Imatges de pàgina
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The 6 Geo. 4. c. 125. § 91. enacts, that every person who shall ride hy, make fast to, remore, or wilfully run dow: or run foul of any vessel placed to exhibit lights, or any buoy or beacon belonging to the cur. poration of the Trinity House of Deptford Strond, or to any other corporation having authority to place such vessel, buoy, or beacon, shall, besides making good all damage occasioned thereby, forfeit, for every such offence, any sum not exceeding 501. nor less than 10%

Subjoined is an Account specifying the Buoys and Beacons under the Control of the Trinity House, Deptford Strond,

with the Rates of Charge on account of the same on British and Foreign Ships, and the Produce of the Rates, in each of the Three Years ending with 1842 - (Furnished by Mr. Herbert, Secretary to the Trinity House.

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1d.

For the biors and beacons In the port of London the following rates are

d.

d. in the channels anting pasable for the inward passage only, viz. to the river Thames and

The rites vary port of London, includ. from 1 penny to i ing loads range and pri farthing per ton, acmage, also including ibe cor in to the de.

1 penny - 2 pence 10,572 48 dues formerly return.d scription of the ves.

10,672 08 10,835 10 4 under the head of Tri-is' cargoes, and the nity House duties from places from whence strangers' slips.

they arrive.

These dues are also received at the ports of Gravesend, Sheernen, Rochester, Faversham, Leigh Maldon, Colchester, Ipswich, Wibridige, Hurwich, and Aldborough, at which they are payable for the inward passage only. The rate on foreign vessels not privileged, is plence per ton, tut in other respects the rates are determinei liy the ancient wage of the respective places, and are generally one half the

amount of those in the port of London.
Buoys off Yarmouth - farthing per ton I farthing I farthing. 2,403 7 5! 2,494 19 4 2,455 12 13
Buoys and beacons in the river Tees:-
Coasters, British and foreign, privileged ( 1d. per vessel under 40 tons.

on all others.
704 15 10 747 14 2

718 19 2 Foreign vessels, not privileged

1s. per vessel. Ereter buoys: Ceastery (not stone bonts)

d. per ton per voyage. Stine boats

58. per vessel per ammum.

1949 119 177

198 15 113 Britih and foreig, privileged

42. per ton per voyage. Foreizn, not privileged Coaway buoys 3 farthings per ton, each and every time of

42 18 211 38 3 114 35 6 72 pusing Carmarthen buoys - 5 fair tres per ton, each time of passing:

85 10 7
74 18 10

75 7 74 Alernsey buoys - 1 halfpenns per ton. | 1 pennys i penny

30 19 11 31 19 11 25 19 10 Woodbridge beicon, &c. On all sesels entering the port of Woodbridge Under 50 ms.

1a. per vessel. 50 and under 100 tons

28.

37 70 38 3 0 37 16 0 100 tors and upwarda

38.

Total € 14,071 13 7 14,273 3 10 14.383 7 74 BURDEN of a ship. See Tonnage. BURGUNDY. See WINE.

BURGUNDY PITCH, a resin, the produce of the Pinus Abies, or spruce fir. It is obtained by making incisions in the bark down to the wood, whence it flows thickly and languidly, immediately concreting into flakes that adhere firmly to the tree. These being taken off are melted in boiling water, and strained through coarse cloths. It is of a close consistence, rather soft, has a reddish brown colour, and a not unpleasant smell; it is very adhesive. The greatest quantity collected in the neighbourhood of Neufchatel, whence it is brought to us packed in casks. A fictitious sort is made in England, and found in the shops under the title of common Burgundy pitch ; it may be distinguished by its friability, want of viscidity and of the odour which characterises the genuine sort.

A species of Burgundy pitch exudes spontaneously from the Norway spruce fir. This, which undergoes no preparation, is the resin or thus of the old London Pharmacopæias. It is imported in the form of tears or small masses, packed in casks, each containing from 1 to 2 cwt. It fetches about half the price of that which is strained. (Gray's Supplement to the Pharmacopæias, Thomson's Dispensatory.)

