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But those whose interests were at stake, did not fail to apprise them of the hollowness of their system of policy. In 1822, when the project for raising the duties on sugar, iron, linens, &c. was under discussion, the merchants of Bordeaux, Nantes, Marseilles, and other great commercial cities, the silk manufacturers of Lyons, and the winegrowers of the Gironde. and some other departments, presented petitions to the Chambers, in which they truly stated, that it was a contradiction and an absurdity to attempt selling to the foreigner, without, at the same time, buying from him ; and expressed their conviction, that the imposition of the proposed duties would be fatal to the commerce of France, and would consequently infliet a very serious injury on the winegrowers and silk manufacturers. These representations did not, however, meet with a very courteous reception. They were stigmatised as the work of ignorant and interested persons. The Chambers approved the policy of ministers; and in their ardour to extend and perfect it, did not hesitate deeply to injure branches of industry on which several millions of persons are dependent, in order that a few businesses, nowise suited to France, and the support of which costs her several millions a year, might be bolstered up and protected !

It is plain, had there not been some powerful counteracting cause in operation, that the exports of wine from France should have been very greatly augmented since the peace of 1815.

The United States, Russia, England, Prussia, and all those countries that have at all times been the great importers of French wines, have made prodigious advances in wealth and population since 1789; and, had the commerce with them not been subjected to injurious restrictions, there is every reason to think that their imports of French wine would have been much greater now than at any former period. So far, however, from this being the case, they have declined in a most extraordinary degree. This is proved beyond all question by the following extract from a report made to the Council General of the Gironde in 1841, and published by its orders and with its sanction.

“ Previously to 1790, the wine trade at Bordeaux had an immense development. The books of our most ancient houses, transmitted down religiously from father to son, and the registries of our lands, prove that in the years preceding 1787 our exports had reached more than 100,000 tuns of wine, 10,000 casks of brandy, and 5,000 of vinegar. They also show that from 1,200 to 1,400 vessels from the north took large quantities of wine, in return for their national produce, which they easily disposed of amongst us. It was a most lucrative commerce, for we then sent 15,000 tuns to Prussia, 18,000 to England and Ireland, 6,000 to Dantzic, 40,000 to Hamburg, Lubeck, and Bremen, 15,000 to Holland, 7,000 to Sweden, 5,000 to Denmark and Norway, and 12,000 to Russia. But at that period we had not closed our frontiers to the produce of all these nations--we received at moderate duties their woollens, linens, hemp, iron, wood, cattle, and other articles, the consumption of which was less expensive, and the quality better, than similar articles inade at home, and forced on us by customs duties. At present, notwithstanding the rapid increase of commercial affairs, notwithstanding the new nations of America, the advantages of a more expeditious, certain, and economical navigation, the demands of nations increased in number and industry, and consequently more disposed to purchase for consumption, our commerce is declining in a most alarming manner. Authentic documents prove that, in 1839, our exports only reached 1,939 tuns to England, 2,499 to Russia, 147 to Sweden, 342 to Norway, 2,9 1 to Prussia, 612 to Denmark, 8,188 to the Hans Towns, and 7,621 to the Netherlands. Since then our exports have not increased, so that instead of 100,000 tuns at least taken by the north of Europe from the department of the Gironde previously to 1790, not more than 25,000 tuns are taken at present. Yet, the taste for wine and the necessity to use it, have not been weakened amongst the various nations; but the exaggerated duties with which its introduction has been loaded, only allow it to be consumed by the wealthy classes, who are everywhere the least numerous. These duties are established in retaliation of those which France lays on foreign productions. If the exportation of wine has diminished in so great a proportion, the cause must be sought in the protective system. When the variations in the exports of wine are attentively examined, and their decrease looked to since 1892, when this system attained its height, to 1840, it is impossible not to be struck with the fact that these variations are intimately connected with the system itself. The decrease in the exports of wine has followed the increased development of the protective system, and, therefore, we are forced to draw this conclusion, that it is this system which destroys our export trade. Yet foreign consumption is the most certain and most profitable for Bordeaux wines, and it is particularly in the markets of the north of Europe and of England that the wines of the finest quality which our department produces find purchasers. Let us, then, insist on the necessity of re-opening these markets, which have been closed by the enormous amount of duties imposed by foreigners in reprisal of those laid by us on their products.” Besides the injury inflicted on the wine trade by the prohibitive system of commercial

policy adopted in France, and the retaliatory measures it has provoked in other coun. tries, it has suffered severely from the octrois and other duties on internal consumption. But the depression, though felt everywhere, is greatest in the Gironde, which is especially dependent on its export trade. This is strikingly evinced by the large stocks of wine that remain in the hands of the growers and merchants, and by the fall in its price. This has, of course, reacted on the vineyards, many of which have become all but unsaleable; and a stop has been put to every sort of improvement. Nor have matters been in the least amended during the current year : on the contrary, they seem to be gradually getting worse. Such is the poverty of the proprietors, that wine is now frequently seized and sold by the revenue officers in payment of arrears of taxes; and such is at present the extent of the evil, that, in the course of this year, 1843, the committee of wine growers have applied to government for a loan of 2,000,000 franes to be applied to the payment of taxes due by the wine growers.

