Imatges de pÓgina

of an 'execution,' for the infliction of the sentence of death on a criminal: of which kind of expressions, common discourse furnishes numberless instances. On the other hand, in Antony's speech over Cæsar's body, his object being to excite horror, Shakspeare puts into his mouth the most particular expressions ; 'those honorable men (not, who killed Cæsar, but) whose daggers have stabbed Cæsar. ” .

5. The fifth yooo Sukumara, which cannot be fully illustrated in the Singhalese for the before mentioned reason, is energy produced by the non-employment of many aspirate characters.” We shall therefore cite an example from the Sanscrit: Demos 0299 8888 me:808 gong03281620 Gef9.1833. “Having spread their tails, and singing sweet hymns, the pea-fowls dance in the rainy season."

6. pololoe is Aruthpala, or“energy produced by perspicuity.† A departure from this canon is termed asjaged by the writer of Sidath Sangarawa (seep. p. 79,80.) We shall first cite an example shewing this energy, and next give one devoid of vivacity. Gostogo gotors 8610 oc@ogos cgadaoinea. “ Krishna buoyed up the earth from the sea (which became) red with the blood of the serpents (which he had) killed with his feet.” The above example is from the Swabahasalankara. In the Sidath' Sangarawa, the same sentiment is given, but conceived in obscure expressions, with a view to illustrate the reverse of this rule-obscurity. scendonsgo 16 ddego unosed “The great pig buoyed up the earth from the red sea;” (see Grammar p. 80 and note.) Here none could understand what was meant by “the great pig” or “the red sen;" and hence the whole passage is obscure.

* Whately on Rhetoric, p. 262. + See Whately on Rhetoric, part iii. chap. 1 $ 2.

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: 7. CCIS U’làra, energy produced by, what Dr. Campbell "calls, “the most interesting circumstance distinguished” e. g. cemossid oma 388 68.20 88: do ostigou

982886899 @CIC.00 2. “O merciful! if the beggar's poor eyes happen to meet thine even an instant, he will not from thence (have any occasion to) behold the faces of the wealthy and prosperous. Perhaps nothing is more common in the Singhalese, as in all Oriental tongues, than to employ such tropes as the above, which serve to invigorate the language.

8. The next is called @ç Otha, and is that energy which is produced by “the proper combination of several words

“ together.” Although this energy is chiefly to be attended to in prose compositions, yet scholars are of opinion that it should not be disregarded in poetry ;-e. g.


රජදහසදිලිමුදුනවිතපලඹතැබජකඟ “When the sword in thy drooping hand had glistened, thousands of kings surrounded by hanging tassels, like unto the volumes of a full moon's rays in autumn, have placed their saluting hands on their heads."

Here the reader will observe, that all the words in the first hemistich of the above stanza are run into one another, 80 as to render the whole line one entire word. But it is remarkable, that in the Singhalese, where nouns in their radical form, without being inflected, retain all the senses of different cases; the junction of the words is not easily perceptible as in Sanscrit, where not a single noun occurs in a sentence, except with its proper case-termination. †

9. Çond Danakal, is the next species of energy, produced by a non-departure from the idiom of the language, and by such an appropriate choice of language as to be in

* See his Philosophy of Rhetoric, p. 418. | But see note * p. 43, and remarks ante p. 179.

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telligible alike to the ignorant and to the learned; e. g. ගෙනහමතවසරයමන්තබදෝතමන් පිවිතුරුවුයුහරහස Odabçədlose. “O hermit! If one like thee rest the splendour of thy two pure feet in any place, the same will be thy habitation."

10. On & Samàdi, may be regarded by us as the mode whereby" tropes are rendered subservient to vivacity by a representation of things intelligible by things sensible.” This may be effected by one of six ways: we subjoin two examples: 1. Where life is attributed to inanimate nature: e. g.

