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Hemp cables are formed of three principal strands, every strand of three ropes, and every rope of three twists. The twists have more or fewer threads according to the greater or less thickness of the cable. All vessels have ready for service three cables, which are usually designated the sheet cable, the best bower cable, and the small bower cable ; but besides these, most ships have some spare cables. The ordinary length of a cable is frora 100 to 120 fathoms. The following are the existing regulations as to the manu. facture of hemp cables and cordage :
No person shall make or sell any cordage for shipping in which any hemp is used, called short chuck. ing, half clean, whale line, or other toppings, codilla, or any damaged hemp, on pain of forfeiting the same, and also treble the value thereof.
Cables, hawsers, or ropes, made of materials not prohibited by this act, and whose quality shall be inferior to clean Petersburgh hemp, shall be deemed inferior cordage, and the same shall be distinguished by marking on the tally, staple or inferior. Manufacturers making default herein forfeit for every hundred weight of cordage, 108.
Manufacturers are to affix their names and manufactory to new cordage before sold, under the like forfeiture ; and putting a false name is a forfeiture of 201.
Persons making cables of old and overworn stuff, containing above 7 inches in compass, shall forfeit four times the value.
Vessels belonging to British subjects, having on board foreign-made cordage, are to make entry thereof, on entering into any British port, on penalty of 20s. for erery hundred weight. But this is not to extend to cordage brought from the East Indies, nor to materials at present used by any ressels built abroad before this act. - (25 Geo. 3. c. 56.)
2. Iron Cables. — The application of strong iron chains or cables to the purposes of navigation is a late and an important discovery, for which we are indebted to Captain Samuel Brown, R. N. It is singular, indeed, that this application should not have been made at a much earlier period. On rocky bottoms, or where coral is abundant, a hempen cable speedily chafes, and is often quite destroyed in a few months, or perhaps days. A striking instance of this occurred in the voyage of discovery under the orders of M. Bougainville, who lost sir anchors in the space of nine days, and narrowly escaped shipwreck; a result, says that able seaman, which would not have happened, eussions été munis des quelques chaines de fer. C'est une précaution que ne doivent jamais oublier tous les navigateurs destinés à de pareils voyages." - (Voyage autour du Monde, p. 207. 4to. ed.) The work from which this extract is taken was published in 1771; and yet it was not till nearly forty years after, that any attempt was made practically to profit by so judicious a suggestion. The difficulties in the way of importing hemp from 1808 to 1814, and its consequent high price, gave the first great stimulus to the manufacture of iron cables.
Iron cables are constructed in different ways — (see Encyc. Metrop. ); but they are uniformly tried by a machine, which strains them by a force greater than the absolute strength of the hempen cable they are intended to replace. By this means the risk of accident from defective links is effectually obviated ; and there are exceedingly few instances in which an iron cable has broken at sea. Their great weight also contributes to their strength, inasmuch as the impulse of the ship is checked before the cable is brought nearly to a straight line, or that the strain approaches to a maximum. Bolts and shackles are provided at every fathom or two fathoms, by striking out which the ship may, if necessary, be detached from her anchors with less difficulty than a hempen cable can be cut.
Even in their most defective form, iron cables are a great deal stronger than those of hemp; and as to durability, no sort of comparison can be made. No wonder, therefore, that they should be rapidly superseding the latter ; which are now almost wholly laid aside in the navy, and, to a great extent, also, in the merchant service.
CADIZ, the principal commercial city and sea-port of Spain, on its south-western coast, on the rocky and elevated extremity of a narrow, low peninsula, or tongue of land, projecting from the Isla de Leon, N. N. W. about 4ļ nautical miles. It is surrounded on all sides, except the south, where it joins the land, by the sea, and is very strongly fortified. Population, in 1837, 58,525. It is well built, and has, at a distance, a very striking appearance. The tower or lighthouse of St. Sebastian stands on the western side of the city, being, according to Tofiño, in lat. 36° 31' 7" N., long. 6° 18' 52" W. It is a most conspicuous object to vessels approaching from the Atlantic. The light, which is 172 feet high, is of great brilliancy, revolves once a minute, and in fair weather may be seen more than 6 leagues off.