Such are the effects of the restrictive system of policy on the wine trade of France, -on a branch of industry which, as already seen, employs three millions of people. It is satisfactory, however, to observe, that the landowners and merchants are fully aware of the source of the misery in which they have been involved. They know that they are not sufiering so much from hostile or vindictive measures on the part of foreigners, as from the blind and senseless policy of their own government; that they are victims of an attempt to counteract the most obvious principles -- to make France produce articles directly at home, which she might obtain from the foreigner in exchange for wine, brandy, &c. at a third or a fourth part of the expense they now cost. They cannot esport, because they are not allowed to import. Hence they do not ask for bounties and prohibitions ; on the contrary, they disclaim all such quack nostrums; and demand what can alone be useful to them, and beneficial to the country,--a free commercial system. And notwithstanding the powerful interests involved in the support of the prohibitive policy, we cannot doubt but that, in the end, they will be compelled to give way; and that France, by opening her ports to a freer importation of foreign products, will insure the proportional extension of her exports of wines, brandies, 1ks, and other products, which she can furnish more cheaply and of a better quality than any other country. It is reasonable to suppose, that the experience that has been afforded of the ruinous effects of the prohibitive system, and the more general diffusion of correct ideas with respect to the real sources of wealth, will at no distant period occasion the adoption of such changes in the commercial legislation of France, as may render it more conducive to her interest, and more in accordance with the spirit of the age. Indeed we incline to think that but for the unfortunate misunderstanding about the Turkish question, and the irritation thence arising, a commercial treaty on a comparatively liberal footing would have been already entered into between France and this country; and it is much to be wished that some such arrangement should speedily be completed. If, indeed, we were hostile to France, we should wish her to continue her present system, for it must effectually prevent her making any considerable progress either in manufactures or commerce; but we disclaim being actuated by any such feelings. We are truly anxious for her prosperity, for her sake and our own; for unless she be surrounded by Bishop Berkeley's wall of brass, whatever contributes to her wellbeing must, in some degree, redound to the advantage of her neighbours.

“ Were such narrow and malignant politics to meet with success," said Mr. Hume, writing in the middle of the last century, and when the prosperity of others was generally regarded with an evil eye, "we should reduce all our neighbouring nations to the sama state of sloth and ignorance that prevails in Morocco and the coast of Barbary, But what woull be the consequence? They could send us no commodities; they could take none from us: our domestic commerce itself would languish for want of emulation, example, and instruction ; and we ourselves should soon fall into the same abject condition to which we had reduced them. I shall, therefore, venture to acknowledge, that not only as a man, but as a British subject, I pray for the flourishing commerce of Germany, Spain, Italy, and even France itself. I am, at least, certain that Great Britain, and all those nations, would flourish more, did their sovereign and ministers adopt such enlarged and benevolent sentiments towards each other." -- (Essay on the Jealousy of Trade.)

BOSTON, a commercial city of the United States, the capital of Massachusetts, and the largest town of New England, lat. 42° 23' N., long. 71° 4' W. Population, in 1840, 83,707. The city is situated on a peninsula near the bottom of a large and deep bay, being surrounded on all sides by water, except on the south, where it is joined to the main land by the narrow isthmus called Boston Neck. But it communicates, by means of extensive wooden bridges, with Charleston on the north side of the bay, and with Dorchester on the south. Boston Bay is of great extent, and is studded with many islands.

The plan, on the opposite side, will give a better idea of it than could be derived from any description.

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Reference to Pian. A, outer light-house, 65 feet high, having a resolving light, alternately brilliant 40 and ob ured 21; geconds. B, buoy on the outward edge of the shorl, off Allerton Point, C, D, E, Great, Middle, and Outward Brewster's Is'ards. F, George's Island. The passige for ships, Ising between this island and the rocks on the opposite side of Lovell's Island (G), being very narrow, it is, in effet, the key of the harbour, and large sums have receritly been expended on its furtification. To the south of George's Island, and Hospital Island (H), is Nantasket rod, where there is good anchor we. The outer harbour lies to the west of Lovell' (6) and (ieorge's (F) Islands, Ling separated from the inner har. bour by Castle Island (M), and Governor's Island (.). On the north end Long Island (1) is a harbour fixed light, 27 feet high. K, Decr I Wand. I., Spectacle Laland. O, Middle at ebb, only 5 feet water. U. Thonsson's bland. R, Dor.

