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and eço, en@sos hanging-bellied; &c. are produced by the substitution of ,@, and for q, ş, and respectively.

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C e. In the following words o or as is substituted for the second letter in combination, which is m. Thus ood and කරv produce අන්වර manufacturer; සිත් and කර, සිවර* painter; oooo and 0.5, ow83€ 5 sacerdotal duties; ç@ and කම්, දඬුවම් carpentry or punishment; ගිනි and කම්, ගිනියම් heat or fiery, &c. And in the following, the letters - and o are respectively substituted for and c. Thus, e @and 86, m83& ornamented pillar or golden chair; wind and GOIN, Dugonoro tortoise shell ; @ and onco, r88n1co citron ; 600 and 600, Odoo.98 name of a ferry; and @o), gol@ol white rice; as and wo bom, 566 5os Budha's feet, or Budha's protection. The above is called Permutation by the substitution of consonants.

f. The next is called, Permutation by reduplicating the first letter; eo? and we produce golos e manufacture; Dod and 20, Dola. cleverness; cool and ma, so's. 5 weaving; out and cas, osts 5 leaf-weaving; and se and o. , sed

wondrous work. 9. Compounds produced by the removal of and @, and by the substitution of o are called, Permutation by th: elision of consonants. Thus 40 and of produce 0000 of

20 forest river; ac and 2, 20the cyprus rotundus (a medicinal plant); 20 and Sce, 28we split peas; aso andad, And30 & Lotus flowers; q@and oc,982 & Mango flowers.

h. Where in the coalition of words , 2, or 6 is introduced without the omission of the letters compounded, this

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According to the usage of the Singhalese language at the present day, some of these words are spelt differently; e. g. Boja ou is free quently but incorrectly written Bolo:01, or more properly Bolo..:: also the word qed which occurs at $ 23 g. is, at the present day, an unintelligible espression for o@ec-o non is commonly written Bud@noro; and G8705ee is incorrectly sprit condo od or oondstad.

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is called Perinutation by substitution. Thus 88 and qol, produce 83 mof end; 3 and pogos, Sogoa.com (name of a place) 89 and 6, e39ao like a scientific person ; &

ප්‍රවand අභ,දුවඟ two-fold; ou and on, Oregon form and without form; 2283 and q6, 2332 thin body; gos and cod, gorolos tautology; j and @ę, soosą sap-less.

i. Permutation by the reduplication of letters is where in the coalition of letters the first loses its inherent vowel sound, and the same becomes doubled in place of the second. Thus ale and q90v, Ouccaou sandy-embankment; med and q@, &de fair-wife; olod and e81, Rococo with or by-means-of-tender-leaves; 2D and 3, COCO

කුළු raft-like.

End of the second Chapter.*

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• The above chapter headed totę treats of the Permutation of letters; whereas the fifth chapter (vide infra) is devoted to a consideration of woso, combinations of words. In both, the Sanscrit Rules are nearly the same as those in the Singhalese; and that will be a sufficient reason for the introduction of the following paragraph from Mr. Wilson's Sanscrit Grammar, p. 7. Sandi Combination of letters. Contrivances for avoiding the concurrence of harsh or incongruous sounds, or the unpleasing hiatus which arises from keeping sounds apart that are disposed to coalesce, are wanting in all languages. They are in general, however, rather poetical or prosodial than grammatical; such as the elision of a final e before an initial e in such a concurrence as the etherial height of heaven,” which it was formerly the fashion to write, as the measure demanded, "th' etherial;” to say nothing of the Synalepha, and ecth lipsis of Latin verse, “Monster' horrend' inform’ingens,” &c. Other instances of a regard for euphony, however, do occur independent of prosody, and especially in Greek, in which many of the euphonic changes are analogous to those provided for in San. scrit. In Do language has the subject, however, been so systematically investigated as in Sanscrit; and the changes to which letters are subject for the sake of euphony are numerous and carefully defined, forming that part of Sanscrit Grammar which is termed w8.8 Sandhi, 'a holding together a junction; ' or stHos Sanhitá, “ an association,' 'a conjunction : ' either being derived from the verb compounded of the preposition ,.cum' and @dha, to have,' 'to hold.""

CHAPTER III.

On Gender.

24.

All the distinctions of Gender which nouns undergo in the Sanscrit * do not prevail in the Singhalese, which has but two genders, viz. the masculine and the feminine. Words indicating the male sex are in the masculine gender; and all nouns indicative of the female sex are in the feminine gender. e. g.

Masculinema Brahama, 5 God, 96 demi-god, 896 man, s. Nága or Snake, 2010 a fabulous animal, os footsoldiers, 8c carriage, &c.

Feminine-2ęba Goddess, on Soi female Nága, cordo 03.8 female Goorooloo, a wife, eigd mother-in-law.

