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the last member of a compound of this nature, is always used relatively to some word expressed or understood, and yields a sense equivalent to et cetera. It is necessarily found either in the plural or neuter singular; as, $«£|<^:, " Indra and the others" (agreeing with the nom. case Tci: expressed or understood, "the gods commencing with Indra"); vn^fljfcft, "of Agni and the others" (agreeing with ggflCTSfl understood, "of those abovenamed things of which Agni was the first"); -^tjUJ^fH, "the eyes, &c." (agreeing with rf^rqTftr, "the senses commencing with the eyes "). When used in the neut. sing, it either agrees with u^SjTrfi, "the aforesaid," understood, or with a number of things taken collectively, and the adverb iti* may be prefixed; as, ^ifHiiuty, "the word devan, &c." (agreeing with prf£ understood, "the aforesaid sentence of which devan is the first word"); ^ITjfiyiT, "by liberality, &c." (agreeing with some class of things understood, "by that class of things of which liberality is the first"). Sometimes Wlfi^i is used for ^rrfif; as, ^Mltyoii, "gifts, &c.": and sometimes "smsf; as, ^lili: *ju:, "the gods of whom Indra is the first"; or sometimes the substantive TPjfir; as,
Relative Form of Aggregative Compounds.
158. Aggregative compounds are sometimes used relatively; as, iRJiHiirv^fleK, -iff, "that which is liable to sorrow, sickness, and death"; especially in the case of adjectives or participles; as, <$tW^lgi:, -^iT, "black and white"; Wrijjf^Ht, -TTT, -tf, "bathed and anointed"; ^t^TR^, -^T> "city and country"; <^riiu«£ri:, -TIT, -it, "done and done badly"; ^T»TOw:, -HT, -H, "good and evil" (r. 153. 6.). Examples are still more common under the head of complex compounds.
Relative Form of Descriptive Compounds.
159. A greater number of compound words may be referred to this head than to any other. Every style of writing abounds
* Sometimes evam is prefixed; as, ITTOnftfa HTJTTTfa. "lamentations beginning thus."
* Occasionally the feminine of the adjective appears in the compound; as, mflliu):, "having a sixth wife." t Unless they he regarded as the relative form of Ayaylbhava compounds.
the adverbial preposition , "with," contracted into ^; as, trghR, -VT, "angry"; jns^y:, "fruitful" (p. 32. f.);
"'S*' "*5' "possessed °f kindred" (r. 54, 55, 56.); W^W., -WT, -T»f, "energetic"; «j^t^:, -v^t, "joyful"; ¥t«f^:, -tt, -<j, "accompanied by ministers"; -Wf> -»*f > "strung "(as a bow). The following are examples of other adverbial prefixes: -VT, -V, "with uplifted weapon"; ^Hl.UodRi, -xj, -t, "of various forms"; aCftTTTO, -*T> "where dwelling"? $1T*T, -*n, "where born"? ^T?it:, -ht:, -ftf, "fearless" (p. 3a f.); Trmi^v:, -VT, -'4, "of that kind."
COMPLEX COMPOUND NOUNS.
162. We have now to speak of those complex compound words, or compounds within compounds, which form the most remarkable feature in Sanscrit poetical composition. Instances might be given of twenty or thirty words thus compounded together, but these are the productions of the vitiated taste of more modern times, and are only curious as showing that the power of compounding words may often be perverted to the formation of a style the most extravagant and ridiculous. But even in the best specimens of Sanscrit composition, and in the simplest prose writings, four, five, or even six words are commonly compounded together, involving two or three forms under one head. It will be easy, however, to determine the character of the forms involved, by the rules propounded in the preceding pages; in proof of which the student has only to study attentively the examples we are about to give.