Day or Cadia. The entrance to this noble basin lles between ac mainted with the channel, ought to attempt entering be the city and the town and promontory of Kota, bearing N.W. tween the Cochinos and Puercas and the city. by V., distant about 1 league. The bay is of very great ex. St. Mary's, on the opposite side of the bay, is famous for being tent, affordink, in most places, good anchorage. The port is the depót of the wines of Xeres. The outer bay, or that of on the eastern side of the city, wbere a mole of considerable Cadiz properly so called, is separated from the inner hayly the dimensions has been constructed; but the water is not suffi promontory having at its extremity the castle of Matas orda, cientis Jeep to allow large vessels to approach nearer than which approaches within about of a mile of the Puntales within about of a mile, where they anchor in from 5 to 7 castle on the Isla de Leon. Within the inner bay is the fa. fachome. The rocks called the Cochinos, the l'uercas, and the mous anenal of the Caraccas, the town of San Carlos, the canal Diamante, lie to the north of the city in the entrance to the of Trocadero, &c. At spring tides the water in the bay rises bay; the first two at about 3-5ths of a mile distant, and the 10 or 11 feet, but at neaps the rise does not exceed 6 feet. Diamante at rather more than 18 mile from the city. Vessels (For further particulars see the excellent Chart of the buy of may enter between the Puercas and the Diamante ; but none, Cadiz, by Tofino; Matham'. Naral Garett er; and Purity except those not drawing more than 15 feet water, and well Sailing Directions for the Bay of Biscay, &c.)
History, Trade, &c. - Cadiz is a very ancient city, having been founded by the Phænicians about 1,200 Fears before the Christian æra. The temple which they erected in it in honour of Hercules was one of the most celebrated in antiquity. - (Sainte Croix, Des Anciennes Colonies, p. 14.; Pomp. Mela, lib. iii.
The town of
cap. 6.) Its excellent port, and its situation, favourable alike for commerce and security, have made it, whether possessed by Carthaginians, Romans, Moors, or Christians, and under every vicissitude, a place of considerable commercial and political importance. It has long been one of the principal stations of the Spanish naval force. In 1720, the commerce with Spanish America, which had previously been exclusively carried on from Seville, was transferred to Cadiz. It enjoyed this valuable monopoly tili 1765, when it was partially relaxed by the trade to Cuba, St. Domingo, Porto Rico, and the other islands, being opened to all the greater poris of Spain. The benefits resulting from this relaxation were so very great, that in 1778 the trade to all parts of America was opened to ships from every considerable Spanish port, except those of Biscay, which, not being subject to the general laws of the kingdom, were not allowed to participate in this privilege. In consequence, however, of her situation, the great capital of her merchants, and their established connections, Cadiz continued, not withstanding the abolition of the monopoly, to preserve by far the largest share of the American trade. But since the colonie achieved their independence, her commerce bas been contracted within comparatively narrow limits; nor is there much prospect of its being materially improved, without a total change of policy on the part of the Spanish government. Barcelona is at present the principal seat of Spanish commerce.-(Robertson's America, b. viii. passim; Townsend's Travels in Spam, vol. ii: PP: 393401. 2d edit.)
The white wines of deres in its vicinity form by far the principal article of export from Cadiz. The quantity exported may amount to about 30.000 pipes a year. The prices vary from 12. to 65. per pipe ; but, as the lower qualities predominate, the price may be taken, at a medium, at about 251., making the total value of the exports 750,0001. More than ths of the whole comes to England. The other articles of export are quicksilver, brandy, oranges and other fruits, oil, provisions, four, salt, wool, &c. The imports consist principally of sugar and coffee from the Havannah and Porto Rico, cocoa, hemp. flax, linens, dried fish, hides, cotton wool and cotton manufactures, rice, spices, indigo, stuves and timber, &c. Statement of the Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Values of the Cargoes of Vessels, belonging to various Nations, which entered and cleared at the Port of Cadiz, in 1845 and 186. Entered.
Account of the Quantities of the principal Articles imported from Spain and the Balearic Islands into
the U. Kingdom in 1849.
173,9 10 Olive oil
15,100) Orange and lemons
132,393 Wool 127,559
25,855 In 1850, 625 foreign merchant vessels, with a crew of 6,379 men, and a tonnage of 124,720 tons, entered the port of Cadiz. Of these, 317 vessels, with a crew of 2,889 men, and a tonnage of 52,403 tons, were English; 66, with 727 men, and 10,867 tons, French ; 51, with 701 men, and 15,282 tons, Prussian ; and 48, with 564 men, and 17,341 tons, American.