, Upper and Ground : chester peninsula. S, Noodle Island. T, Charleston. Go vernor's Island N), Castle Inand (M), and Nonnulles bland (S), are all fortified. The count that a ship ought to sleer is marked by the dotted line, learling between the lighthouse and Alderton point, and between Georke's Island (F) and Lovell's Island (6). The soundings are laid down in fathoms at low water.

Shipping. - According to the official accounts laid before Congress, 21st of July, 1812, the registeret, enrolled, and licrand tonnage belonging to Boston in 1841 amounted to 247,609 tons, of which 60,759 tons were employed in the coasting trade, and 7,816 in the fisheries.

Shipping Charges. - For an account of these, see New York.

How to enter the Perl. - In coming from the Atlantie, a ship should bring the light-house to lear W. by N. to ..., and run diret for it. The largest ships my pass it at within less than a cable's length. If there be no pilot on board, or the master be unacquainted with the hartour, or the wind be north-westerly, which is the most unfavourable for entering, she had better steer W. by S. for Nantastet roads, where she may anchor, and get a pilot.

Mooring, fc. Generally speaking, there is sufficient depth of water to enable the largest ships to come ap to town at all times of the tide. Thes uually moor alongile qars or warf, where they lie in perfect safety. There are in all about 60 wharfs; which, for the mont part, are built on pile, with a superstructure of st ne and earth. The two principal are " Lang Whurf," 550 yards in length; and “Centra Wharf," 413 yards long by 50 in breadth, having a range of lofty brick stores and warehouses along its whole length.

Pilotage. - No particular place is specified at which vessels must heare to for a pilot. But all vesels, with the exception of coasters under 200 tons, and American ressels laden with plaster of Paris from British Ainerica, if haled by a pilot with in ab ut 1 mile of the outer light, must take him on toard, under a penalty of 50 dollars. If they have got within this distance before being hailest, the obligation to take a pilog on board ces. This regulation has o!, viouky been dictated by a wish to have the pilots constantly on the alert; it being supposed that masters not well acquainted with the bay will beave to to take one on board, though they have go: within the free limits.

Table of the Rates of Pilotage on Outward and Inward bound Vessels in the Port of Boston.

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Trade of Boston, &c. - Boston has a very extensive trade with the southern states and with foreign countries, and is also one of the principal seats of the American fisheries. She is wholly indebted to her southern neighbours, and principally to New York, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, for supplies of four and wheat, and for large quantities of barley, maize, oatmeal, oats, &c., as well as for cotton, tobacco, staves, rice, &c. Of these, the imports of four may amount, at an average, to about 600,000 barrels a year ; all sorts of grain, to about 2,200,000 bushels ; cotton, 110,000 bales ; staves, 3,000,000, &c. Her returns are made, partly in native raw produce, as beef, pork, lard, &c.; partly and principally in the produce of her manufacturing industry, in which Massachusetts is decidedly superior to every other state in the Union; and partly in the produce of her fisheries and foreign trade. At an average, Boston annually sends to the southern ports of the Union about 45,000 barrels of beef and pork; 165,000 barrels mackerel, herrings, alewives, &c. : 20,000 quintals of dried and smoked fish ; 3,500,000 pairs of boots and shoes; 600,000 bundles of paper; besides a very large amount of cotton and woollen manufactured goods, nails, ice, furniture, cordage, &c. ; so as to leave a large balance in her favour. Her exports of native produce to foreign countries consist principally of the same articles she sends to the southern states; but she also exports a large amount of the foreign produce she had previously imported. The imports from abroad consist principally of cotton and woollen goods; linens, canvas, &c.; hardware, silks, sugar, tea, coffee, wines and brandy, spices, hides, indigo, dyewoods, &c. The total imports from foreign countries into the state of Massachusetts in the year ending 30th of September, 1841, amounted to 20,318,003 dollars; while the exports of native produce, during the same year, amounted to only 7,397,692 dollars, and of native and foreign produce together, to 11,487,343 dollars ; the balance against Massachusetts being paid off by bills upon the southern states, to which she exports much more than she imports. New York alone is, in fact, supposed to be at all times indebted to Boston about 5,000,000 dollars. We subjoin some statements illustrative of the trade of Boston.