BUSHEL, a measure of capacity for dry goods, as grain, fruit, dry pulse, &c., containing 4 pecks, or 8 gallons, or of a quarter.

The Winchester bushel contains 2150-42 cubic inches, while the Imperial bushel contains 2218.192. Hence, to convert Winchester bushels into Imperial, multiply by the fraction 2,1978 or 969447, or approximately deduct 3th, and oth; and if great accuracy be required, 2000, and indoo more. To convert prices per Winchester bushel into prices per Imperial bushel, multiply by the fraction 2018?, or 1.03 15157.

By the 5 Geo. 4. c. 74. & 7. the bushel shall be the standard measure of capacity for cools, culm, lime, fish, potatoes, or fruit, and all other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure. The bushel shall contain 60 lbs, avoirdupois of distilled water, being made round, with a plain and even bottom, and being 194 inches from outside to outside. Sections 7. and 8. direct the mode in which the bushel shall be used for heaped measure, (See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. )

oil; and in the like manner butter is very little employed at present in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the southern parts of France.” —(History of Inventions, vol. i. p. 413. Eng. ed.)

Butter is very extensively used in this and most other northern countries; that of England and Holland is reckoned the best. In London, the butter of Epping and Cambridge is in the highest repute; the cows which produce the former, feed during summer in the shrubby pastures of Epping Forest; and the leaves of the trees, and numerous wild plants which there abound, are supposed to improve the fiavour of the butter. It is brought to market in rolls from one to two feet long, weighing a pound each. The Cambridgeshire butter is produced from cows that feed one part of the year on chalky uplands, and the other on rich meadows or fens : it is made up into long rolls like the Epping butter, and generally salted or cured before being brought to market; the London dealers, having washed it, and wrought the salt out of it, frequently sell it for Epping butter.

The butter of Suffolk and Yorkshire is often sold for that of Cambridgeshire, to which it is little infe. rior. The butter of Somer.etshire is thought to equal that o: Epping: it is brought to market in dishes containing half a pound cach: ont of which it is taken, washed, and put into different forms, by the dealers of Bath and Bristol. The butter of Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire is very good, it is made up in half-pound packs or prints, packed up in square baskets, and sent to the London market by wagon. The butter of the mountains of Wales and Scotland, and the moors, commops, and heaths of England, is of excellent quality when it is properly managed ; and though not equal in quantity, it often is consessedly superior to that produced by the richest meadows. - (Loudon's Encyc. of Agriculture.)

Considerable quantities of butter are made in Ireland, and it forms a prominent article in the exports of that country: generally, it is very inferior to that of Britain ; but this is a consequence rather of the want of cleanliness and attention, than of any inferiority in the milk. Some of the best Irish butter brought to London, after being washed and re-packed, is sold as Dorsetshire and Cambridge butter.

The salt butter of Holland is superior to that of every other country ; large quantities of it are annually exported. It forms about three-fourths of all the foreign butter we import.

The production and consumption of butter in Great Britain is very greal. The consumption in the metropolis may, it is believed, be averaged at about 10 lbs. a year for each individual ; and supposing this estimate to be nearly accurate, and the population to amount to 2,000,000, the total annual consumption would, on this hypothesis, be 20,000,000 lbs., or 8,928 tons : but to this may be added 3,000 tons, for the butter required for the victualling of ships and other purposes; inaking the total consumption, in round numbers, 12,000 tons, or 26,880,000 lbs., which at 10d. per lb. would be worth 1,120,000L.

The average produce per cow of the butter dairies is estimated by Mr. Marshall at 168 lbs. a year, but owing to the improvements that have been made in the interval, the yield per cow may now be safely estimated at 180 lbs. ; so that, supposing we are nearly right in the above estimates, about 150,000 CONS will be required to produce an adequate supply of butter for the London market.