Monry --The monies, weights, and measures, used at Cadiz, nation or fabric may be their origin, concluding the tement are this of Castle. Accounts are kept by the reo (of old or note with a declaration that it details the true contents of plate), of which there are 10 in the preso duro, or hard dollar: the packages, and that they contain nothing else. There must and as the dollar = 1:. 34. the real=11d. A real is divided be separate notes from each shipper and for each consignee. into 16 quintos, or 31 maravedis. The ducudo de plata, or ducat Art. 3. Prom all these notes the consul is to form a general of plate, is worth 11 reals.
summary, with a copy of which, and one of each of the notes Iveckis and Measures. The ordinary quintal is divided of the shippers, he is to form a true register of the cargo, to be Info urrolas, or 100 lbs. of 2 marcs each: 100 lbs. Castile detisered to the master in a sealed de patch (with wax and =1014 Ibs. avoirdupois. The yard, or varg = 927 English wafer), addressed to the administrador of the custom-house at yard, or 100 varan =927 English yands The cahis, or measure the port of destination. No merchandise can go on board for toin, is divided into 12 fangus, or 141 creminus, or 376 after delivery of the register to the masker, without subjecting quartillas: 100 cahiz =19-1 Winch. quarters, and 3 fanegas all to seizure on arrival in Spain. =l quarter The cantaro, or arroha, the measure for liquids, Art. 8. The master, who in the act of receiving pratique, is divided into 8 cumbres, and 32 quartillos. There are two shall not deliver to the adıninistrador the saled despatch or sorts of arrobas, the greater and the lesser: they are to each register handed to him by the Spanish consul, shall pay a fine other as 32 to 23; the former being equal to English wine of 410 Joll., the cargo discharged and stored, until the consul altors, the latter to do. A mye of wine = 10 arrobas. shall remit a certified copy of the original notes presented by The borta =347 arrobas of wine, or 38 of oil. A pipe -- 27 the shippers, and for which the administrador shall apply. arrobas of wine, or 314 of vil. Hence the botta =1271 English Art. 10. On examination by the administrador, in presence wine gallons, and the pipe 111 do.
of the master, of these sealed de patches or register, if they Port auther Charger at Cadix. - British vessels pay a ton manifest marks or evidens of having been previously opened, nage duty of one real de Vellon, or 4. sterling, and for light the paster shall be hned 100 doll. for this alone, and duty 24 maravedis, or id. sterling, exchange 37 d. per Lol Art. 11. In case aulendments and alterations are obeerred lar of exchange; bot Spanish vessels are exempt from the ton in the notes, the master shall aniwer het re the tribunal of naz duty, and pay for light duty 12 maravedis, or 3) farthings finance for the crime of forgery, which he may le guilty of sterling, at the same exchange
Art. 12. Where no consul resides, shippers must send their Customs Regulow. - Art. I. Shippers of merchandise in notes to the one ne rrest resident, and the master shall receive foreign countries shall present to the Spanish consuí a state. from him these registers, with the understanding that mer. ment in duplicate, and without corrections or erasures, of the chandise from a foreign country shall not be admitted to entry gods they ernhark, espressing the name and nature of the which shall not come with the requisites detailed. vessel, and of the master, port of destination, description of Art. 11. The exceptions to the above are cargoes of lumber, the bales, hoxet, packakis, &c. &c., to be shipped, their marks staves, codfish, hides, coals, which it shall besident come to and numbers, class, quality, and quantity of the merchandise the order of the master in search of a market: but in such contined in each, in Spanish weight or measure, the con cases a document of origin must be presented from the place of ses thereof, of what nation the produce and manufacture; loading, specifying the quantity aboard of the ve sel
of the country whence stapped, and if not, of what other Art. 23. Within twenty four hours after anchoring (being
visited), the master shall present to the administrador of the Art. 181. Transhipments prohibited. custoni house a manifest of the cargo, &c.
Art. 182. Merchandise cannot be manifested in transitu fer Art. 27. Fine of 101) doll, if the manifest be not presented the port from which the vessel originally sailed, nor those within tweuty-four hours.
totiched at in the voyage. Art. 38. Fine of 100 doll. for every package in excess, and 50 doll. every one manifested less than what is expressed in the
TREASURY DEPARTMENT - ORDER IN COUNCIL. register made up by the Spanish consul.
