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THE

SÍDAT H-SAN GERA W È.

1)

ආමනිසරණ (1)

Bow ye to the feet of Budha. HAVING made my heart a residence * for him who knew the end of all things, I have composed the Sidathsangerawe, (2) in order that the learner | may be instructed.

The formation of all the parts of speech and the application of words, are comformable to the usage of clever men, which it is therefore necessary to follow in all the divisions of Grammar-08), wę, 66, &c. &c. $ This must moreover be attended to throughout the whole of this work.

Grammar may be divided into the 20 following elements: viz. 1. word

6. 803

11. අහම් 16. qa 2. සඳ

7. OW 12. 006 om 17. Bei 3. ලිඟු

8. 58 59
13. oçon

18. නියම් 4. s@ot 9. ගලප් 14. පරැලි 19. අනියම් 5. සමස් 10. Qoçet

15. Oca 20. අවිදුමන්.

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L'] See Appendix C.

* The word mę sew is the Elu form of the Pali expression moja ms, which means “Scented house "; and is generally used to signify the house or court of Budha : "end of all things ” is an expression for perfection.

+ Compose is here rendered have composed .' [2] See Introduction.

This word is explained the ignorant by some commentators. § The grammarian repeats this advice more than once; and indeed he seems to have been well aware that we must all yield to “custom”“whose arbitrary gway... words and the forms of language must obey." Usus, quem penes arbitrium est, et jus, et norma loquendi,- Horace,

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0. (3)

CHAPTER I. 1. wol, Sign (which may be rendered Orthography) is that which both by name and sign teaches or points out vowels, consonants, &c. In the practical Singhalese there are 5 short vowels, called @se; and 5 long vowels, called 20v; and 20 consonants. The 10 vowels are a op 8 8 C ed @ & ®; and the 20 consonants are o ට ඩ ද න ප බ ම ය ර ල ව ස and

The five long vowels and the last consonant o are essentially necessary for the utterance of the Singhalese; e. g. om, long life ; as in c, swing ; en as in ere, spring (of water); og as in eo c cardamoon (alpinia granam paradisi); and as in 879, to cram. They are also necessary to be treated of, since they are incorporated with the consonants, e. g. op in e, branches; • in e, lion ; en in sy, broth; ed ined, shadow; and in ou), ear.

The last consonant o is also necessary in the Singhalese, because in poetry and in prose it is sounded both fully and imperfectly. [4] e. g.

Dowowinol 0307m0: SOLOco?: * He thought that by reason of (his) superiority his word would not be disregarded.

90 cregonnal omsię obowiis. f She came slowly according to the king's wish, and hid

herself on one side.

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[3] See Appendix C.

[4] It seems that the grammarian has entered into a consideration of the necessity for the long vowels being treated of as a part of the Singhalese alphabet, because certain Philologers had disputed the propriety of their being considered as separate characters; since they are produced by the alteration of the five short vowels. The same may be said of the 0,vide Appendix C.

* This is a selection from the book called as obc, which is either scarce, or altogether lost. We have repdered the above into English with some difficulty, owing to the absence of the entire vorse.

+ This example is extracted from the k'awoo'siloomine.-Vide Introduction,

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Also woors, a kind of earth. 2010e, a shrub (justicia adhatoda ) Note that the above are examples of o being fully sounded. The following are, however, some of the words, where it has an imperfect sound. 65) e. g.

60 @06 *-paint, bees, ointment. 2. Wę, (which may be rendered Permutation is the contracting of two syllables into one; or rather, the blending of the last letter of the first syllable or word with the first letter of the second syllable or word. Thus wees, moon-like, becomes wnęə; OwCo, great-rampart, becomes a 60096.

3. E, Gender, is a distinction (in usage) of objects by exhibiting their difference; as oa, this, masculine; and go), this, feminine. e. g. &c, world, masculine; sę, lightning, feminine.

20), Declension, is the change which nouns undergo by means of inflexions, in order to render them in different ways; as 500, prosperity, (from wes. changed into the 1st case won, which, by another process that will hereafter be explained, becomes a 60.)- Also anos, in society, is the locative case by changing wƏ into wa@8, and the last into

සගබහි.

5. wodt, Combination. By it two or niore words are combined together, and blended into one compound word or noun; e. g. Sod, king, is a term compounded of 3, earth, and ad, nourisher; Bege a term for woman, produced by the combination of the words sic, blue, cgd, Lotus,

and qued, eyes.

6. 808, Root, is the original state whence a word undergoes change. There are two kinds of roots, viz. 5803, verbal roots, and mę8. 8, roots of nouns. † Verbal roots are the

(5) See Appendix C.

• This is differently written in some Mss. thus @00000; which means extracted liquors, such as toddy.

+ Roots of nouns are declinable in their primary, bare forms, destitute of all case terminations,

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