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209. BENEDICTIVE.—Only one example of this tense occurs in the Hitopadesha : नित्यं भूयात् सकल.सुखवसतिः, “ may he constantly be the abode of all happiness." It is only used in pronouncing benedictions.
210. CONDITIONAL.—This tense is even less frequent than the last. It is used in conditional propositions, as illustrated by the following example from Manu : यदि राजा दण्डं न प्रणयेत् तदा शूले मस्सान @ wa
19HT:, “if the king were not to inflict punishment, then the stronger would roast the weak like fish on a spit "; or, according to the Scholiast, féht warrar, “would cause injury."
SYNTAX OF PARTICIPLES. 211. Participles govern the cases of the verbs whence they are derived; as, ar 9945, “seeing the fowler "; weer, “walking in the forest"; शब्दम् पाकी , “ having heard a noise "; पानीयम् अपीत्वा TN:, "he went away without drinking water."
Passive Past Participle. 212. The syntax of this most useful participle has been explained at p. 137. r. 125. and r. 199. When used actively it may often govern the accusative case; as, Tu WIGG:, “he ascended the tree ”; mu:, “ having crossed the road "; WE MTAA WGLUTA:, “I reached the city.” But its active use is restricted to neuter verbs. The following are other examples ; ofaru Trefant:, “the birds flew away "; art faqw:, "the fowler returned "; Fun, " he fell asleep."
Active Past Participle. 213. This participle is commonly used for a perfect tense active, and may govern the case of the verb; as, h aara, “ he heard everything"; ya ofite wiffonant, “the wife embraced her husband "; us on the war, “ he gave the fruit into the hand of the king."
Indeclinable Past Participles. 214. The importance of these participles has been noticed, p 143. They occur, in narration, more commonly than any other, and are almost invariably used for the past tense, as united with a copulative conjunction ; thus, he wanted faffuma pa
T HATT UT DD
W IM E ut, “having heard this, having thought to himself 'this is certainly a dog,' having abandoned the goat, having bathed, he went to his own house." In all these cases we should use in English the past tense with a conjunction; thus, “When he had heard this, he thought to himself that it must certainly be a dog. He then abandoned the goat, and when he had bathed, went to his own house.” It is evident from this example that the indeclinable participles often stand in the place of a pluperfect tense, a tense which does not really exist in Sanscrit.
a. But although they always refer to something past, it should be observed that they may frequently be rendered in English by the present participle, as in the fifth sentence of the story at r. 220.
b. Another though less frequent use of them is as gerunds in do ; thus, act: Teated witry* srafost ofius at:, “men become wise by reading the Shāstras "; भाया अप्प सकार्य शतं कृत्वा भव्या , “a wife is to be supported even by doing a hundred wrong things"; för uts ERAT UTH, “what bravery is there in killing a sleeping man?"
c. Prof. Bopp considers the termination of this participle (t) to be the instrumental case of the same affix of which the infinitive termination (um) is the accusative. Whether this be so or not, there can be little doubt that the indeclinable participle bears about it much of the character of an instrumental case. And the proof of this is, that it is constantly found in grammatical connexion with the agent in this case; thus, we usfire fafort fügt fagta:, “by all the beasts having
met together the lion was informed"; सर्वैर् जालम बादाय उडीयतां, “by all having taken up the net let it be flown away.”
Future Passive Participles. 215. The usual sense yielded by this participle is that of “fitness” or “necessity "; and the usual construction required is, that the agent on whom the duty or necessity rests, be in the instrumental case, and the participle agree with the object; as, 41 ugfare a fortat, “by you the attempt is not to be made.” Sometimes, however, the agent is the genitive case. Cf. p. 196. note.
* As the Latin gerund is connected with the future participle in dus, so the Sanscrit indeclinable participle in ya is connected with the future passive participle in ya. This is noticed by Bopp.
a. If the verb govern two accusatives, one may be retained after the participle; as, नयनसलिलं त्वया शान्निं नेयं, “the tear of the eye is to be brought to assuagement by thee."
b. Occasionally the neuter of this participle is used impersonally, in which case it does not agree with the object, but may govern it in the manner of the verb; thus, HUT op Tronal, “it is to be gone by me to the village,” for APUT ATAT Toplot. So also AT HATI draudi, “by you it is to be entered into the assembly."
c. The neuter fantai (from ) is thus impersonally used, and in accordance with r. 190. requires the instrumental after it, as well as before ; thus, ziqlifa ana
ranai, “by something it is to be become the cause,” i.e. “ there must be some cause "; FAT Aradu ufanai, “a ruler ought to be possessed of discrimination "; 441 W fanai, “I must become your companion.”
d. It is not uncommon to find this participle standing merely in the place of a future tense, no propriety or obligation being implied; as, at para garota
Tha t Tanpai, “in all probability this hunter will go in quest of the deer's flesh"; where गन्तव्यं is used impersonally. त्वां दृष्ट्वा लोकै किचिद वक्तव्यं, “when the people see you they will utter some exclamation.” See also the eleventh sentence of the story, r. 220.
e. It would appear that the neuter of this participle is sometimes used infinitively, as expressive merely of the indeterminate action of the verb, in the manner of a future infinitive, without implying necessity or fitness. In such cases fa is added; thus, efunan fa, “the being about to deceive”; Foungfa, “the being about to die."