The imports of foreign butter have more than doubled since 1830. We subjoin an Account showing the Total Quantities of Butter imported into the United Kingdom during each of the

Five Years ending with 1841, specifying the Quantities brought from each Country.

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The duties on foreign butter during the whole of these years were (including the 5 per cent. imposad in 1810) 21s. a cwt. In 1842 the duty on butter from a British possession was reduced to 58. a cwt.; and in 1816 it was farther reduced to 28. 6d. a cwt. on that brought from our possessions, and to 108. a cwt on that brought from foreign countries. We subjoin an Account of the Imports of Butter, and of the Quantities entered for Consumption with the Rerenue

accruing thereon iu 1846 and 1847.--(Parl. Paper, No. 107, Sess. 1848.)

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The average contract prices of the butter furnished to Greenwich Hospital from 1730 to 1842, have been as follows:

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In order to ohriate the practice of fraud in the weighing and packing of twitter, different statutes have been passed, particularly the 36 Creo. 3. c. 16., and 38 Geo. 3, c. 73., the principal regulations of which are subjoined. It is very doubtful, how. ever, whether they have been productive of any good effect. It might be proper, perhaps, to order the weight of the butter, exclusive of the ressel, and the dairyman's or heller's name, to be branded on the baside and outside of each ext; but most of the other regulat ons, especially those as to the thickness of

the staves, and the weight of the vessels, seem to be at once vexations and useless.

Every cooper or other person who shall make any vessel fir the packing of butter, shall inate the same of food weli. seasoned timber, tight and not leaky, and shall grorive ia the heads and bottoms thereof; and every vessel made for the packink of butter shall be a tub, firkin, or half-birkin, ai no other

Every tub shall weigh of itself, ind uding the top and bottom

not less than 11 lbs. por more than 15 l. avotrdupois: and which it was sold, and shall be liable to an action for recovery neither the top nor the bottom of any such tub wall exceed in of the aine, with full costs of uit. a part five egliths of an inch in that knes.

No cheese onger, lealer in hutter, &c. shall repack for sale Every firkin shall weith a least 7 lbs. Including the top and any futter, under penalty of 51. for every tub, firkin, or halfthe bottom, which shall no exceed four elights of an inch firki, so repacked. bick in any part.

Nothing in this act shall extend to make any cheesemonger, Half-tirtins to weigh not less than 1 lbs. por more than 6 lbs. dealer in butter, or other person, liable to any penalties for including the top and tive buttam, which shall not exceed the Un any of the tubs, firkina, or half-tirkins, afer the British thickness of three eightha of un inch in any part; upon pain butter used in such vessels shall have been taken the rout, for that the corper or very other person making any such vessel, the repacking for sale of any foreixu butter, who shall, before in any respect contrary to the preceding directions, shall forfeit he so repack such foreign butter, entirely cut or efface the every such vessel and 10,

several names of the original dairn an, farmer, or seller of Every comper, dr. shall brand every cask or vessel before butter, from every kuch vess 1, letting the name and are of going but of his possession, on the outside, with his naine, in the couper, and the tare of the orixinal dairyman, farmet, or les ble and permanent letters, under penalty of 108., together seller there.n; and, after the names are s eftacert, shall, with wiih the exact weight or tare thereof.

an iron, brand his Christian and surname, and the words Every cairyman, farmer, or seller of butter, or other person forrinutter, upon tie louge of every such vessel, ACTOSS TWO packing the same for mle, shall pract it in vessels mals and staves at lease, to denote that such butter in foreign butler. marked as aforesaid, and in no other, and shail properly soak l'ersons counterfeiting or forging any such names or marts, and wason every such resset; and on the inside, and on the shall for every such once forfeit 400. top on the outside, shall brand his name at length, in perma Penalties not exceeding to be determined by one justice, Dent and legille letters, and she also, with an iron, lifand on up the evidence of one witness, and the whole shall go to the top on the outside, and on the image or lady of every sucb the inforner cak, the true wight or tare of every such vessel, when it shall Penalties above 51. to be recovered by action of debt, or inhave been soaked and seasoned ; and also shall brand his name formation, in the courts at Westminster, and the whole to the at length, on the bouge or body of every sich versel, across two furmer ditt rent starts at least, and shall directly, atid at 'ength, Nothing to extend to the packing of botter in an pot or imprint his christian and surname upon the top of the butter Vessel which shall not be capable of containing more than in such

wen Elled, on pain of forfeiting 54. for 14 h. every default timreof.