* Your Excellency will plea e to notify to H.M.consuls alırond Art. 39. If the manifest does not specify minutely the con that under no pretence they give course to the declarations or lents of the packages of prohibited merchandise manifested in notes of shippet, unless exactly in conformity with the custhe transitu, they shall be landed and examined.
toms regulations, nor despatch registers including articles of Art. 42. All goods must be inanifested to specified con. prohibited traffic, under the understanding that for the con. signeer, in no case to "order." The general uitm“ mer. fiscations and tines which shall be imposed for defects in chandise is not recognised nor admitted, in which case the consular documentation, the consuls theinseires shall be re. Koods shall be landed and examined in the presence of the sponsible, notifying them also that all the documents which ma ter or his agent, and if they shall be found to be illicit they give course to, must, without exception, be made in the goods, they shall be forfited, itnd the master tined twenty-five Spanish ianguage." per ceat. If they be worth more than 2,000 doll., and if less, Madrid, September 26. 1850. 300 doli. If the goodis be of licit traffic, half the sums,
Spanish Commercial Policy. - . It is the peculiar misfortune of Spain that every part of her political system has been alike vicious and objectionable. Had her commercial policy been liberal, it would, in some degree, have compensated for the defects in the distribution of property and political power, and would, no doubt, have given a powerful stimulus to industry. But, unluckily, it has been in perfect harmony with her other institutions, and was, in all respects, worthy of the favourite seat and stronghold of the Inquisition. From the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella down almost to yesterday, the grand object of the Spanish government, next to the extirpation of heresy, has been to exclude foreign manufactures from the Peninsula, and to preserve a monopoly of its markets, as well as of those of the colonies, to the home manufacturers. It is, however, almost needless to say, that their efforts to bring about this result have been signally unsuccessful. Oppressive taxes, with the multiplication of fasts and bolydays, the government monopolies, and the badness of the roads and other means of communication, made it impossible for the Spanish manufacturers, even if they had evinced greater enterprise and industry than they have done, to produce manufactured articles as cheap as the English, French, and others less unfavourably situated. And such being the case, it is plain that the prohibition of certain descriptions of commodities, and the oppressive duties laid on others, could have no effect except to suppress the legitimate commerce of the country, and to throw it wholly, or almost wholly, into the hands of smugglers. Any one who takes up a map of Spain mu-t be satisfied at a glance that it would be impossible for an army of customs officers to prevent her being deluged with smuggled products, provided they were materially cheaper than her native products ; for, besides her extensive sea frontier, they may be introduced by way of France and Portugal, and also through the Basque Provinces, which have distinct laws, and enjoy an exemption from the commercial code inflicted on the rest of the kingdom. We need not, therefore, be surprised that every effort to prevent the clandestine introduction of foreign products completely failed. The severities occasionally inflicted on the smugglers, instead of abating, seem really to have increased, the evil, The contraband trade has long been a favourite occupation, and has been eagerly followed by the adventurous, the necessitous, and the desperate. It is believed that for nearly three centuries from 100,000 to 150,000 individuals have been preity constantly engaged in this occupation ; that is, they have been engaged in trampling on the laws, obstructing their othicers, and committing acts of violence and blood. A few years ago about 3,000 actions were annually instituted against contrabandistas and others engaged in illicit trade, which terminated in the ruin of a vast number of families ; at the same time that the courts of law were filled with perjury, and the country with bloody conflicts. And yet these atrocities secured no one object government had in view.
Notwithstanding their being absolutely prohibited, English and French cotton goods might, in 1818, be bought in every ship in Madrid, and generally throughout Spain ; the former at from 20 to 30 per cent, above their price in Gibraltar, where they are about as cheap as in Manchester; and the latter at from 20 to 30 per cent. above their price in Bayonne, which is nearly identical with their price in Rouen! While Cadiz was a free port, about 6.000 persons are said to have been employed in it twisting cigars, which, as soon as finished, were forth with smuggled into the interior. Three fourths, in fact, of the foreign trade of Spain were then in the hands of the contrabandistas, who carried it on in defiance of the law. And when such was the case, need we wonder at the low state of industry, or at the prevalence of those predatory and ferocious habits that uniformly mark the character of the smuggler?