යලි ති ස ර ත න බ
නිලි පුල් හු ව න් පෑ හැ ස
ස ර 2 3 ම හ හ

දකිනුරිසනෙව් පැමිනි පඩිව ර “Lovely autumn of Lakshmi, having lustrous eyes of blue lotuses, and a swan-like bosom, next approached the illustrious pandit, as if desirous of seeing him.”—Kàviasèkara. 2. When form is attributed to any thing without form:t සොඳුර තරහු සියපත්සියරස්වතු

ර ඉඳුරුඳමසන් වැදනුබහඟ එකපැනි ර අඳුරු සෙවෙල් අරසියපත් සිසිතිස

අතුරුදහන් කරපිරිලොවගනාහං ර “ The water of lovely gentle solar rays, having from the east entered the river of the heavens, and there overflowed, and having thence [dispersed] destroyed the Sevelt of darkness, the lotuses of stars, and the swan of the moon, filled the whole world.”—Guttila.

At length Erasmus, that great injur'd name,
(The glory of the priesthood, and the shame!)
Stemm'd the wild torrent of a barbarous age,

Add drove those holy Vandala off the stage. - Pope.
+ See Dr. Campbell's Philsophy of Rbetoric, p. 422.
1 For the meaning of this word, see note at p. xcvüi.

Note *-p. 97.


Nom. Go House.

Goed Houses. Ac. Dos or noc House.

ගෙවල් House3. Ins. cows St By House.

600coes By Houses. Aux. 608 st With House.

ocess With Houses. Dat. To House.

000 Oda To Houses. Ab. Gost or ans From ගෙවල්වලින් or වලින් House.

From Houses. Gen. Sorost Of House. moodoc Of Houses. Loc. moes or 0008 In Gadac or ad8 In House.

Houses. Voc. ooocs O House !

GODBO Houses !

Oc Flower. Nom. c Flower.

d'Flowers. Ac. ac Flower.

Od Flowers. Ins. SesasBy Flower. SSS By Flowers. Aut. මලකරණයකට, or මලිණේ, or කරණකොට DE With Flower.

With Flowers. Dat. OO To Flower. osoeo To Flowers. Ab. Onest From Flower. &GDE: From Flowers. Gen: Ond Of Flower.

@cao Of Flowers. Loc. Od, or 688 In Flower. 88,or coc In Flowers. Voc. O O Flower!

och O Flowers !

Note -p. 100.

8 Thou'-feminine. Nom. S Thou.

Seo Ye.
Ac. or 8 Thee.

Seo You.
Ins. 889 of By Thee. Beras By You.

This is sometimes written Oo&od, and the Dative maco.


Plural. Aur. 8200 Smalm02 With Thee. Sommy With You. Dat. 80 To Thee.

cha To You. Ab. 860 From Thee. cons From You. Gen. 8603 They.

cGod Your. Loc. 890008 In Thee. SeIn008 In You.

Note t-p. 100.

mo To do, or make.

Active Voice.
[This inay be regarded as the]

Present Tense. 1. m65 I do.

1. 200 @ We do. 2. 968 Thou doest.

2. 20g Ye do. 3. G8 He does.

3. කරත් They do. Note that කරම් is°occasionally changed into කරමි, ක රම්, and ගකගරම්; and කර වු into (see 48) මකරෙමු,කර

3, mo 50, and morg; note also that in modern practice song is changed into wc; and wood usually assumes 20, onod, and 096 6. see $ 45, and note.

Past Tense. 1. omnes I did.

1. no aca* We did. 2. Was Thou didst.

2. Og Ye did. 3. and He did.

3. Moc3 They did. Note that කලම් is changed into කලෙමි; කලෙමු into කලෙමු, කල, කලවහ, කලෙ, and ඔකල, see $ 48. moes may be changed into 600, C; see § 44; and not unfrequently in practice into men and were

00cd is sometimes also changed into Geocgo. (See Vibal Maldam, g 17.) The latter is a recitative from of the verb, and conveys It is said we did.' As, Bwid It is said that he went.' This form of the verb answers to the second preterite in Sanscrit. In ancient books, however, a instead of D, is found in the recital form. E. G. In the passage 2016

odço ose Gol160081c &c. quoted from the Saragnha-gunalankare by Mr. Lambrick in his Pamphlet on To r. Obawahanse, the young Prince Rahule is represented to have lisped the unintelligible things he had heard from others - Il is said that I (am) thy son-itis said that thou (art) my father.'

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