Previously to 1826, no butter could be sold in any pub!! Esery tub of lutter shall contain, exclusive of the tare of market in Ireland, or exported from it, without being from

or and merchantable butter, $4 tha.; evry firkin 56 lbs.; viosly examined and branded by a public inspector; but € Fity ball-61kin 28 lbs. i and no ok or corrupt butter shall be Comance with this regulazioa i no longer coinpulsory, but mired, or parked in any vessel whatever, with any butter that is left to the discretion of the parties. is new and sound: nor stall any butter mide of whey be It is enncted by statute 4 WII. 3. c. 7., that every ware. parker or mixed with butter maule of crean, lur the respective horne-kerper, weicher, warcher, or shipper of butter and sorts siall be packed separately, and the whole server shall, cheese, shall receive all butter and cheese that shall be brought throughout, be of one sort and goodness; and no tuttet shall to him for the London chees entoners, and ship the wine be salied with any great salt, but all butter shall be salted with without undue preference; and s'all have for his pains 1. 6. small salt, nor shall more salt be interunited with the butter for every load; and if he shall make default, he shall, on than is nerful for its pres rvation, under penalty of 51. for conviction before one justice, on oath of one witness, or conollecting a inst any of the re uittions.

fession, forteit for every firkin of butter 10., and for every Nothange, alteration, fraud, ur de pit shul be practised by weigh of cheese 58.; half for the use of the poor, and half to the any dealer or packers of butter, either with respect to the informer. vetiel or the butter s parked, whether in respect to quantity And every such person shall keep a book of entry of receiving or otherwist, under a penalty of 301. to be imposed on every and shipping the goods, on pain of 26.6d, for every tirkan of Pengard in the offence.

butter and we gh of cheese. Every cheesemonger, dealer in butter, or other person, who The master of a ship refusing to take in butter or cheese bee shall sell any tabs, tirkins, or half-tirkins of butter, shall fore he is ful laden (except it be a cheex monger's own ship deliver, in emish.cask or vessel respectively, the full quan

sent for his own goods) shall furfrit for every firkin of butter

refused 58., and for every weigh of cheese 21. od. liable to make sati faction to the perar who shall buy the This act does not extend to any warebou e in Cheshire ar same for what shall be wanting, according to the price for Lancashire.

Butter made in hot countries is generally liquid. In India it is denominated ghee, and is mostly prepared from the milk of buffaloes ; it is usually conveyed in duppers, or bottles made of hide, each of which contains from 10 to 40 gallons. Ghee is an article of considerable commercial importance in many parts of India.

The Arabs are the greatest consumers of butter in the world. Burckhardt tells us, that it is a common practice among all classes to drink every morning a coffee cup full of melted butter or ghee ! and they use it in an infinite variety of other ways. The taste for it is universal; and the poorest individuals will expend half their daily income that they may have butter for dinner, and butter in the morning. Large quantities are annually shipped from Cosseir. Souakin, and Massouah, on the west coast of the Red Sea, for Djidda and other Arabian ports. (Burckhardt's Travels in Nubia, p. 440.; Travels in Arabia, vol. i. p. 52)

BUTTONS (Du. Knoopen ; Fr. Bouton; Ger. Knöpfe ; It. Bottoni ; Rus. Pogowizü; Sp. Botones) are well known articles, serving to fasten clothes, &c. They are manufactured of an endless variety of materials and forms.