And, strange to say, notwithstanding the ruinous infiuence of this wretched system was long since exposed by Ulloa, Campomanes, and other distinguished Spaniards, and by Mr. Townsend and other foreigners, who had visited the country, and notwithstanding all the vicissitudes Spain has undergone during the last half century, it continued to maintain its ascendanry down to 1849. But the leading Spanish statesmen having been, at length, satisfied of the disastrous indluence of the old system, a vigorous effort was made, in the year now mentioned, to introduce a more rational tariff; and notwithstanding the selfish and short-sighted opposition of the Catalans and others, the new tariff was happily passed into a law. It is true that it leaves much to be desired; but it is, at the same time, a vast improvement on the system by which it was preceded, and it is especially valuable as being the first step in the introduction of a new and more liberal and rational policy. In a few cases the duties on importation have been increased, but in the great inajority of instances they have been reduced, and the greater number of the articles that were formerly prohibited are now admitted on payment of duties. The following are the bases of the new tariff, viz. :
“ Machines and instruments necessary for agricultural, manufacturing, and mining operations, to pay a duty of from 1 to 14 per cent, ad valorem.
" Raw material not abundantly produced by Spain, and used in the operations of the national industry, whatever be the form or the increase of value that it may acquire, to pay from 1 to 14 per cent.
" Raw material similar to that abundantly produced by Spain, productive agents in the same case, such as coal and coke, and articles of merchandise of foreign manufacture which may, compete with those of the same kind and quality manufactured in Spain, to pay from 25 to 50 per cent.
N.B. - Cottons and silks come under this class. The duties on the former are generally about 35 per cent. ad valorem.
" Foreign produce and manufactures required for consumption, and not supplied by the national industry, to pay a marimum of 15 per cent., and at the utmost 20 per cent in every exceptional case.
“The duties hitherto levied on the colonial produce of foreign countries to be suitably increased
“ A discriminating duty of 20 per cent. to be charged on articles imported in foreign bottoms; and on those articles which contribute most to the support of the national navigation the discriminating duty may be raised to 5) per cent."
The prohibited imports are arms, projectiles, and munitions of war, including all kinds of gunponder, quicksilver, charts published by the Admiralty, and reprinted abroad; maps and plans by Spaniards, during copyright; cinnabar; vessels constructed of wood of less burden than 300 tons, of 20 quintals
each; grain, four, biscuit, bread, and macaroni, &c., for soup, not admitted by the corn law; books and prints in Spanish, by Spanish authors, if not imported by those individuals during copyright; missals, breviaries, and other books of liturgy (dictionaries, vocabularies, insignias, devices, and military ornaments are not included in this prohibition); pictures, &c., offensive io morality, or ridiculing the Catholic religion ; common salt, tobacco, shoes, and ready-made clothing, except for the private use of travellers ; chemical preparations forbidden by the sanitary laws.
Moderate export duties to be levied on antimony or galena, not argentiferous ; black copper, roughly melted ; litharge containing less than an ounce of silver per quintal , pig lead, raw silk.
Prohibited exports. - Cork in the bark of the province of Gerona: licharge containing an ounce and upwards of silver per quintal; argent ferous galena ; lead containing 24 drachms and upwards of silver per quintal: cotton, hempen, and woollen rags, and worn-out articles of those materials.
The high discriminating duty on goods imported on foreign bottoms is the most objectionable feature in this tariff ; though we can hardly be surprised at the Spaniards continuing to act on a principle that was acted upon down to a very recent period by the English and the Americans. We believe, however, that it will be far more injurious to themselves than to any one else ; and that its effect will be to lessen and embarrass their trade without really providing employment for Spanish merchantmen.
To the other facilities for smuggling in Spain must be added the venality and corruption of the customs officers. Notwithstafiding his espanolism, Mr. Ford bears testimony to its universality. He says, “ Every lock in Spain is to be picked with a silver key, and every ditħculiy smoothed by a properly administered bribe. The customs empleados have been defined to be gentlemen, who, under the pretence of searching portmanteaus, take money on the highway without incurring the disgrace of begging or the danger of robbing; and practically they worry honest travellers who won't pay them, as much as they facilitate those who will. But in truh, this venality is not confined to the revenue officers, but pervades and debases all classes, from the highest to the lowest.