Plut. - The quantity of Flour imported into Boston was In 1912

co baris. In 1839 . 370,704 barls. 1941 574,233

427,946 1810 619,261

11.36 • 418,397 1839 . 451,667

1815 . 408,516 Core. - The quantity of Com Imported into Boston was

Com. Oats. Rye. In 1842

bush. 1,$33,163 393,174 38, 116 1911

2,043,234 3.511,5112 31,148 1910

1,868,431 437,95% 48,026 1439

1,607,92 439.141 48,621 1838

1.571.11.38 443,657 102,113 1537

1,725,136 405,173 86,391 The imports of Corn in 1841 were derived as follows:

Oats. From New Orleans

busb. 36,753

280 Charleston

3,410 North Carolina Fredericksburg

162,694 Norfolk

100,X70 2,420 Rippahannock

30,65 Other ports in Virginia

83,114 1,390 Haltimore

637,956 9.791 Delaware

111,936 31,340 Philadelphia

369,311 98,069 2,916

Corn.

Oats. Rye. From New Jersey

bush. 50,645 294,05 New York

194,404 88,140 28,232 Albany

12,794 5,17911,0 Other ports in New York

7,1%) 6,700 1,000 Ports in Connecticut

2,000
khode Island
Massachusetts

1,300
New Hampshire

3,00 Maine

68,360 Prince Edward Island

7,323 Total

2,015,254 356,302 34,128

Rye.

Progress of Trade. - The following statements show that the foreign trade of Boston has more than doubled within the last 10 years. The number of foreign arrivals has increased from 1, 313, with a tonnage of 20%,891, in 18.8; to 2,739 in 1817, with an aggregate tonnage of 375,57%: the tonnage cleared, from 164,88 to 326,708: the number of men em. ployed in foreign bound ships, from 7,14 to 16,421 ; the Falue of imports, froni $13,163,465 to $16,110,761; of ex. porta, purely the prolucts of American industry, from $1,440,591 to 88,837.776, and the amount of revenue col lected, from $2,510,398 40 to $5,414,223 39.

Statement of the Value of Imports into, and Exports from Boston, with the Customs Revenue,

from 1838 to 1847, both inclusive.

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Statement showing the Number of Arrivals from Foreign Ports at Boston, in each Year from 1838 to

1847, both inclusive.

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Statement showing the Tonnage of the Vessels engaged in the Foreign Trade of Boston, with the

Number of Men employed during each of the 10 Years ending with 1847.

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Ice. - In 1841 there were no fewer than 16 companies engaged in the business of shipping ice in Boston, for the southern parts of the Union, the Havannah, &c. But the trade has since vastly increased, and Boston ice is now found in every part of the world; immense quantities being shipped for S. America, the East Indies and China, the U. Kingdom, &c. At present (1848) the exports probably exceed 80.000 tons! It was formerly sold in New Orleans and the Havannah at 6 cents per lb., but it is now gold for ! cent per ditto, and a similar reduction has taken place in its price in other emporium s. The ice, which is principally brought by railway from the Wenham Lake, about 18 miles from Boston, is remarkably pure and solid. It is sawn into square blocks, not less than 12 inches thick, and is packed in vessels with straw and hay, boxed with thin lumber made uir-tight. One of the companies paid 7,000 dollars in 1811, for the straw and hay they used for packing,

British Royal Mail Packets. The mail packets between England and America (nine in number) sail from Liverpool every Saturday, alternately, for Boston and New York. The arrivals and departures noticed above, are exclusive of the packets in question. The latter, however, convey large quantities of the more valivable descriptions of gouds; the imports by them into Boston in 1816 being estimated at $4,445,000. They also convey large numbers of the more opulent class of passengers.

Insurance Companies. - Insurance, both fire and marine, is Their dividends have recently varied from 5 to 7 per camied on to a great extent hy joint-stock companies, and to some extent al by indir duals. The stocks of the different Credit.-- Foreign goods are frequently sold for ready money, Insurance companies amounted in 1817 to 31,575,100. There but more usually at a credit of from 3 to 12 months : avenge is a great deal of risk in the business, which is mo e, indeed, length of credit, 6 months, but on iron and some other artiles like a lottery than a regular trade : and the dividends, con 12 months' redit is given. Discount for ready money at the sequently, very frown next to nothing to 11), and sometimes

rate of 6 per cent. per annum. en 20 per ini. or upwards. The dividends paid by the Commission. - The rates of commission are arbitrary, taty. different companies varied, at an average of the previous 5 ing from 2 to 5, and sometimes de creare included) to 7 per Sears, from 3 to OKT cent,

cent. On small accounts, and West India souls, 5 per cent. Banks – There were, in January 1818, in Boston, 26 Bank is usually charged The ordinary rate may be taken at 2 per ing Companies, having an agregate capital of $18,863,650. cent., but competition is so great, that commission merchants

cent.

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