It might have been supposed, that the manufacture of such an article as this would have been left to be carried on according to the views and interests of those concerned, individuals being allowed to select any sort of button they pleased. Such, however, has not been the case ; and various statutes have been passed, pointing out the kind of buttons to be worn, and the way in which they are to be made! Most of these regulations have luckily fallen into disuse, but they still occupy a place in the statute book, and may be enforced. The following are amongst the more prominent of these regulations:--

No person shall make, sell, or set upon any clothes, or wear To prevent the frauds which it is alleged had taken place in ing parments what wever, any lutions made of cloth, berge, the manufacture of gilt and plated buttons, an act, 36 Geo. 3. druguel, frieze, camblet, or any other stutt of which clothes c. 6., Was passed, which regulates what shall he deemed kilt or wearing garments are made, or any buttons made of wood and what plated buttons, and imposes penalties on those who only, and turned in imitation of other buttons, on pain of for. order as well as on those who may make any buttons with the feiring 10. per dozen for all such buttom, - (1 Gen. 1. c. 7.) words "gilt" or "plated" marked upon them, except they be

Xo tailor shall set on any buttons, or button-holes, of serge, gilt and plated as the act directs. Inasmuch as this statute bruget, &c., under penalis of 409. for every dozen of buttons goes to obviate a fraud, it is, perhaps, expedient; but no apo. or button-hole com de or set on.

can be made for the regulations previously alluded to, No person shall use or wear, on any clothes, garments, or which are at once vexations and attird. apparel whatsoever, excepit velvet, any buttons or button holes The importation of buttons from abroad was prohibited in nade of or braind with cloth, setge, druggel, frieze, camblet, the reign of Charles Il. But the 6 Geo. 4.c. 107. $ 32. reor oth stutt whereof clothes or woollen gement are usually peiled this proibition, and they may now be imported, for made, on penalty of forfeiting 40s. per dozen, under a similar hoine consumption, on paying an ad valorem duty. petaily.- (7 Geo. 1. c. 22.1

C.

CABBAGE, a biennial plant (Brassica Lin.), of which there are many varieties. It is too well known to require any particular description; it is extensively cultivated in the vicinity of London. Sour crout, or properly sauer kraut, is a very favourite dish in Germany; it consists of a fermented mass of salted cabbage.

CABLES are strong ropes or chains, principally used in the anchoring or mooring of ships.

1. Rope Cables are, in Europe, principally manufactured of hemp ; but in the East they are very frequently made of coir, or the fibrous part of the cocoa nut, and in some places, particularly on the Red Sea, of the coating of the branches of the date tree.

oil; and in the like manner butter is very little employed at present in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the southern parts of France.”-.(History of Inventions, vol. ii. p. 413. Eng. ed.)

Butter is very extensively used in this and most other northern countries ; that of England and Holland is reckoned the best. In London, the butter of Epping and Cambridge is in the highest repute; the cows which produce the former, feed during summer in the shrubby pastures of Epping Forest ; and the leaves of the trees, and numerous wild plants which there abound, are supposed to improve the flavour of the butter. It is brought to market in rolls from one to two feet long, weighing a pound each, The Cambridgeshire butter is produced from cows that feed one part of the year on chalky uplands, and the other on rich meadows or fens : it is made up into long rolls like the Epping butter, and generally salted or cured before being brought to market; the London dealers, having washed it, and wrought the salt out of it, frequently sell it for Epping butter.

The butter of Suffolk and Yorkshire is often sold for that of Cambridgeshire, to which it is little infe. rior. The butter of Somerietsbire is thought to equal that o: Epping: it is brought to market in dishes containing half a pound each: out of which it is taken, washed, and put into different forms, by the dealers of Bath and Bristol. The butter of Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire is very good; it is made up in half-pound packs or prints, packed up in square baskets, and sent to the London market by wagon. The butter of the mountains of Wales and Scotland, and the moors, commons, and heaths of England, is of excellent quality when it is properly managed ; and though not equal in quantity, it ofen is confessedly superior to that produced by the richest meadows. -(Loudon's Encyc. of Agriculture.)

