, that is to say, Adverbs as 83 & always, 52ę for oogəę adjacently, 880ed voluntarily, &c; Indeclinable Particles—as, Seda, 301, 0296 3306, cos, 299, 88., 60, 49, eg, 98, we, 6, , 6, 928, 338, w; and Prepositionsas, 3, 4, 98, , , , , &c. [8]

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language respectively conveys to the minds of differeut writers. Thus, the moon, which is regarded by many Europears as a feminine noun, is masculine in several languages of the East, especially in those to which the Indian System of Astronomy is known. Again the sun, though a masculine noun according to many European and Eastern nations, is nevertheless a feminine noun in the Arabic Grammar (vide Richardson's, London, 1801. p. 23.)—“The poet Molanabbi, in allusion to the sun being of the feminine gender, and the moon of the masculine, says

*Neither is the feminine name a disgrace to the sun,

Nor the masculine an honor to the moon.". 'This, it is believed, is a difference which arises from the System of Indian Astronomy being no part of the Arab's faith.

• Mr. Lambrick in his Singhalese Grammar, p. 21, says that “the demonstratives form a distinguishing singularity of the Singhalese language.” We may also remark, that the genius of the Sioghalese language admits of do relative Pronouns,- by no means a discreditable peculiarity. Perhaps also the personal pronouns, or rather personal nouns, may not prove to be an unprofitable subject to consider bere. But owing to the length to which some of the potes under this chapter have already extended, we shall postpone a consideration of them to a future opportunity.-vide Appendir C.

e. g. Oostoso Creator, gestos Creatress; Bustoso eater, modo female eater;

@stoso drinker, nahoto female drinker, &c. (8) Some of these particles cannot correctly be rendered into the English, except when they occur in a sentence, or compounded with other words ; and their significations vary according to the sense of the words with which these particles are compounded.-vide Appendix C.



Note that adverbs (82mg 8) are so called by reason of the verbs being distinguished by a qualification; as Do well, or at ease.

The following are some of the indeclinable particles:dos (a particle equal to ary in primary, thus 8848 supreme, and in like manner) smol, O, Ocscs, Do., me, en 8, 5899, noon, g, 9, C, D, 9, Olos, HI, 600go, wo od, eggel, ged, 60, 99, 94, &c. [9]

The twenty prepositions f (in the Singhalese) are the following: 10-as in oxi separated from, disjoined, away; 2 00 as in LO¢ subjugated or defeated; 3 po as in qoces progressing shadow; 4 w as in w@ę con-joint; 5 po as in qocos

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e. g. gecedes be well; odnostmos Perform the journey well (i. e. in health).

+ Some of these particles, it will be perceived, are Conjunctions. [9] Vide Appendix C.

Nothing is more difficult than accurately to trace the above inseparable prepositions (many of which are affixes) to their primary meaning ; since they scarcely convey any definite meaning when taken by themselves, and, when compounded with other words, extend through a variety of modifications according to usage. These twenty prepositions, of which there is an equal number both in the Sanscrit and the Pali, are compounded with verbs and pouns; and the words thus compounded convey either the meanings indicated by their conjoint elements, or some signification altogether different from those which, from their composition, they might naturally be expected to indicate. We have said that the Sanscrit and the Pal have each of tbem, twenty inseparable prepositions. It is so; although it must be remarked that Professor Wilson in his excellent Grammar (see p. 97,) says, that "the Upasargas are twenty-one in number:” and he includes astong which he defines thus; "coming within a space or interval; 2 inner, within, inter, unter ; 3. potosioso, disappearance qoron as pervading or inner soul.” This does not, however, occur as a preposition in any of the following works; Carey's, Wilkin's, Yates', and a native Sanscrit Grammar jo our possession, The Mugdhabodha by Vapadeva, all of whom are agreed in the number and the identity of “the twenty prepositions"

ono Doca 8800 62,80028 8;" these are the twenty, named (Gi or ) prepositionsMugdhabodha, p. 4.-Nor indeed does the Pali language contain more than twenty prepositions.-See Balawalara, p. 70. Also a comparative tabular view of the twenty prepositions in Appendix C.


re-informed; 6 83 as in Sonę substance-less, or 6.6 in-dubitable; 7 9 as in si e evil-faith (having the same force


ç as un in unbelief); 8 8 as in Sand like unto; 9 op (the reverse of a negation) as in aço love; 10 epę as in opēco con-densed (whence the signification chapter); 11 e as in de B verygood-eyed person; 12 c as in ceea up-risen; 13 q@ as in

-; quawed approach, nearness; 14 38 as in 88 not completion; 15 cu as in eno mediocrity or cowo living near to; qo as in cocod or owo separated from (hence the word equivalent to ablative); 17 oed as in ou o experienced, or 62000 otosco from tree to tree; 18 e8 as in See:@ regaining; 19 05 whence 9853 remaining (or a Boncos abundant) 820 passed away; and 20 8 as in 8820 covered.

End of the third Chapter. *


“The masculine term has (in the English ) a general meaning, expressing both male and female ; and is always employed when the office, occupation, or profession, &c. and

not the sex, of the individual is chiefly to be expressed; and the feminine term is used in those cases only in which discrimination of sex is indispensable. This may be illus. trated by the following examples :-|| 1 say, The puels of this age are distinguished more by correctness of taste than sublimity of conception, I clearly include in the term “poets' both male and female writers of poetry.