We incline to think that, allowing for smuggling, the import and export trade of Spain might each he estimated, previously to the late change in the cariff, at about 4,000,0001, sterling, or, perhaps, a little more. And, c. nsidering the vast, and, as it were, unexplored resources of the country, and the infinite variety of desirable products she could supply to others, we have no doubt, that, under a really free com. mercial system, her commerce would speedily be doubled, and that, at no very distant period, it would be increased in a much greater proportion. It would appear, indeed, as if this anticipation were already in the way of being realised. An official return recently published shows that the total customs revenue of Spain in 1850, including the 6 per cent. additional duty, port and light dues, &c., amounted to 165,329,451 reals, being an increase of no less than 39,263,162 reals on the total customs revenue of the previous year. Of the above sum 17,386 740 reals were received at Cadiz.
The great articles of export from Spain consist (exclusive of silk manufactures) of raw products. Of these, wine, olive oil, wool, fruits of various kinds, lead, quicksilver, brandy, cork-wood, salt, raw silk, wheat, &c. are the most important, and are almost all susceptible of an indefinite increase.
The great articles of import are colonial products, obtained principally from Cuba, Porto Rico, &c.; cottons and cotton wool; linens, and hemp and flax, woollens; salted fish; hardware, glass, and earthenware ; timber, rice, hides, butter and cheese, &c. Subjoined is An Account of the Quantities and Values of the principal Articles of Native Produce exported from
Spain in 1849, showing, also, the proportional Value of each Article.
Articles in the Order of their Importance.
Value in Reals Vn. Amount per cent.
of Total Value.
1,142, 252 arrobas
79,830,620 Ditto, common
42,760,768 Ditto), Nalaga
4,162,791 Total wine
22.76 Olive oil
2.46 Silver in bars
0.73 Sok goods
0-17 Woollen goods
0-41 Putas, articles manufactured from flour
0 40 Maite
0.34 21.041 fanegas
1,600,242 Garbanzos, or chick-pes
0 34 Garden stuff
0-32 White paper
0-29 Sedge mattings, &c. (Esparto labrado)
0-25 Hempen yam
0.24 Oil of almonds
0.24 Kidney beans
0.22 Salted codfish
0 19 All other articles
100.00 The importance of the trade that Spain formerly carried on with her vast possessions in the New World, waa, at all times, much exaggerated ; and she, in truth, was little better than an agent in the business, the greater part of the goods sent on Spanish bottoms to the colonies being, in reality, the property of foreign merchants. Spain, notwithstanding the emancipation of Mexico and South America, has still some very valuable colonies; and, if nothing else can, the astonishing progress made by Cuba and Porto Rico, since the abolition of the prohibitive system, should satisfy her of its ruinous tendency.
Wool used to be a leading article of import into this country from Spain ; but now, though our imports of wool have vastly increased, they are principally supplied by the colonies in Australia, ava by Germany, Russia, India, etc. The quantities brought from Spain have, indeed, become quite inconsiderable ; so much so, that while in 1849 she supplied us with only 127,559 lbs., our total imports amounted in the immense quantity of 75,768,647 lbs. Wine, quicksilver, and raisins are at present the principal articles of importation from Spain. At an average of the 6 years ending with 1817. the declared value of the exports from the U.K. to Spain amounted to 570,8261. a year. But a considerable portion of the exports to Portugal, Gibraltar, and Malta find their way into Spain by the intervention of the smuggler, and some portion, also, of the exports to France. The direct exports to Spain, in 1849, amounted to 676,6361, not a third part of what they would be if Spain adopted a really free commercial system.
Owing to the baduess of the roads, and their untitness for carriages, the principal carriers of merehandise are the arricros, or muleteers, who traverse the country in all directions along beaten tracks, many of which are accessible only to them. They form a large portion of the provincial population, and, on the whole, have a good character for honesty to their employers, though they are nearly all. more or less, engaged in smuggling transactions. The extent of this traffic may be estimated from the fart, that about three fourths of the entire in land traffic in corn is carried on by their means. Recently, however, waggons have begun to be introduced on all the practicable roads, and should the latter be improved, the business of the arrieros will proportionally fall off.