Considerable quantities of butter are made in Ireland, and it forms a prominent article in the exports of that country: generally, it is very inferior to that of Britain ; but this is a consequence rather of the want of cleanliness and attention, than of any inferiority in the milk. Some of the best Irish butter brought to London, after being washed and re-packed, is sold as Dorsetshire and Cambridge butter.

The salt butter of Holland is superior to that of every other country; large quantities of it are annually exported. It forms about three-fourths of all the foreign butter we import.

The production and consumption of butter in Great Britain is very great. The consumption in the metropolis may, it is believed," he averaged at about 10 lbs. a year for each individual; and supposing this estimate to be nearly accurate, and the population to amount to 2,000,000, the total alinual consunption would, on this hypothesis, be 20,000,000 lbs., or 8,928 tons : but to this may be added 3,000 tons, for the butter required for the victualling of ships and other purposes; making the total consumption, in round number, 12,000 tons, or 26,880,000 lbs., which at 10d. per Ib. would be worth 1,120,000L.

The average produce per cow of the butter dairies is estimated by Mr. Marshall at 168 lbs. a year, but owing to the improvements that have been made in the interval, the yield per cow may now be safely estimated at 180 lbs.; so that, supposing we are nearly right in the above estimates, about 150,000 cows will be required to produce an adequate supply of butter for the London market.

The imports of foreign butter have more than doubled since 1830. We subjoin an
Account showing the Total Quantities of Butter imported into the United Kingdom during each of the

Five Years ending with 1841, specifying the Quantities brought from each Country.

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The duties on foreign butter during the whole of these years were (including the 5 per cent. imposad in 1840) 21s. acwt. In 1842 the duty on butter from a British possession was reduced to 5s, a cwt.; and in 1816 it was farther reduced to 28. 6d. a cwt. on that brought from our possessions, and to 108. a cwt. on that brought from foreign countries. We subjoin an

Account of the Imports of Butter, and of the Quantities entered for Consumption with the Revenue

accruing thereon iu 1846 and 1847.-- (Parl. Paper, No. 107, Sess. 1848.)

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The average contract prices of the butter furnished to Greenwich Hospital from 1730 to 1842, haye been as follows:

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In order to obvlate the practice of fraud in the weighing and packing of butter, different statutes have ben passed, particu. larly the 36 (veo. 3. c. 86., and 38 Geo. 3.c 73., the principal regulations of which are subjoined. It is very doubitul, however, whether they have been productive of any good effect. It might be proper, perhaps, to order the weight of the butter, exclusive of the vessel, and the dairyman's or seller's name, to te branded on the inside and outside of each vesset; but most of the other regulations, especially those as to the thickness of

the staves, and the weight of the vessels, seem to be at once vexations and useless.

Every cooper or other person who shall make any vessel for the packing of butter, shall make the same of good well. seasoned timber, tight and not leaky, and shall groove in the heads and bottoms thereof; and every vesel made for the packing of butter shall be a tub, firkin, or half-tirkin, an i no other.

Every tub shall weigh of itself, inceding the top and bottam

not less than 11 lb nor more than 15 ls. avoirdupois; and which it was sold, and shall be liable to an action for recovery neither the top nor the bottom of any such tub shall exceed in ang past five eighths of an inch in thickness.

i No ebenese monger, leader in hutier, &c. shall repack for sale Every tirkin shall weigh at least 7 lbs. including the top and any butter, under penalty of bd. for every tub, firkin, or halfthe bottom, which shall not exceed four eighths of an inch firkin, so repacked. thick in any part.