If I say, she is the best poetess in this country, I assign her the superiority over those only of her own If I say She is the best poet in this country, I propounce her superior to all other writers of poetry both male and female,

When distinction of sex is necessary for the sake of perspicuity, or where the ser rather than the general idea implied by the term, is the primary object, the feminine noun must be employed to express the female."-- Crombie. In this respect, the use of the masculine term in the Singhalese is the same as in English, e. g. cocoto si cu noro988-When the daughter of kin Madu had gone to the wilderness, Wessantra gare away his children. vide infra § 33. Here oosos rendered by us “children” is a masculine noun in the plural number, having reference to Jaliye the son, and Krishnejena the daughter, of king Wessantra in one of the incarnations of Budha. The object of the writer being, not to express the sex of the children in question, but to convey the general fact that the king parted with his own roval offspring, a masculine term is correctly used to include both male and female.


On Declensions. 25. Nouns are of two kinds wspol, and m@ol. In all declensions one of these two kinds of words frequently occur, without any alteration of terminations in order to distinguish

the cases.


Examples of wo of (or words ending in vowel sounds); ę860 (c)* king of doctrines; cotés (on) demi-god; JS (8) Budha; or@ () lion of Sakkiye race; 266g () enemy of Māre; 2 (69) evil spirit; 68 () cause; Gc93 () giant.

b. Examples of coco', or words that end in mute consonants, (i. e. consonants deprived of their inherent vowel sounds); gosol (o)) Siddharte (name of Budba when a Prince), &c.

Observe that the above are nouns of the masculine gender.

C. Examples of feminine nouns ending in vowel sounds; su (@) night; acos (on) river; 88 () beauty; 8 (3) blank verse; 38 (e) science; & (29) daughter; Od (0) stroke; nel () effulgence.

d. Examples of feminine nouns ending in consonants deprived of their inherent vowel sounds;—00(03) woman, &c. $

• The Singhalese letters within parentheses indicate either the inherent vowels, or the case terminations.

+ Examples of words ending in the short vowels and are omitted in the text, perhaps because they are frequently common in quantity; as in 1s (@apodfor 603(a podgiant armies. See note (*) p. 16.

The Rev. Sam, Lambrick in his Singhalese Grammar, p. 113, says, that “ there is a general correspondence in the two languages (English and Singhalese) as to the use of the definites and indefinites.” So there is. But the Student should bear in mind, that this correspondence arises (not from the ose of any articles equivalent to a, an, or the, but) by inflecting the noun with a particle equivalent to 'one,' to express the indefinite, and using the simple noun to imply the definile : thus 0 8 Wougos own [ono od is here written for oo, e a, or one King ) - King conquered onomies; Zorg agovaons [ęs day-chies, a term for The first, or Vominatire Case. 26. A noun that is not comprehended in any of the last eight cases is the leados) † copressed agent: and is in the first case. † The singular nouns in this case terminate ired and

on; and the plural in @ and e.


Sun] The Sun ha: dlestroyeil darkness. A plural noun is frequently used indefinitely, and to convey a collective idea; thus o&orcs.stoigos o cool [nęsto osat a two, equal to the English expressions, “a couple," or "many a flower born &c."] A couple of people conquered Enemies. In the plural number, the crude noun with its case termination conveys a definite idea to the mind; thus, & sics FSÓlavosu cocug suns, i. e. the Suns) Tre Suns have desirayed darkness. Where, however, the substance spoken of is indefinite from the very expression used, the noun is put without the inflexion en Thus, if we are asked, "what it is that cieeps there ? ' we answer. It is a polonga.' lu such an expression the genius of the Singhalese permits us to give the generic term for the Polonga, without determining it to be one of the genus: for that circumstance is already known from the very wording of the question. Indeed a contrary use would be as ridiculous as to distinguish the pronouns of the first and second porson with a gender. It is this peculiarity that has induced Mr. Lambrick to say, that in "speaking of any individual in a genus the English use the indefinite, and the Singhalese the definite." This is not exactly so. The Singhalese only conveys the genus without determining one single thing of the kind ; for to single out, as in the above example, would be unnecessary. But, where it is necessary, there would be no impropriety in the expression d good oot Breabi It is a Polonga lhat proceeds yonder. (Here whilst the genus is indicated, it is limited to one of the kind as in English.]

* In the text the Nominative is called the first case : and the student should have a regard to the order in which the nine cases in the Singhalese are treated ; since native Grammarians in speaking of the cases mention the number, as the first or second case, rather than the appellations given to them.

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+ Vide infra $ 59 and notes ; also Bala'vatara, p. 125.

1 The text evidently means, that when a poun, which is neither in the instrumental case, nor in the accusutive, conveys the signification of an Agent, it is in the first case, i. e. the Nominative. It therefore follows from this rule, that when the Nominative is the subject of the verb it is in the Acrire Voice ; and that when the object is the subject of the verb, it is in the passive; or in the words of Dr. Louth, (vide his Grammar, p. 49,) "when the agent takes the lead in the sentence, the


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