There can be no reasonable doubt that, but for the system of misrule to which Spain has been subjected, her commerce would have been very extensive. Her natural advantages, superior to most, and not inferior to those enjoyed by any other kingdom ; her wines, brandies, fruits, &c.; her whrat, of which she might produce the largest supplies ; her wool; her iron, which is of the best quality, her lead and quicksilver mines, respectively the most productive in the world ; the number and excellence of her harbours; the enterprising and adventurous character of her inhabitants, and her favourable situation ; would, were she permitted to avail herself of them, raise her to a very high rank among commercial nations. Let the government follow up what it has so well begun, by ceasing to connteract the intentions of nature ; let moderate duties take the place of prohibitions, and freedom of regulation, and all sorts of industrious pursuits will revive from the deadly lethargy in which they have been so long sunk.
CAGLIARI, the capital of Sardinia, on the north-east shore of a spacious bay on the south coast of the island, lat. 39° 12' 13" N., long. 9° 6' 44" E. Population, in 1898, 27,989. The city stands on a rising ground, and has an imposing effect from the sea. The public buildings and churches are numerous, and some of them splendid; but the streets are, for the most part, narrow, steep, and filthy.
The Guilph of Cagliari extends from Pula on the west to Cape Carbonara on the east, a distance of about 24 miles across, and about 12 in depth, with good anchorage every where after getting into soundings. A mole projects from the Pratique office, and ships usually lie about 1 mile S. w. by S. from it, in 6 or 8 fathoms water, on an excellent bottom of mud. There is a very conrenient pier harbour at the south angle of the tower wall, capable of containing 14 or 16 vessels of a tolerable size, besides small craft. Altogether, Cagliari is one of the best and safest ports in the Mediterranean.
Imports and Exports. - Almost all the trade of Sardinia is carried on by strangers; and even the fish on its coast and in its harbours is caught by Sicilians, Neapolitans, Tuscans, and Genoese. Cor. is the principal article of export. In good years, the exports from the whole island may amount to 400,000 starelli, or about 500,000 bushels, of wheat, 200,000 starelli of barley, C,000 ditto of maize, 160,000 ditto of beans, 200,000 of peas, and 1.000 ditto of lentils. The culture of vines is gradually becoming of more importance; and about 3,500 Catalan pipe are exported, principally from Alghero and Ogliastro. Cheese is an important object in 'he rural economy of Sardinia, and considerable quantities are exported. Salt is a royal monopoly, and affords a considerable revenue. Until recently, Sweden drew almost all her supplies of this important necessary from Sardinia, and it continues to be exported in considerable quantities. Flax, linseed, hides, oil, saffron, rags, alquisoux, &c. are among the articles of export. The tunny and coral fisheries employ a good many hands; but, as already observed, they are almost wholly managed by foreigners.
Almost every article of dress, whether for the gentry or the peasantry, is imported. Soap, stationery, glass, earthenware, and furniture, as well as sugar, coffee, drugs, spices, &c., are also supplied by foreigners; and notwithstanding the Sards possess many rich mines, several of which were successfully wrought in antiquity, they import all their iron and steel. The only manufactures carried on in the island are those of gunpowder, salt, tobacco, and woollen caps. Account of the Value of the Goods imported into and exported from Cagliari in 1839, with the Amount
of the Duties on each.
Waters, drinks, essences, liquors, oils, spirits, and wines
works in ieather, and tanned skins in general
300 50 0
30 27,744 2,284 6 42,263 10 7,496 98 67,529 80 6,616 74 2,072 0 18,547 67 2.502 20
21...80 20 6,0806 40
9.0.56 59 715 59 13.050 70 382 93 1,001,064 39 277,18 75! 156.184 30)
34.315 37 2,114 57 3,452,609 50 150 116 12
6,121 23 427 11' 1,017,565 10 949,921 21 54,911 29 12.50 70 282,928 22 12,679 8 9,620 16
97,794 46 12,861 24 2,161 *O 312,171 84 31,190 4.3 100,600 4 362,674 71 29,490 97 19,99 30
01 16 15,218 20 1,312 54 25,338 24 2,163 77
246,607 90 24,676 39 454,9:1 30 28,779 33
36,196 0 2,186 85 228 54 0 2,137 39 660,427 31 23,078 72
555 0 22 76! 6 40
0 268,520 58 20,896 64
13 50 6,914,756 98 500,044 11' 5,860,314 42 239,123 46