SYNTAX OF ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS, AND INTERJECTIONS. 216. The following examples illustrate the construction of the adverbs enumerated at p. 156., or elsewhere in Chapter VIII. a fer un gran oporu. fafacue:, “the restraint of crime cannot be made without punishment”; i ara aren, “ for a hundred births "; Firface an,“ up to the serpent's hole "; gay HE, “along with his son "; un farm, “ without cause "; WATT fagl, "without fault'; विवण्द् वहिर निःसृत्य, “ creeping out of the hole "; अवलोकनाक्षun orfa, “from the moment of seeing (him) ""; mai fa, “from that time forward "; veva, “for the sake of wealth" (cf. r. 171. c.); DRIT: , “for her sake." soft with the genitive, occurs rather frequently, and with some latitude of meaning; thus, सिंहस् तस्य उपरि पपात, “ the lion fell upon him '; मम उपरि विकारितः, “ changed in his feelings towards me "; तव उपरि असहशव्यaert, “not behaving properly towards thee "; TR gyft si, “angry with his son.” TUR WETT,“ beneath the tree"; : समीपं, " near the king"; पितुः सकाशाद् धनम् साददाति, “ he receives money from his father "; HIH Taliso farfan, “flesh thrown before the dog ”; HH HH, “in my presence "; var 17, “after us." Hain may take an instrumental; as, w: Hata, “ before others.” प्राक् may govern an ablative; as, प्राग् उपनयनाद् वेदं नोच्चारयेत, “ before investiture let him not utter the Veda ": or an accusative; as, TT IGET.HAT:, “ before twelve years are over."
a. , “ enough,” is used with the instrumental, with the force of a prohibitive particle; as, W TERIT, “away with fear,” “ do not fear.”
b. ATT, “even,” “merely," when compounded with another word is declinable ; as, उत्तरमात्रं न ददाति, “he does not even give an answer"; न शब्दमात्राद् भेतव्यं, “one ought not to be afraid of mere noise."
c. Tre and yet, when used as correlatives, are equivalent to the English so that, and the Latin ita ut ; thus, per arritur , “I must so act that my master awake,” i.e. “ I must do something to make my master awake." So also त्वं न जानासि यथा गृहरक्षां करोमि, “ do not you know that I keep watch in the house ?"
d. Ta is also used for that "; as, we caniturut dc pufa FA Hallg: fopunt, "this is a new doctrine, that having killed an enemy remorse should be felt.”
e. fä, “why?” may often be regarded as a note of interrogation which is not to be translated, but affects only the tone of voice in which a sentence is uttered; as,
fagitau fai afum , “is any one honoured for mere birth ?” It sometimes bas the force of “ whether ?" as, siuni fame Trui care Taifa waluyant at, “let it be ascertained whether he is worthy to receive so large a salary, or whether he is unworthy”; want ara fa quant a , “ the minister knows whether the king is meritorious or not.”
217. The conjunctions off and an, “if,” are commonly used with the indicative; as, ufc stefnt argufu yufa, “if he live he will behold prosperity "; of H41 RASTGH wf, “if there is need of me "; Faun eta afirmat fig., “if avarice were abandoned who would be poor?”
218. The interjections from and Ft require the accusative; as, fra afag, “woe to the wretch!” and the vocative interjections the vocative case ; as, w: Tu, “O traveller!"
ON THE USE OF gfa WITH THE RECTA ORATIO, 219. All the languages of the East are averse to the use of the obliqua oratio. In Sanscrit it is never admitted, and when any one relates the words or describes thè sentiments or thoughts of another, the relator invariably represents him as speaking the actual words in his own person. In such cases the particle fa (properly meaning "so,” “thus,") is often placed after the words quoted, and may be regarded as serving the purpose of inverted commas; thus, foran magnet ap fa, the pupils said, “we have accomplished our object,” not according to the English or Latin idiom, “the pupils said that they had accomplished their object.” So also progo sfa að ver, your husband calls you“ quarrelsome,” where are an is in the nominative case, as being the actual word supposed to be spoken by the husband himself in his own person. So again युष्मान् विश्वास भूमय इति सबें पक्षिणो मम अमे
gefort, all the birds praise you in my presence, saying, “he is an object of confidence," where the particle fa is equivalent to “saying," and the word farvater w: is not in the accusative, to agree with 415, as might be expected, but in the nominative, as being the actual word supposed to be uttered by the birds in their own persons. In some cases, however, the accusative is retained before fa; as, in the following example from Manu: wstaCO 374 WIĘ:, they call an ignorant man “child.” But in the latter part of the same line it passes into a nominative; as, funny ca 7 Hrad, but they call) a teacher of scripture “father.” II. 153.
a. The use of fa is by no means restricted to the quotation of the words spoken by another. It often has reference merely to what is passing in the mind either of another person or of one's self. When so employed, it is usually joined with the indeclinable participle, or of some other part of a verb, signifying, “ to think,” "suppose," &c., and may be translated by the English conjunction that, to which, in fact, it may be regarded as equivalent; thus, मर्कटो घण्टा वादयति इति परिवाय, “ having ascertained that it is a monkey who rings the bell "; FR Yugis: uitat fa Aface as, “his idea was that an increase of wealth ought again to be made "; vaults यस्य एतादृशी भार्या इति मनसि निधाय, “ reflecting in his mind that I am happy in possessing such a wife.” The accusative is also retained