Grammarians have generally considered the following as masculines :- {w water, world, victory t; ec leaf, water, flame, fire, burning; qugou scholar or Pandit, teacher, love; 98 (generic name of certain disorders), cloud, food, work ;

* Professor F. Bopp, in his Comparative Grammar, p.p. 125-6, has the following pertinent remarks—“The Sadscrit, and the languages akin to it, which in this respect have still kept upon the old footing, distinguish, besides the two natural genders, another-the neuter, which the Indian Grammarians called kliva, i. e. eunuch; which appears to be a peculiarity of the Sanscrit, or most perfect family of languages. According to its original intention, this gender had to represent inanimate nature, but it has not every where confined itself to these old limits: the language imparts life to what is inanimate, and, on the other hand, (according to the view then taken,) impairs the personality of what is by nature animate. The feminine in Sanscrit, both in the base and in the case-terminations, loves a luxurious fullness of form; and where it is distinguished from the other genders in the base or in the termination, it marks this distinction by broader, and more sonant vowels."

+ Most of these words admit of meanings other than those above given after each. Their synopimes are of the same gender with a few exceptions ; as opo (synonimous with &masculine) and 23 (synonimous with poo masculine) are feminine : so likewise 330 (synonimous with Ouos feminine) and 8 385 (with good feminine) are in the masculine gender; &c. &c.

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go sky, yarment; os instrument, sun-shine; pol trees, tomtom or drum, birds, gladness; 6.son war, sound, dancing-master; ne od sex, sign; nos distempers, anger; os lust, colour (also the name of a heathen God in Oriental mythology); 000 houses, asterism, gluttony; Jou God, wind, desert (also God of that name); cout meditation, * village; pe members (of the body), matters; as heat, inside of a bower, thunder; moon, prosody, supreme person, message, joint or junction; 600 taste, mercury, ray, water ; od 3% gems; 8800 followers or attendants, garments; 8.@ impudence; 2) ascetic, mind; feet, rays, traps, milk, trees, style or idiom; sc sea (also name of a heathen God); -. caustic, neck, faggots; et caste, rain, year, Bamboo; Od flesh, stone, beard; 0000 0 (species of the Lion); m6 arm, cruelty; on speech, doctrines, arrows; 20 assemblage, sorrow; Sos wealth, speaker, orator, eminent person; wsi ring, chank, army; 25 lamps, islands, life; Oca lofts, couches, touch; Swo country, senses; sed earth, trap, side; bood truth, corn, curse; ce son quality, goodness, hearing, 5.028 (an implement of husbandry) plough; wol being, seven, umbrella, good quality; an ear, sorrow; @o merit, upper part of the ow)

, arm; &o (Seat of Indra), also (a medicinal fruit) emblic myrobalan, sour; &c.

The following nouns are of the feminine gender: viz. og lightning, science; &c woman, creeper; Deo rivers, a line; moc row, Pali (or Maghadah language); $wo night, saffron; cu light; ce faith, shame; Olon wisdom; od lust; a sport; 35 ground; bad girdle, sash; &c. †

When verbal appellatives, f or adjectives, or masculine terms are employed to convey a feminine signification, the termination 8. is very frequently used; e. g.

Vide Clough's Dictionary, Vol. 11. p. 168. Çwood.

+ It is remarkable that all neuter pouns derived from the Sanscrit and the Maghadha languages into the Singhalese are of the masculine gender ; and that masculine and feminine nouns when so derived retain their respective genders in the Singhalese language.

See note (*) at p. 11.

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Feminine verbal appellatives—9000sts (a female ) whetter (from the verb whet); Os (a female) creator ; Quod si (a female) who-became-glad; get B (a female) whoescapes ;

&c. Note, that the above termination is changed into ® in the plural number; as nosastoosi whetters, casinos creators.

b. Feminine adjectives-000&re a fair (woman); 0208 a tender (female); 60:8 a white (girl); &c. *

Masculine terms in a ferninine sense; & dancing girl; es 3 she-Nagah; ois lass; 83

W83 female enemy; 208 Princess ; 0900 & female friend ; cale old woman; &c.

Note, that other terminations are also used as in the following: 5-in ee black (female); and a she-calf, or (female) inhabitant; g-inge fawn-eyed (woman); t pine actress; and e-in soy a mother (one who has had children): and note further, that in the formation of terminations it is necessary to be guided by usage. I

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* It may here be observed, that adjectives are often used substantively in the strict sense of the word, as in the examples in the text; and sometimes also in a compound form, as in the examples already given “genlleeyed," "blue-Lotus-eyed,” &c. &c.

+ This word is an elegant compound in the Singhalese as in many Eastern languages. It occurs in the Sanscrit. (Vide Extract from the Megha' Dula in the Introduction.) Sir William Jones in his Persian Graminar (See bis works, Vol. II. p. 194,) gives us a Persian word of the same signification« Thus **

a faun-eye, a Persian epithel, which answers to the Greek ELIKOPIS, seems very harsh in English, if we translate it fawn-eyed ; Lady Wortley Montague's translation ( see her letters from Constantinople) slag-eyed, is not much better, and conveys a different idea from what the eastern poets mean to express by this epithet. ”

In the Singhalese there two peculiarities to which it is necessary chiefly to attend in fixing the gender of nouns ; Ist, the significations, and end, the terminations. Contrary to both these tests, however, certain pouns admit of gender; and it is this which renders an attention to usage necessary; since many substances which do not naturally admit of a distinction of sex are treated either as masculine or feminine, according to the notions which religious feelings, national habits, or the genius of the

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