Imatges de pÓgina
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6. But the greater number of complex compounds are used relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; as, oft., -, -, “whose teeth and eyes were decayed,” the whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving an aggregative; valeugeoua:, -71, -- , “ having a white garland and unguents,” the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive; gl. Tangu:, -71, -Ă, “ done in a former birth,” the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving a descriptive; faeputa:, -31, -, “advanced in learning and age," the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; fan Hasilsta:, -71, -, “having fresh garlands, and being free from dust," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive and dependent; sfördag foru:, -0:, -C, “whose head was moist with unction."

c. The substantive wife, “a beginning,” often occurs in complex relative compounds, as in simple relatives (r. 157. 6.); thus, gaufragu:, “parrots, starlings, &c.” (agreeing with ufau:, “ birds beginning with parrots and starlings "), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; afferuefç, “ peace, war, &c.” (agreeing with gå understood); [E.Samrarci, -, -तं, “possessed of houses, temples, &c." Similarly, we in the example warupar: (agreeing with us:, "garlands possessing the best odour and other qualities ").

d. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the last word and proceeding regularly backwards ; as in the following HET HYR Fararमुक्तककार मिलितकोकिलालाप.सङ्गीतकसुखावहः, -हा, -हं, "causing pleasure by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the swarms of joyous bees.”

e. who or Eq, as occupying the last place in a complex relative, denote “conrposed of"; thus, gera.1996Ifra Rina , “a force consisting of elephants, horses, chariots, infantry, and servants”; og annut, the two actions consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth.”

Certain Anomalous Compounds. f. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst these may be placed those compounds


expressive of comparison or likeness, usually included under the Karmadhāraya or Descriptive class. In these the adjective is placed last; as, qua:, -OT, -, "fickle as a shadow "; फेनोपमः, -मा, -मं, "like foam"; असुद.श्यामः, -मा, -मं, “ dark as a cloud"; भूधरविस्तीर्णः, -णी, -णे, spread out like a mountain "; जलविन्दुलोलचपलः,-ला, -लं, "unsteady as a trembling drop of water"; नलिनीदलतोय.तरलः, -ला, -लं, “ tremulous as water on the leaf of a lotus "; the last two examples are complex.

g. There is a common anomalous compound formed by placing wake after another word, to express "another, " other"; as, kura! “ another place "; UM HE, “ along with another king "; FHmkufu, “other births.” The following examples, also, are not readily assignable to any class : martifarrutat, “a fighter who abandons all idea of life "; Alch, fanita:, - , --1, "accompanied by the Sārasa ";* weg,“ never before seen."


Compound Nouns formed from Roots combined with Prepositions.

163. In the next section it will be shewn that the combination of roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanscrit. From roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be formed ; thus, from , "to seize," with fa and we, is formed Ent:,“ practice," from , “ to do," with way, whate, "imitation.” Hardly a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of this kind of compound.


164. The learner might look over the list of 1900 simple roots, and very well imagine that in some of these would be contained every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be unnecessary.

But the real fact is, that there are comparatively very few Sanscrit roots in common use; and that whilst those that are so appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or two or even three prepositions, the remainder are quite useless for any practical purposes, except the formation of nouns.

* So gryfanita: in Nala, translated by Bopp, umbra geminatus.

Hence it is that compound verbs are of more frequent occurrence than simple ones. They are formed in two ways : lst, by combining roots with prepositions ; 2dly, by combining the auxiliaries a, “to do,” and y, “to be,” with adverbs, or nouns verted into adverbs.



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Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions with Roots.

165. The following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in combination with roots : wafat ati, "across," " beyond "; as, aferat (p. 112.); wat, “ to pass

by,” “transgress” (pres. Wafa, &c. p. 112.). wfu adhi, "above," "upon," "over"; as, wyst," to stand over,"

preside" (p. 107. pres. ufufagfa); iar, “to climb upon "; wirgit, “to lie upon” (p. 113.); ufirma,“ to go over towards

(p. 107.); ut, “to go over" in the sense of “reading” (p. 113.). wa amu, “after "; as, ugar,“ to follow "; vqel,“ to follow,” in the sense of “ performing "; vga,“ to imitate” (p. 102.); ugual,

'to assent." War antar, “ within "(cf. inter); as, WOT, “ to place within," "con

ceal” (p. 119.), in pass. “to vanish "; war, “to be within"

(p. 104.); var, “to walk in the midst” (r. 31.). 9 apa, “off,

“off," "away" (cf. årò); as, 474, wą, w (from wa and , p. 112.), “ to go away "; wat, “ to lead away "; way,

to abstract "; 1949€,“ to bear away.” It also implies detraction; as, wag, “to defame." wfa api, “on,” “over," only used with us and te; as, ufqyt, "to

shut up "; WTGIE, “to bind on." The initial a is generally

rejected, leaving पिधा, पिनह. wfor abhi, "to,'

" " towards" (cf. Étì); as, sfargt, wat, “ to go towards "; wirura, “to run towards "; fate!, “to behold

(p. 107.); wiras,“ to address," "salute.” va ava,“ down,” “off”; as, we, waq, “to descend "; seal,

“to look down "; waç, “to throw down," "scatter "; waren, “ to cut off.” It also implies disparagement; as, wagil, “to despise" (p. 123.); wafay, “to insult " (p. 111.).


