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202. काम्’sr Puचrघम्:Trघ.–Although this tense properly has reference to past incomplete action, and has been SO rendered in the examples given at pp. l01-l28., yet the Student must guard against Supposing that this is its usual force. It is most commonly used to denote indefinite past time, without any mecessary connexion with another action ; as, अर्थे यहीतुं यत्नम् अकरवं, “ I made an effort to collect wealth,” not mecessarily, “ I was making.”
203. PorघNorta*..–The name of this tense is no guide to its numerous uses. Perhaps its most common force is that of fitness in phrases, where in Latin we should expect to find oporte/ with the infinitive ; as, आागतं भयं वीक्ष्य नर: कुर्य्यैाद् यथोचितं, “ having beheld danger actually present, a man Should act in a becoming manner.'
गत:, “ he went away without drinking water.' Passice Past Participle.
2l3. This participle is commonly used for a perfect tense active, and may govern the case of the verb ; as, सर्वॆ श्रुतवान्, “ he heard everything "; पत्नी पतिम् स्रालिङ्गितवती, “ the wife embraced her husband "; एशो हस्ते फलं दत्तवान्, “ he gave the fruit into the hand of the king.'
Indeclimable Past Participles.
214. The importance of these participles has been noticed, p. l4:B. They occur, in narration, more commonly than any other, and are almost invariably used for the past tense, as united with a copulative conjunction ; thus, तद् साकयै निश्चितम् एव चर्य कुबुर् इति मत्वा बागं
त्यक्ा स्नात्वा खगृहं ययौ, “ having heard this, having thought to himself * this is certainly a dog,' having abandoned the goat, having bathed, he went to his own house.'' In all these cases we Should use in English the past tense with a conjunction ; thus, “ When he had heard this, he thought to himself that it must certainly be a dog. He then abandoned the goat, and when he had bathed, went to his own house.' It is evident from this example that the indeclinable participles often stand in the place of a pluperfect tense, a tense which does not really exist in Sanscrit.
a. But although they always refer to something past, it Should be observed that they may freguently be rendered in English by the present participle, as in the fifth sentence of the story at r. 220.
b. Another though less freguent use of them is as gerunds in do ; thus, नणः शास्त्राण्य् अधीत्य* भवन्ति पण्डिता:, “ men become wise by reading the Shāstras"; भार्यये'ा। अप्य् स्रकाययैःशतं कृत्वा भर्त्तेव्या, “a wife is to be supported even by doing a hundred wrong things"; किं पौरूषं हत्वा सुनं, * what bravery is there in killing a sleeping man?'
c. Prof. Bopp considers the termination of this participle (वा) to be the instrumental case of the same affix of which the infinitive termination (um) is the accusative. Whether this be S0 or not, there can be little doubt that the indeclinable participle bears about it much of the character of an instrumental case. And the proof of this is, that it is constantly found in grammatical connexion with the agentः in this case; thus, सर्व्वेः पशुभिर् मिलित्वा सिंहो विज्ञप्न:, “by all the beasts having
Future Passipe Participles.
215. The usual sense yielded by this participle is that of “ fitness '' or “ necessity '; and the usual construction reguired is, that the agent on whom the duty or necessity rests, be in the instrumental case, and the participle agree with the object ; as, त्वया। प्रवृत्तिर् न विधेया, “ by you the attempt is not to be made." Sometimes, however, the agent is the genitive case. Cf. p. 196. note.
* As the Latin gerund is connected with the future participle in dus, So the Sanscrit indeclinable participle in )a is connected with the future passive participle in 9a. This is notioed by Bopp.
future tense, no propriety or obligation being implied ; a8, नूनम् अनेन
* । ` । ॐ गन्तव्यं, “ in all probability this hunter will go in guest of the deer’s flesh''; where गन्तव्यं is used impersonally. त्वां दृष्ट्वा लोकै: किष्विद् वक्तव्यं, “ when the people see you they will utter some exclamation.” See also the eleventh sentence of the story, r. 220.
e. It would appear that the neuter of this participle is sometimesused infinitively, as expressive merely of the indeterminate action of the verb, in the manner of a future infinitive, without implying necessity or fitneSS. In Such cases इति is added ;