a. Instances of absolute complex compounds, whose sense is complete and unconnected, are not very abundant. The following may be taken as examples: ^n<5piTTT|t%^J*rT^wrfcT, "good and evil (occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time," the whole being a dependent, involving a dependent and an aggregative; iftpifllJI^STSnft, "the general and the overseer of the forces," the whole being an aggregative, involving two dependents; ^rUKifriWtTTOh "the protection from sorrow, enemies, and perils," the whole being a dependent, involving an aggregative; fff#]rm|^, "the disregarded words of a friend," the whole being a descriptive, involving a dependent.
b. But the greater number of complex compounds are used relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; as, TT%TT«ra7ni»n. -«t> "whose teeth and eyes were decayed," the whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving an aggregative; p.ll^jj^'Ci -«TT> -?f> "having a white garland and unguents," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive; uJ^^H+d:, -in, -if, "done in a former birth," the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving a descriptive; fail M*Tl,<|si:, -5T, -"g, "advanced in learning and age," the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; <jfMrf,tw»fl.^l«i:, -«TT, "having fresh garlands, and being free from dust," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive and dependent; ^rf»T«Nirfti$RT:, -V., -U, "whose head was moist with unction."
c. The substantive SSTfif, "a beginning," often occurs in complex relative compounds, as in simple relatives (r. 157. b.); thus, ^jch.UlftcM^q:, " parrots, starlings, &c." (agreeing with ufujiu:, " birds beginning with parrots and starlings "), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; wfari^*nrTf^, "peace, war, &c." (agreeing with understood); Jj^T^PWf^TJW.. -W,
"possessed of houses, temples, &c." Similarly, ^rtST in the example JtW.JI'MJiU: (agreeing with Jjtst:, "garlands possessing the best odour and other qualities ").
d. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the last word and proceeding regularly backwards; as in the following HW^ng"M^frTofiT3*.*M.tU./*,fc4ri+1f«MJcjSIM.W^rt<*«<NN, -?T, "causing pleasure by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the swarms of joyous bees."
e. VTWra or TjCtl, as occupying the last place in a complex relative, denote " composed of"; thus, £MI WTS I fil =W.lrW 4i ^c?, "a force consisting of elephants, horses, chariots, infantry, and servants"; MIMrH ^ri^i-^rt ^i} ^i^nr, "the two actions consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth."
Certain Anomalous Compounds.
f. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst these may be placed those compounds expressive of comparison or likeness, usually included under the Karmadharaya or Descriptive class. In these the adjective is placed last; as, unrRf^;, -^T, "fickle as a shadow"; ■fc^tqiRi -TT> "like foam"; SH^.iHW:, -*TJ,-4. "dark as a cloud"; vrn^nHsfljS:, 4j, "spread out like a mountain"; ^<$ f<4 ut£:, -<?5T, -<$, "unsteady as a tremhling drop of water";
•<r<*'flX<£.rtl<M*!C$J> -q5t, "tremulous as water on the leaf of a lotus"; the last two examples are complex.
g. There is a common anomalous compound formed hy placing ^TRR after another word, to express "another," "other"; as, wiMliK, "another place"; y^liiUu *t^, " along with another king"; SIwrpTOftr> "other births." The following examples, also, are not readily assignable to any class: KJtMflfcriJfltf, "a fighter who abandons all idea of life"; SUSrftnfaTC. -TTT, -4, "accompanied by the Sarasa "; * W*3($> "never before seen."
Compound Nouns formed from Roots combined with Prepositions.
163. In the next section it will be shewn that the combination of roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanscrit. From roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be formed; thus, from <g, "to seize," with fa and ?sr, is formed ^TOfTO, "practice," from "to do," with ^r^, ^PpKTt, "imitation." Hardly a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of this kind of compound.
Sect. II.—COMPOUND VERBS.
164. The learner might look over the list of 1900 simple roots, and very well imagine that in some of these would be contained every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be unnecessary. But the real fact is, that there are comparatively very few Sanscrit roots in common use; and that whilst those that are so appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or two or even three prepositions, the remainder
* So ^mifgriN: in Nala, translated by Bopp, umbra geminatus.