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When pre


from पत्,

“to lift up.



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ET ā, “to," towards," "up" (Latin ad); as, wfast, "to enter ";

साक्रम्, "to go towards "; WIFE, "to mount up." fixed to oth and 97, “ to go," and T, “to give,” it reverses the action; as, wma, wit, “to come "; więt,“ to take.” With चर्, ,

" to practise." 5 ut, “up," upwards " (opposed to fa); as, yn (r. 16.), sfą,

“ to go up,” “rise” (pres. Jeuifa, Ist conj.); Tgi,“ to fly up "; TĘ (59 and 2, r. 18.), “to extract "; fun and Jantes (r. 15.),

to open the eyes "; pan, sfoc, “to cut up "; , "to root up "; fa,“ to lift up" (Jn and f, r. 17.). When prefixed to run it causes the elision of s; as, Trat, “to stand up." In cases it reverses the action; as,

“ to fall," FRATE,“ to leap up "; from 77, “to bend down,” 584 (r. 15.),

to raise up "; from 4, "to keep down," , Ju upa, “to,

“to," “ towards” (jf. ünÒ), joined like wt and for to roots of motion; as, +441, "to approach "; , “to wait upon,

with fast,“ to sit down." fa ni, “ down," "downwards," " under " (opposed to 5); as, fatura

" to fall down"; fatur, " to suppress "; fafax and fait, " to close the eyes "; fafay, fary, 2H, “to lay down," " deposit "; farqa, “to go within,"

encamp. With mit signifies “to return,

." “desist "; with TA, “to hear." In some cases it does not alter the sense; as, fakt, "to kill." fara nir, “out "; as, fas* (cf. note, p. 15.), falta, fazę (r. 31.), “ to go out "; from,“ to cut up "; faena,“ to come to an end,"

With fe, "to determine. o parā, “back," “ backwards " (cf. Trapa), combined with far and

y in the sense of “defeat "; as, auf, “to overcome " (cf. napavików, Æsch. Chöe.); wory, " to be defeated." When joined with

, 2d conj., it signifies “to retire towards" (pres. AFA); when with , 1st conj. ātm., "to run away," "to retreat," p being

changed to 1 (pres. TTU). aft pari, "around" (cf. nepi, per); as, gay, yfię, “to sur

round"; ufca, ufur,“ to go round"; "da, " to look round," “examine "; ufiça, “to turn round "; ufura, “to run round.” When prefixed to a it signifies "to adorn," and H is inserted, ufe. With 4, “to despise," and with 7, “ to avoid."


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to avoid.” It some



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With लभ,

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times merely gives intensity to the action; as, ofrys to

abandon altogether.” a pra, “ before,” “forward" (cf. nepo, pro, pra); as, wa, wag,“ to proceed "; PUH, “to set before,'

" to set before," "present "; , “to begin "; INTE, " to run forward"; en," to set out,"

advance"; “to be superior," "prevail "; HET,“ to foresee.” "to deceive.” In combination with the causal of 4, it drops its final a; as, daryta, “ I send." The r influences a following

nasal by r. 21. ; as, mur, "to bend before," “ salute.” ufa* prati, “ against,” “ towards," " back again "; as, farge, “to

fight against "; unit, “to go towards” (pres. wafa); ATA, “ to return "; uraga, “to counteract "; afeg, “to beat back,"

repel "; ufina, “to answer"; ficou “to recover "; staat, "to lead back "; fra,“ to re-salute.” With , “ to promise ";

with , " to arrive at," " obtain." fa vi, "apart," implying "separation, distinction," distribution,"

dispersion" (Latin dis, se); as, faar,“ to wander about "; far, " to vacillate "; fare, “to roam for pleasure "; faqa, “ to dissipate "; face,“ to tear asunder "; fedret, “to divide "; fafera, “to distinguish.” Sometimes it gives a privative signification ; as, fayat, “to disunite "; ferm,“ to forget "; fant, “to sell.” With q, “ to change for the worse."

Sometimes it has no apparent influence on the root; as, faqa, “to perish.” Fa sam, “with,” “ together with " (ouv, con); as, af,

सङ्ग ,

" to collect "; ÁYHT, “to join together"; 454, “to meet together ";

"to happen "; vfq, “to contract.' With q it signifies 'to perfect," and # is inserted, pies. It is often prefixed without altering the sense; as, *, “to be produced."

166. Two prepositions are often combined with a root; as, aici, “to open” (fa, wt); , “to assemble” (771, wt, with root ); ufuga, “to prostrate one's self” (H, fa, r. 21.); uş,“ to raise up” (A, TT, with root ).

Occasionally three prepositions are combined ; as, saule, “to predict” (, fa, wt); urgere, “to answer" (ufa, JT, WT).

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* The final i of the prepositions, ufat, oft, fat, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nounsas, प्रतीकार, परीहास, नीकार.

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