Nothing in this act shall extend to make any cheesemonger, Hall-tirkins to weigh not less than 4 lbs. nor more than 6 lbs. dealer in butter, or other person, liable to any penalties for Including the lop and the bum, which shall not exceed the using any of the tubs, firkins, or half-tirkins, after the British thickness of three eightha of 2 inch in any part ; upon pain butter used in such vessels shall have been taken thereout, for that the cooper or very other person making any such vessel, te repacking for sale of any foreign butter, who shall, before in any respect contrary to the preceding directions, shall forfeit he so repack such foreign butter, entirely cut or efface the every such Yessel and 0.

several nams of the orikina dairyman, farmer, or seller af Every cor, &c. shall brand every cask or vessel before butter, from every such vesai, leaving the name and tare of going out of his possession, on the outside, with his name, in the cooper, and the tare of the original dairyman, farmer, or lex the and permanent letters, under penalty of 10s., together Seller there n; and, after the names are seeil'acet, shall, with with the exact weight or tare thereof.

an iron, brand his Christian and surname, and the words Every dairyman, farmer, or wller of butter, or other person forrigen later, upon the bouge of every such vessel, actose two packing the same for sale, shall pack it in vessels made and staves at least, to denote that such butter is foreign butler. marked as aforesaid, and in no other, and shall properly soak Persons counterfeiting or forginc any such names or marks, and season every such excel; and on the inside, and on the shall for every sth office forfeit 101. top on the outside, shall brand his name al length, in perma. Penalties not exceeding 31. to be determined by one justice, Dent und lexible letters, and oh I also, with an iron, brand on upon the evidence of one witness, and the whole shall go to the top on the outside, and on the bude or body of every such the inforner aa, ihe true weight or tare of every sich vessel, when it ball Penalties ahove 51. to be recovered by action of debt, or inhave been soaked and seasoned ; and also shall brand his name formation, in the courts at Westminster, and the whole to the atlmgih, on the boule or body of every such vessel, acres two ! infurmer, diffent starts at lead, and shall di titly, and at length, Nothing to extend to the packing of botter in any pot or imprint hin ('hristian ani surname upon the top of the butter vexcel which shall not be capable of containing more than in such a when filled, on pain of forteiting 54. for 14 11 every default thrreof.

Previously to 1896, no butter could be sold in any publle Every ful of batter shall contain, exclusive of the tare of market in Ireland, or exported from it, wi houting preBront and merchantable butter, $4 thes, i every tirkin 56 s., viously examined and branded by a public in pector, but EFITY half-Grkin 28 tbs , and no old ur corrupt butter shall be Coun ance with this regulation is no longer coinpulsory, but mixed, or packed in any vessel whatever, with any butter that is left to the discretion of the parties. by new and sound: nor shell any hutter mide of whey be It is enacted by statute 4 W11. 3. c. 7., that every ware packed or mixed with butter nude of crean, but the respective holise-kemper, weigher, marcher, or slipper of butter and Barts shall be packed separately, and the whole rensel shall, cheese, shall receive all butter and cheese that shall be brought througout, he of one sort and goodness; and no butter shali to him for the London cheesenyories, and ship the same belted with any great salt, but all butter shall be salted with without undue preference, and shall have for his pains small at ror shall more salt be interinixed with the butter for every load and if he shall make default, he whall, on tan is needitul for its preservation, under penalty of 51. fox conviction before one justice, on oath of one winess, or con. offerding ainst any of these regulations.

fession, furteit for every tirkin of butter 104., and for every No change, alteration, fraud, or de eit shall be practised by weigh of cheese 58.; half for the use of the poor, and half to the ay dealer, or makers of butter, either with respect to the informer Vesel or the buiter sa packed, whether in respect to quantity And every such person shall keep a book of entry of receiving or otherwise, under a penalty of 301. to be imposed on every and shipping the goods, on pain of 2s.6d. for every tirkin of person engaged in the offence.

butter and weigh of cheese. Every cheesemonger, dealer in butter, or other person, who The master of a ship refusing to take in butter of cheese hee shall sell any tubs, artins, or half-tirkins of butter, shall fore he is ful laden (except it be a cheese monger's own ship deliver, in enti suih cast or vessel respectively, the full quan sent for his own goods) shall forfeit for every firkin of butter tuy appointed by this act, or, in default thertof, shall be refused 58., and for every weigh of cheese 26. bd. liable to make satt faction to the peror who shall buy the This act does not extend to any warehou e in Cheshire or same for what shall be wanting, according to the price for Lancashire.

Butter made in hot countries is generally liquid. In India it is denominated ghee, and is mostly prepared from the milk of buffaloes, it is usually conveyed in duppers, or bottles made of hide, each of which contains from 10 to 40 gallons. Ghee is an article of considerable commercial importance in many parts of India.

The Arabs are the greatest consumers of butter in the world. Burckhardt tells us, that it is a common practice among all classes to drink every morning a coffee cup full of melted butter or ghee! and they use it in an infinite variety of other ways. The taste for it is universal; and the poorest individuals will expend half their daily income that they may have butter for dinner, and butter in the morning. Large quantities are annually shipped from Cosseir, Souakin, and Massouah, on the west coast of the Red Sea, for Djidda and other Arabian ports. -- (Burckhardi's Travels in Nubia, p. 440.; Travels in Arabia, vol. i. p. 52.)

BUTTONS (Du. Knoopen ; Fr. Bouton; Ger. Knöpfe; It. Bottoni ; Rus. Pogowizü ; Sp. Botones) are well known articles, serving to fasten clothes, &c. They are manufactured of an endless variety of materials and forms.

It might have been supposed, that the manufacture of such an article as this would have been left to be carried on according to the views and interests of those concerned, individuals being allowed to select any sort of button they pleased. Such, however, has not been the case ; and various statutes have been passed, pointing out the kind of buttons to be worn, and the way in which they are to be made! Most of these regulations have luckily fallen into disuse, but they still occupy a place in the statute book, and may be enforced. The following are amongst the more prominent of these regulations:

No person shall make, sell, or set upon any clothes, or wear. To prevent the frauds which it is alleged had taken place in ing candents what ever, any Lotions made of cloth, setge, the manufacture of gilt and plated buttons, an act, 36 Geo. 3. angget, frieze, camblet, or any other stutt of which clothes c. 6., was passed, which regulates what shall be deemed gilt OT Wearing garments are made, or any buttons made of wood and what plated buttons; and imposes penalties on those who only, and turned in imitation of other buttons, on pain of for order as well as on those who ly make any buttons with the feiling 108. per dozen for all such buttons, - (1 Geil. 1. c.7.) words "gilt" or " plated" marked upon them, except they be

No talor shall set on any buttons, or button-holes, of serge, gilt and plated as the act directs. Inasmuch as this statute drugzet, &c., under penaliy of 40s, for every dozen of buttons or buttonholes so made or get on.

logy can be made for the regulations previously alluded to, Nopers shall use or wear, on any clothes, garments, or which are at once sexations and alsord. apparel whatsoever, ercepe velvet, any buttons or imiton-holes The importation of buttons from abroad was prohibited in made of or bound with coth, berge, drugzel, frieze, camliet, the reign of Charles II. But the 6 Geo. 4. c. 107. 52. reor other stuffs whereof clothes or woollen guments are usually pealed this prohibition, and they may now be imported, for made, on prenaity of forf'iting 40s. per dozen, under a similar hoine consumption, on paying an ad valorem duty. petaily. - (7 Go. 1. c. 22.1

C.

CABBAGE, a biennial plant (Brassica Lin.), of which there are many varieties. It is too well known to require any particular description; it is extensively cultivated in the vicinity of London. Sour crout, or properly sauer kraut, is a very favourite dish in Germany; it consists of a fermented mass of salted cabbage.

CABLES are strong ropes or chains, principally used in the anchoring or mooring of ships.

1. Rope Cables are, in Europe, principally manufactured of hemp ; but in the East they are very frequently made of coir, or the fibrous part of the cocoa nut, and in some places, particularly on the Red Sea, of the coating of the branches of the date tree.

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